Beyond the Sound Bites:
Geert Wilders has campaigned to stop the "Islamisation of the Netherlands".
Fitna (also fitnah or fitnat) (فتنة) is an Arabic word with connotations of secession, upheaval and chaos.
Variant Qur'anic translations demonstrate some of the confusion this term has engendered: (8:39) "So fight them until there is no more disbelief (fitnah) and all submit to the religion of Allah alone" (from translation of Muhammad Al-Hilali & Muhsin Khan): (8:39) "And fight with them until there is no more persecution (fitnah) and religion should be only for Allah" (from translation of Sher Ali, Shakir, Pickthall, Arberry): (8:39) "Fight and subdue those who persist in aggression until persecution (fitnah) is no more, and absolute freedom of religion is established." (from Classical Arabic translation of Shabbir Ahmed).
'Multiculturalism utterly failed in Germany' - Merkel
German Chancellor Angela Merkel has said that attempts at creating a multi-cultural society in Germany have "utterly failed." Merkel was addressing a national meeting of the youth wing of her centrist Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party.
David Cameron - Islamic Extremists and Multiculturalism
The Ch. 12 Sec. 3 Quiz Make-up is today.
The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.
Please follow the steps below:
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm
Section 4 Toward the Modern Consciousness
Scientific developments of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries changed the way people saw themselves and their world. Writers, artists, and musicians rebelled against traditional literary and artistic styles and created new ones that sometimes shocked critics with their audacity. Impressionism, cubism, and abstract art emerged. The scientific discoveries of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, and the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud defied the orderly view of reason. Charles Darwin's description of life as a biological struggle for survival led to the Social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer and others. Extreme nationalist ideologies also borrowed from Social Darwinism. Threatening anti-Semitic activity in France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary led many Jews to emigrate to escape persecution. Many Jews immigrated to Palestine, where Zionists were trying to restore Jewish life.
A New Physics
How did Marie Curie's discovery change people's ideas about the atom?
Freud and Psychoanalysis
A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); born on May 6. Austrian psychoanalyst; He was the first to develop the concept of the subconscious mind; founded psychoanalysis, 1895-1900.
In-class assignment, each student individually, summarize one of Freud's statements that you find interesting, and paraphrase it in your own words.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.
What is Freud's theory of the human unconscious?
Social Darwinism and Racism
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.
What does the theory of social Darwinism state?
Anti-Semitism and Zionism
In-class assignment, with a partner, summarize the Dreyfus Affair.
France: Dreyfus Affair, 6:01
Based on the video, what happened during the Dreyfus Affair?
Why is the Dreyfus Affair an important chapter not just in French history but in the history of the West, and of the Jews?
Is this an inspiring story of justice and truth triumphing over bigotry and lies; or, a cautionary tale about the perils of unbridled nationalism?
What part did Emile Zola play during the Dreyfus Affair?
In-class assignment, with a partner, write a Who, What, Where, Why, and When newspaper-like account of the Dreyfus Affair.
Students have suggested that this assignment can be demonstrated in a chart which is perfectly acceptable.
Key question: what is the effect of the Dreyfus affair for Herzl?
The most serious and divisive scandal began in 1894. A high-ranking army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, was accused of spying for Germany. However, at his military trial, neither Dreyfus nor his lawyer was allowed to see the evidence against him. The injustice was rooted in anti-Semitism. The military elite detested Dreyfus, the first Jewish person to reach such a high position in the army. Although Dreyfus proclaimed his innocence, he was convicted and condemned to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island, a desolate penal colony off the coast of South America. By 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer, Ferdinand Esterhazy, as the spy. Still, the army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial.
The Dreyfus affair, as it was called, scarred French politics and society for decades. Royalists, ultranationalists, and Church officials charged Dreyfus supporters, or “Dreyfusards,” with undermining France. Paris echoed with cries of “Long live the army!” and “Death to traitors!” Dreyfusards, mostly liberals and republicans, upheld ideals of justice and equality in the face of massive public anger. In 1898, French novelist Émile Zola joined the battle. In an article headlined J’Accuse! (I Accuse!), he charged the army and government with suppressing the truth. As a result, Zola was convicted of libel, or the knowing publication of false and damaging statements. He fled into exile.
Slowly, though, the Dreyfusards made progress and eventually the evidence against Dreyfus was shown to be forged. In 1906, a French court finally cleared Dreyfus of all charges and restored his honors. That was a victory for justice, but the political scars of the Dreyfus affair took longer to heal.
Calls for a Jewish State
The Dreyfus case reflected the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe. The Enlightenment and the French Revolution had spread ideas about religious toleration. In Western Europe, some Jews had gained jobs in government, universities, and other areas of life. Others had achieved success in banking and business, but most struggled to survive in the ghettos of Eastern Europe or the slums of Western Europe.
By the late 1800s, however, anti-Semitism was again on the rise. Anti-Semites were often members of the lower middle class who felt insecure in their social and economic position. Steeped in the new nationalist fervor, they adopted an aggressive intolerance for outsiders and a violent hatred of Jews.
The Dreyfus case and the pogroms in Russia stirred Theodor Herzl (hurt sul), a Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France. He called for Jews to form their own separate state, where they would have rights that were otherwise denied to them in European countries. Herzl helped launch modern Zionism, a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine. Many Jews had kept this dream alive since the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. In 1897, Herzl organized the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.
U.N. Resolution 3379, adopted in 1975 "determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination". The resolution was revoked in 1991. In the history of the UN, this is the only resolution that has ever been revoked.
THEODOR HERZL, 4:34
Benjamin Ze'ev (Theodor) Herzl (Hungarian: Herzl Tivadar, Hebrew: בנימין זאב הרצל (Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl)) (May 2, 1860 -- July 3, 1904) was an Austro-Hungarian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism.
Herzl was born in Budapest, Hungary, but his family moved to Vienna when Theodor was 18. There, he studied law, but he devoted himself almost exclusively to journalism and literature, working as a correspondent for the Neue Freie Presse in Paris, occasionally making special trips to London and Istanbul. Later, he became literary editor of Neue Freie Presse,and wrote several comedies and dramas for the Viennese stage.
The Leader of the Zionists
It is widely believed that Herzl was motivated by the Dreyfus Affair, a notorious anti-Semitic incident in France in which a French Jewish army captain was falsely convicted of spying for Germany. Herzl had been covering the trial of Dreyfus for an Austro-Hungarian newspaper. He also witnessed mass rallies in Paris following the Dreyfus trial where many chanted "Death To The Jews!", and in June, 1895, he wrote in his diary: "In Paris, as I have said, I achieved a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism... Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of trying to 'combat' anti-Semitism."
Song: Stout-Hearted Men sung by Nelson Eddy.
(from the NEW MOON. Music: Sigmund Romberg.
Lyrics: Oscar Hammerstein II/)
Why did Jews start to move to Palestine?
In-class assignment, with a partner, review the history of religions.
Summarize the geography of religion, in particular notice the clashes between Judaism and Islam in the Middle East.
The Culture of Modernity
Social trends in the mid-1800s in France are readily apparent in the works of many of the impressionist artists. The work of Edgar Degas is a good example. In this activity you will learn about impressionism and about the contribution of Degas to a new style in painting and sculpture.
"Life, Times, Artistic Style", and "Works of Art"
In-class assignment, with a partner, we will consider Degas
Start at the Degas: Social and Historical Context Web site.
* Read about the social and historical context of Degas's career. Take notes as you browse through the article.
* Read about Degas' "Life, Times, Artistic Style", and "Works of Art" by clicking on the links on the left.
After you have read the material, answer the following questions.
1. What term did Degas use for his style of painting, and why?
2. What was the Salon? What was Degas's response to it?
3. What were some of the characteristics of Impressionist painting that were criticized in the media?
4. How did French politics affect Degas's life?
5. Click on Works of Art and review Degas's paintings. For each of the six paintings shown, answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper. (You can click on each painting for an enlarged view.) What is the setting of the painting? What impression does the painting give of life in nineteenth-century France? What social class is Degas depicting in the painting? Why do you think he is focusing on this social class? What educated guesses can we make about French society based on the content of Degas's paintings? Name one Impressionist quality that is apparent in the painting.
Student Web Activity Answers
1. Degas called himself and other Impressionists "realists" because he wanted to create works that were based in contemporary life and experience, not idealized images of mythological figures and historical subjects.
2. The Salon was the group of French artists and art teachers who presided over public exhibitions during Degas's time. Artists had to meet stringent requirements to gain admission. Degas was among those who rejected the Salon's control over the art world. He was outspoken about the need for Impressionists to establish themselves as representatives of a new artistic style. Degas organized the first Impressionist exhibition and planned many later shows of Impressionist works.
3. Impressionism was criticized for ignoring details, revealing brushstrokes, and placing unblended colors side by side.
4. Degas fought in the Franco-Prussian War. Degas's friendship with a Jew named Ludovic Halévy ended because of Degas's political stand during the Dreyfus Affair.
5. Students' answers to these questions will vary. Students may point out that while not all of Degas's paintings depicted the bourgeoisie, many did. His paintings also suggest that the bourgeoisie had become a dominant class in French society. One possible explanation for Degas's focus on bourgeois life might be that the bourgeoisie were major patrons of the arts. For example, the web site notes that Degas complained about the need to do many paintings of ballet dancers because of the high demand for these paintings.
* Read the information on the Web site about Degas. Take notes as you read.
* Click on “Life” and read the information.
* Go back and click on “Artistic Styles.” Read the information.
* Click on two of Degas’s paintings and review his works.
Use the information you found to answer the following questions.
How did the Impressionists radically change the art of painting in the 1870s?
Ch. 14 The Height of Imperialism 1800-1914
Section 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
The New Imperialism
What were four primary motivations for the "new imperialism?"
Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia
British Empire: rise and fall, 1492-Present, 1:00
The United States
What spurred Britain to control Singapore and Burma?
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia
Indirect and Direct Rule
Why did colonial powers prefer that colonists not develop their own industries?
Resistance to Colonial Rule
Explain three forms of resistance to Western domination.
Section 2 Empire Building in Africa
Why did the slave trade decline in the 1800s?
Great Britain was determined to have complete control of the Suez Canal. Why?
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the Reading Check question about King Leopold II of Belgium.
What effect did King Leopold II of Belgium have on European colonization of the Congo River basin?
Then, we will contrast the current colonial climate in the Congo.
Newsnight: China $9bn Congo deal part 1, 7:02
In-class assignment, with a partner, explain the current presence of China in the Congo. Is China the new colonizer, something in between, or a benefactor in the Congo? Who benefits?
What was significant about the Berlin Conference?
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question about the Boers.
What happened to the Boers at the end of the Boer War?
In-class assignment, and with your partner, now that you have a basic understanding of the Boers, what really happened during the Boer War according to the video?
BOER WAR, 3:15
Colonial Rule in Africa
How did the French system of colonial rule differ from that of Great Britain?
Rise of African Nationalism
Why were many African intellectuals frustrated by colonial policy?
Section 3 British Rule in India
The Sepoy (from sipahi, soldier in Persian, the official language of the conquering Islamic Mogul Empire, War Made New, Boot, p. 89) Mutiny
The success of the British in India is largely a result of the first Industrial Revolution. "After the Indian [Sepoy] mutiny, one British colonial minister exclaimed, `The telegraph saved India'" (War Made New, Boot, p. 157). Along with impressive advances in transportation, as a result of the laying down of railroad tracks, the British improved their communications which resulted in the quick deployment of troops and the means to understand where they were needed most critically.
In the early 1600s, the British East India Company won trading rights on the fringe of the Mughal (also spelled Mogul) empire. The conquering Mughal/Mogul Empire was a Muslim dynasty founded by Baber that ruled India until 1857. As Mughal power declined, the company’s influence grew.
The transference of India from a Muslim dominated region to a British colony is clear with the onset of the gunpowder revolution (War Made New, Boot, Ch. 3, Flintlocks and Forbearance, pp. 77-102). With the battle of Assaye, "the Maratha Confederacy was the last major power that could challenge the British for mastery of India" (War Made New, Boot, p. 78). Nonetheless, if all the assembled forces, both in manpower and in artillery--Maratha vs. British were taken into account--the British were outnumbered 10-1.
Assaye on 24th September 1803.
Warning: this video contains simulated violence; do not view if you object.
The Maratha and British armies meet between the river Juah and the river Kaitna. British casualties mount as the Maratha artillery turns its attention to the infantry. The future Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley decides the only way to get his men off the killing fields is to march into the mouth of the artillery barrage. Wellesley orders his cannons abandoned and bayonets fixed.
Wellesley outflanked his Maratha opponents (War Made New, Boot, p. 96) while his orderly had his head blown off in the maneuver. Wellesley formed his infantry into two mile long parallel front lines while holding his cavalry in a third reserve line. The British charged straight at the Marathas and fighting was brutal but largely over by nightfall at 6 p.m. The British were victorious but too exhausted and with heavy losses could not pursue the fleeing Marathas. The overall British loss was estimated at 35% (War Made New, Boot, p. 99).
The battle had been won by Wellesley with a heavy cost and he needed to pursue the Marathas for an additional three months to finish the job. For his efforts at quadrupling the British holdings in India Wellesley was awarded knighthood War Made New, Boot, pp. 98-99).
By the mid-1800s, the British East India Company controlled three fifths of India.
Exploiting Indian Diversity
The British were able to conquer India by exploiting its diversity. Even when Mughal power was at its height, India was home to many people and cultures. As Mughal power crumbled, India became fragmented. Indians with different traditions and dozens of different languages were not able to unite against the newcomers. The British took advantage of Indian divisions by encouraging competition and disunity among rival princes. Where diplomacy or intrigue did not work, the British used their superior tactics, discipline, and weapons to overpower local rulers.
Why the Marathas Could Not Win
The British had mastered the gunpowder revolution while the Marathas had attempted it and found wanting (War Made New, Boot, p. 99). The Marathas had not updated updated their hit-and-run tactics with disciplined and sustained headlong infantry charges as the British had. The separate Indian chiefs issued contradictory orders while Wellesley commanded the entire British effort. The intellectual freedom and scientific pursuit of truth in battle was unknown to the tribal Marathas. Political liberalism was unknown and viewed as a threat to traditional, tribal structures in India; this proved to be their undoing (War Made New, Boot, pp. 101-102).
Implementing British Policies
The East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money, and leading officials often grew rich. At the same time, the company did work to improve roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry.
The Sepoy Rebellion
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2441
By the early 1800s, British officials introduced Western education and legal procedures. Missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity, which they felt was superior to Indian religions. The British also pressed for social change. They worked to end slavery and the caste system and to improve the position of women within the family. One law banned sati (suh tee), a Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes. It called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.
In the 1850s, the East India Company made several unpopular moves. First, it required sepoys (see poyz), or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. For high-caste Hindus, however, overseas travel was an offense against their religion (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 73). Second, the East India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry. Hindus viewed both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 75).
Then, in 1857, the Bengal Army rebelled for a variety of reasons but one particularly troublesome point was the introduction of a new gun using animal fat that offended both Muslims and Hindus. Indian officers sentenced the rebels to ten years of hard labor (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 71).
The British East India Company had decided to equip the sepoys "with the new Enfield rifle in place of the smooth-bored `Brown Bess' musket" (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, pp. 71-72).
1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket
The musketry books also recommended that “Whenever the grease around the bullet appears to be melted away, or otherwise removed from the cartridge, the sides of the bullet should be wetted in the mouth before putting it into the barrel; the saliva will serve the purpose of grease for the time being" (Cf. Instruction of Musketry, 1856).
This image is a work of the Smithsonian Institution, taken or made during the course of an employee's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.
Rebellion and Aftermath
Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northern and central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital. There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader.
In some places, the sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. But the British soon rallied and crushed the revolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages and slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.
The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It also brought major changes in British policy. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxing Indians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While it slowed the “reforms” that had angered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.
What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion in northern and central India?
What were two effects of the Great Rebellion?
Benefits of British Rule
Costs of British Rule
After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India called the British Raj. A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army. Indians filled most other jobs. With their cooperation, the British made India the “brightest jewel” in the crown of their empire.
British policies were designed to incorporate India into the overall British economy. At the same time, British officials felt they were helping India to modernize. In their terms, modernizing meant adopting not only Western technology but also Western culture.
overall—(oh vur awl) adj. total
An Unequal Partnership
Britain saw India both as a market and as a source of raw materials. To this end, the British built roads and an impressive railroad network. Improved transportation let the British sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry Indian cotton, jute, and coal to coastal ports for transport to factories in England. New methods of communication, such as the telegraph, also gave Britain better control of India. After the Suez Canal opened in 1869, British trade with India soared. But it remained an unequal partnership, favoring the British. The British flooded India with inexpensive, machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.
Britain also transformed Indian agriculture. It encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops, such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market. Clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation, or cutting of trees.
Population Growth and Famine
The British introduced medical improvements and new farming methods. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. The rising numbers, however, put a strain on the food supply, especially as farmland was turned over to growing cash crops instead of food. In the late 1800s, terrible famines swept India.
On the positive side, British rule brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside. The British revised the legal system to promote justice for Indians regardless of class or caste. Railroads helped Indians move around the country, while the telegraph and postal system improved communication. Greater contact helped bridge regional differences and develop a sense of national unity.
The upper classes, especially, benefited from some British policies. They sent their sons to British schools, where they were trained for posts in the civil service and military. Indian landowners and princes, who still ruled their own territories, grew rich from exporting cash crops.
How did British colonial rule affect Indian agriculture?
How was British rule degrading to Indians?
An Indian Nationalist Movement
During the years of British rule, a class of Western-educated Indians emerged. In the view of Macaulay and others, this elite class would bolster British power. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, Western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. Schooled in Western ideals such as democracy and equality, they dreamed of ending imperial rule.
Indian National Congress
In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress, which became known as the Congress party. Its members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. They called for greater democracy, which they felt would bring more power to Indians like themselves. The Indian National Congress looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization.
At first, Muslims and Hindus worked together for self-rule. In time, however, Muslims grew to resent Hindu domination of the Congress party. They also worried that a Hindu-run government would oppress Muslims. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals. Soon, they were talking of a separate Muslim state.
How are the origins of Indian nationalism linked to British rule?
What were the two goals of Mohandas Gandhi?
Colonial Indian Culture
How did the nationalist movement parallel cultural developments in India?
Section 4 Nation Building in Latin America
Prelude to Revolution
How did Napoleon's wars affect Latin America?
Revolt in Mexico
Revolts in South America
How did the French Revolution affect Mexico?
Difficulties of Nation Building
Rule of the Caudillos
A New Imperialism
What were some of the difficulties faced by the new Latin American republics?
The United States in Latin America
Revolution in Mexico
What was the United States' role as a colonial power?
Economic Change in Latin America
What caused the growth of a middle class in Latin America?
The Official Website of the British Monarchy
Self-check Quiz on Chapter
People, Places and Events
Psychoanalysis expert Timothy L. Hulsey, VCU psychology professor and dean of the honors college engages students and faculty in the Core Course and the psychology, MLC and English departments in a general forum on the relationship between Freudian theory and mainstream American psychological science. The conversation includes the impact of early experiences on adult behavior, the nature of memory and conceptions of the self and society: University of Richmond.
"In Memory of Sigmund Freud" by W.H. Auden (poetry reading):
Sigmund Freud's Hip Hop Cover Band
FREUD 01 World of Wonders
Paperback Freud, "Kate"
Paul Warner recording "Freud" in the studio from the album "Deadly Waterparks". Footage produced by Bright Elephant Films.
Kutcher is surprised to see a photo of the novel KISSING FREUD on his Nikon camera.
William the Conqueror ("Sexyback" by Justin Timberlake), 3:57
Rockwell, Somebody's Watching Me, 3:37
William Wordsworth updated in hip-hop style, 2:02.
History of the British Empire, 5:08
HW: email (or hard copy) me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Ch. 12 Sec. 3 Quiz Make-Up should be arranged.
1. p. 412, #1-2, p. 413, Reading Check, Summarizing, What is the principle of ministerial responsibility?
1. p. 413, Analyzing Political Cartoons