This image is of a chromolithograph made around 1873 by George A. Croffut
1. What do you think the woman in this painting represents? How is this symbolized in the painting?
Beyond the Sound Bites
Vincent Thomas Lombardi (June 11, 1913 -- September 3, 1970) was an American football coach. He is a legendary football figure, best known as the head coach of the Green Bay Packers during the 1960s. The National Football League's Super Bowl trophy is named in his honor.
Lombardi played American football at St. Francis Preparatory School, and later Fordham University. He began coaching as an assistant and later head coach at St. Cecilia, a Catholic high school in Englewood, New Jersey. He would later coach at Fordham and the U.S. Military Academy. His NFL coaching debut was in 1954 as an offensive coordinator for the New York Giants, helping them win the 1956 NFL Championship Game. Lombardi was the head coach of the Green Bay Packers from 1959--67, winning five league championships during his nine years. Following a one-year retirement from coaching in 1968, he returned as head coach of the Washington Redskins for the 1969 season.
Lombardi's record in the post-season was 9--1, the only loss coming in the first of those games, the 1960 NFL Championship Game.
The Ch. 12 Sec. 3 Quiz is on Wednesday.
The electronic edition of the Philadelphia Inquirer is available. We have the Sunday edition, available on Mondays, in addition to the Tuesday through Friday editions on the other days.
Please follow the steps below:
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm
Ch. 13 Mass Society and Democracy 1870-1914
Karl Marx's idea of Alienation
There are four areas to discuss and summarize with your partner:
2. Productive Activity
3. Ourselves (Own Identity)
4. Each other (Society)
Four Aspects of Alienation or Estrangement
a. From Products of own Labour. The first aspect of alienated labour is the separation of the worker from the products of the worker's labour.
"All these consequences follow from the fact that the worker is related to the product of his labour as to an alien object. For it is clear on this presupposition that the more the worker expends himself in work the more powerful becomes the world of objects which he creates in face of himself, the poorer he becomes in his inner life, and the less he belongs to himself. Cf. The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 by Karl Marx, pp. 13-14)
b. From the Process of Production or from Work Itself. Quote:
"... he does not fulfill himself in his work but denies himself, has a feeling of misery rather than well-being, does not develop freely his mental and physical energies but is physically exhausted and mentally debased. (Manuscripts, p. 15)
c. From Species-Being or from Humanity and Human Potential. Individuals perform and act less and less like human beings, and more and more like machines. Quote:
Since alienated labour: (1) alienates nature from man; and (2) alienates man from himself, from his own active function, his life activity; so it alienates him from the species. (Manuscripts, p. 16).
d. From Other Persons. Humans are also alienated from other human beings. Quote:
A direct consequence of the alienation of man from the product of his labour, from his life activity and from his species-life, is that man is alienated from other men. ... man is alienated from his species-life means that each man is alienated from others, and that each of the others is likewise alienated from human life. (Manuscripts, p. 17).
Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society
Section 3 The National State and Democracy
Western Europe and Political Democracy
In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the material we have covered so far, but look over especially Ch. 13, Sections 2 and 3, to answer:
Summarize the material in this way (bullet points are fine)
Influences from abroad
Society and Technology
Influences from abroad
Society and Technology
In-class assignment, with your partner, write out and name all the bullet points from these two categories.
You have :57 seconds (while the Hawaii 50 theme plays)
A series of political reforms during the 1800s and early 1900s transformed Great Britain from a monarchy and aristocracy into a democracy. While some British politicians opposed the reforms, most sided in favor of reforming Parliament to make it more representative of the nation’s growing industrial population.
“No doubt, at that very early period, the House of Commons did represent the people of England but . . . the House of Commons, as it presently subsists, does not represent the people of England. . . . The people called loudly for reform, saying that whatever good existed in the constitution of this House—whatever confidence was placed in it by the people, was completely gone.”
—Lord John Russell, March 1, 1831
One day a wealthy Englishman named Charles Egremont boasted to strangers that Victoria, the queen of England, “reigns over the greatest nation that ever existed.”
“Which nation?” asks one of the strangers, “for she reigns over two. . . . Two nations; between whom there is no [communication] and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were . . . inhabitants of different planets.”
What are these “two nations,” Egremont asks. “The Rich and the Poor ,” the stranger replies.
—Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil
In the 1800s, Benjamin Disraeli and other political leaders slowly worked to bridge Britain’s “two nations” and extend democratic rights. Unlike some of its neighbors in Europe, Britain generally achieved change through reform rather than revolution.
In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties. Still, it was far from democratic. Although members of the House of Commons were elected, less than five percent of the people had the right to vote. Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners, dominated politics and heavily influenced voters. In addition, the House of Lords—made up of hereditary nobles and high-ranking clergy—could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons.
Reformers Press for Change
Long-standing laws kept many people from voting. Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants, for example, could not vote or serve in Parliament. In the 1820s, reformers pushed to end religious restrictions. After fierce debate, Parliament finally granted Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants equal political rights.
An even greater battle soon erupted over making Parliament more representative. During the Industrial Revolution, centers of population shifted. Some rural towns lost so many people that they had few or no voters. Yet local landowners in these rotten boroughs still sent members to Parliament. At the same time, populous new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham had no seats allocated in Parliament because they had not existed as population centers in earlier times.
allocate—(al oh kayt) vt. to distribute according to a plan
Reform Act of 1832
By 1830, Whigs and Tories were battling over a bill to reform Parliament. The Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests. The Tory Party spoke for nobles, land-owners, and others whose interests and income were rooted in agriculture. In the streets, supporters of reform chanted, “The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill!” Their shouts seemed to echo the cries of revolutionaries on the continent.
Parliament finally passed the Great Reform Act in 1832. It redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs. It also enlarged the electorate, the body of people allowed to vote, by granting suffrage to more men. The Act did, however, keep a property requirement for voting.
The Reform Act of 1832 did not bring full democracy, but it did give a greater political voice to middle-class men. Landowning nobles, however, remained a powerful force in the government and in the economy.
The Chartist Movement
The reform bill did not help rural or urban workers. Some of them demanded more radical change. In the 1830s, protesters known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter. This petition demanded universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for members of Parliament. Another key demand was for a secret ballot, which would allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.
Twice the Chartists presented petitions with over a million signatures to Parliament. Both petitions were ignored. In 1848, as revolutions swept Europe, the Chartists prepared a third petition and organized a march on Parliament. Fearing violence, the government moved to suppress the march. Soon after, the unsuccessful Chartist movement declined. In time, however, Parliament would pass most of the major reforms proposed by the Chartists.
From 1837 to 1901, the great symbol in British life was Queen Victoria. Her reign was the longest in British history. Although she exercised little real political power, she set the tone for what is now called the Victorian age.
The Victorian Web
Symbol of a Nation’s Values
As queen, Victoria came to embody the values of her age. These Victorian ideals included duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability. Victoria herself embraced a strict code of morals and manners. As a young woman, she married a German prince, Albert, and they raised a large family.
A Confident Age
Under Victoria, the British middle class—and growing numbers of the working class—felt great confidence in the future. That confidence grew as Britain expanded its already huge empire. Victoria, the empress of India and ruler of some 300 million subjects around the world, became a revered symbol of British might.
From Monarchy to Democracy in Britain
During her reign, Victoria witnessed growing agitation for social reform. The queen herself commented that the lower classes “earn their bread and riches so deservedly that they cannot and ought not to be kept back.” As the Victorian era went on, reformers continued the push toward greater social and economic justice.
In the 1860s, a new era dawned in British politics. The old political parties regrouped under new leadership. Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party. The Whigs, led by William Gladstone, evolved into the Liberal Party. Between 1868 and 1880, as the majority in Parliament swung between the two parties, Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as prime minister. Both fought for important reforms.
Disraeli and the Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867. By giving the vote to many working-class men, the new law almost doubled the size of the electorate.
In the 1880s, it was the turn of Gladstone and the Liberal Party to extend suffrage. Their reforms gave the vote to farmworkers and most other men. By century’s end, almost-universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist ambitions had been achieved. Britain had truly transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy, a form of government in which the executive leaders (usually a prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament), and are also members of it.
Limiting the Lords
In the early 1900s, many bills passed by the House of Commons met defeat in the House of Lords. In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords, including their power to veto tax bills. The Lords resisted. Finally, the government threatened to create enough new lords to approve the law, and the Lords backed down. People hailed the change as a victory for democracy. In time, the House of Lords would become a largely ceremonial body with little power. The elected House of Commons would reign supreme.
The news sent shock waves through Paris. Napoleon III had surrendered to the Prussians and Prussian forces were now about to advance on Paris. Could the city survive? Georges Clemenceau (kleh mahn soh), a young French politician, rallied the people of Paris to defend their homeland:
“Citizens, must France destroy herself and disappear, or shall she resume her old place in the vanguard of nations? . . . Each of us knows his duty. We are children of the Revolution. Let us seek inspiration in the example of our forefathers in 1792, and like them we shall conquer. Vive la France! (Long Live France!)”
What democratic reforms were made in France during the Third Republic?
For four months, Paris resisted the German onslaught. But finally, in January 1871, the French government at Versailles was forced to accept Prussian surrender terms.
The Franco-Prussian War ended a long period of French domination of Europe that had begun under Louis XIV. Yet a Third Republic rose from the ashes of the Second Empire of Napoleon III. Economic growth, democratic reforms, and the fierce nationalism expressed by Clemenceau all played a part in shaping modern France.
What is the principle of ministerial responsibility?
Central and Eastern Europe: The Old Order
What was the role of the Duma in the Russian government?
The United States and Canada (Is Canada a part of the United States?)
Aftermath of the Civil War
Economic differences, as well as the slavery issue, drove the Northern and Southern regions of the United States apart. The division reached a crisis in 1860 when Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories. Southerners feared that he would eventually abolish slavery altogether and that the federal government would infringe on their states’ rights.
North Versus South
Soon after Lincoln’s election, most southern states seceded, or withdrew, from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. This action sparked the Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865.
The South had fewer resources, fewer people, and less industry than the North. Still, Southerners fought fiercely to defend their cause. The Confederacy finally surrendered in 1865. The struggle cost more than 600,000 lives—the largest casualty figures of any American war.
Challenges for African Americans
During the war, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, by which enslaved African Americans in the South were declared free. After the war, three amendments to the Constitution banned slavery throughout the country and granted political rights to African Americans. Under the Fifteenth Amendment, African American men won the right to vote.
Still, African Americans faced many restrictions. In the South, state laws imposed segregation, or legal separation of the races, in hospitals, schools, and other public places. Other state laws imposed conditions for voter eligibility that, despite the Fifteenth Amendment, prevented African Americans from voting.
By 1900, the United States had become the world's richest nation.
After the Civil War, the United States grew to lead the world in industrial and agricultural production. A special combination of factors made this possible including political stability, private property rights, a free enterprise system and an inexpensive supply of land and labor—supplied mostly by immigrants. Finally, a growing network of transportation and communications technologies aided businesses in transporting resources and finished products.
Business and Labor
By 1900, giant monopolies controlled whole industries. Scottish-born Andrew Carnegie built the nation’s largest steel company, while John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company dominated the world’s petroleum industry. Big business enjoyed tremendous profits.
dominate—(dahm un nayt) vt. to rule or control by superior power or influence
But the growing prosperity was not shared by all. In factories, wages were low and conditions were often brutal. To defend their interests, American workers organized labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor. Unions sought better wages, hours, and working conditions. Struggles with management sometimes erupted into violent confrontations. Slowly, however, workers made gains.
Populists and Progressives
In the economic hard times of the late 1800s, farmers also organized themselves to defend their interests. In the 1890s, they joined city workers to support the new Populist party. The Populists never became a major party, but their platform of reforms, such as an eight-hour workday, eventually became law.
By 1900, reformers known as Progressives also pressed for change. They sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and give voters more power. Another major goal of the Progressives was obtaining voting rights for women. After a long struggle, American suffragists finally won the vote in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect.
For many Irish families fleeing hunger, Russian Jews escaping pogroms, or poor Italian farmers seeking economic opportunity, the answer was the same—America! A poem inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty expressed the welcome and promise of freedom that millions of immigrants dreamed of:
“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.
I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”
—Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus”
How did the United States develop during the 1800s?
In the 1800s, the United States was a beacon of hope for many people. The American economy was growing rapidly, offering jobs to newcomers. The Constitution and Bill of Rights held out the hope of political and religious freedom. Not everyone shared in the prosperity or the ideals of democracy. Still, by the turn of the nineteenth century, important reforms were being made.
U.S. Expansion, 1783–1898
From the earliest years of its history, the United States followed a policy of expansionism, or extending the nation’s boundaries. At first, the United States stretched only from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from France. In one stroke, the Louisiana Purchase virtually doubled the size of the nation.
By 1846, the United States had expanded to include Florida, Oregon, and the Republic of Texas. The Mexican War (1846–1848) added California and the Southwest. With growing pride and confidence, Americans claimed that their nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea. This idea became known as Manifest Destiny. Some expansionists even hoped to absorb Canada and Mexico. In fact, the United States did go far afield. In 1867, it bought Alaska from Russia and in 1898 annexed the Hawaiian Islands.
Name the territories acquired by the United States in 1898.
What countries formed the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente?
Crisis in the Balkans
Why were the Serbs outraged when Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina?
Section 4 Toward the Modern Consciousness
Scientific developments of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries changed the way people saw themselves and their world. Writers, artists, and musicians rebelled against traditional literary and artistic styles and created new ones that sometimes shocked critics with their audacity. Impressionism, cubism, and abstract art emerged. The scientific discoveries of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein, and the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud defied the orderly view of reason. Charles Darwin's description of life as a biological struggle for survival led to the Social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer and others. Extreme nationalist ideologies also borrowed from Social Darwinism. Threatening anti-Semitic activity in France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary led many Jews to emigrate to escape persecution. Many Jews immigrated to Palestine, where Zionists were trying to restore Jewish life.
A New Physics
How did Marie Curie's discovery change people's ideas about the atom?
Freud and Psychoanalysis
A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); born on May 6. Austrian psychoanalyst; He was the first to develop the concept of the subconscious mind; founded psychoanalysis, 1895-1900.
In-class assignment, each student individually, summarize one of Freud's statements that you find interesting, and paraphrase it in your own words.
Psychologist Sigmund Freud demonstrates what a boy will think in his conscious and unconscious when he sees a girl...on the beach. In a fantastically fun and educational way, the psychology legend explains and defines his terms, Id, Ego, and Superego.
This is a stop-motion video of a Sigmund Freud action figure dancing to Bloodhound Gang's "The Bad Touch."
Freudian Slippers: a brand new way of thinking about footwear. Brought to you by the Unemployed Philosophers Guild: www.philosophersguild.com.
Sigmund Freud On The BBC - 1938 - Brief Audio Clip
Toward the end of his life, Freud was asked by the BBC to provide a brief statement about his decades-long career in psychoanalysis... here, in English, he offers a succinct overview... The "Freud Conflict and Culture" web site said this:
"On December 7, 1938, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) came to Freud's Maresfield Gardens home in London to record a short message. By this time his cancer of the jaw was inoperable and incurable, making speech difficult and extremely painful. A photograph of Freud was taken as he prepared to read the statement you are listening to now. After his long struggle with cancer grew intolerable, Freud asked his physician for a fatal injection of morphine. He died on September 23, 1939."
Late Clips Of Sigmund Freud (1932, 1938)
In these brief clips, psychoanalysis founder Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is first seen in Vienna in 1932 speaking with archeologist Emanuel Loewy, then in 1938 signing the Royal Society's charter book and lastly celebrating his 81st birthday... the latter clips were taken in London where Freud and his family were forced to move from Vienna following the 1938 Nazi Anschluss (he died in London a year later).
What is Freud's theory of the human unconscious?
Social Darwinism and Racism
What does the theory of social Darwinism state?
Anti-Semitism and Zionism
The most serious and divisive scandal began in 1894. A high-ranking army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, was accused of spying for Germany. However, at his military trial, neither Dreyfus nor his lawyer was allowed to see the evidence against him. The injustice was rooted in anti-Semitism. The military elite detested Dreyfus, the first Jewish person to reach such a high position in the army. Although Dreyfus proclaimed his innocence, he was convicted and condemned to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island, a desolate penal colony off the coast of South America. By 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer, Ferdinand Esterhazy, as the spy. Still, the army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial.
The Dreyfus affair, as it was called, scarred French politics and society for decades. Royalists, ultranationalists, and Church officials charged Dreyfus supporters, or “Dreyfusards,” with undermining France. Paris echoed with cries of “Long live the army!” and “Death to traitors!” Dreyfusards, mostly liberals and republicans, upheld ideals of justice and equality in the face of massive public anger. In 1898, French novelist Émile Zola joined the battle. In an article headlined J’Accuse! (I Accuse!), he charged the army and government with suppressing the truth. As a result, Zola was convicted of libel, or the knowing publication of false and damaging statements. He fled into exile.
Slowly, though, the Dreyfusards made progress and eventually the evidence against Dreyfus was shown to be forged. In 1906, a French court finally cleared Dreyfus of all charges and restored his honors. That was a victory for justice, but the political scars of the Dreyfus affair took longer to heal.
Calls for a Jewish State
The Dreyfus case reflected the rise of anti-Semitism in Europe. The Enlightenment and the French Revolution had spread ideas about religious toleration. In Western Europe, some Jews had gained jobs in government, universities, and other areas of life. Others had achieved success in banking and business, but most struggled to survive in the ghettos of Eastern Europe or the slums of Western Europe.
By the late 1800s, however, anti-Semitism was again on the rise. Anti-Semites were often members of the lower middle class who felt insecure in their social and economic position. Steeped in the new nationalist fervor, they adopted an aggressive intolerance for outsiders and a violent hatred of Jews.
The Dreyfus case and the pogroms in Russia stirred Theodor Herzl (hurt sul), a Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France. He called for Jews to form their own separate state, where they would have rights that were otherwise denied to them in European countries. Herzl helped launch modern Zionism, a movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine. Many Jews had kept this dream alive since the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. In 1897, Herzl organized the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.
Why did Jews start to move to Palestine?
The Culture of Modernity
Social trends in the mid-1800s in France are readily apparent in the works of many of the impressionist artists. The work of Edgar Degas is a good example. In this activity you will learn about impressionism and about the contribution of Degas to a new style in painting and sculpture.
* Read the information on the Web site about Degas. Take notes as you read.
* Click on “Life” and read the information.
* Go back and click on “Artistic Styles.” Read the information.
* Click on two of Degas’s paintings and review his works.
Use the information you found to answer the following questions.
How did the Impressionists radically change the art of painting in the 1870s?
Ch. 14 The Height of Imperialism 1800-1914
Section 1 Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia
The New Imperialism
What were four primary motivations for the "new imperialism?"
Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia
The United States
What spurred Britain to control Singapore and Burma?
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia
Indirect and Direct Rule
Why did colonial powers prefer that colonists not develop their own industries?
Resistance to Colonial Rule
Explain three forms of resistance to Western domination.
Section 2 Empire Building in Africa
Why did the slave trade decline in the 1800s?
Great Britain was determined to have complete control of the Suez Canal. Why?
What effect did King Leopold II of Belgium have on European colonization of the Congo River basin?
What was significant about the Berlin Conference?
What happened to the Boers at the end of the Boer War?
Colonial Rule in Africa
How did the French system of colonial rule differ from that of Great Britain?
Rise of African Nationalism
Why were many African intellectuals frustrated by colonial policy?
Section 3 British Rule in India
The Sepoy (from sipahi, soldier in Persian, the official language of the conquering Islamic Mogul Empire, War Made New, Boot, p. 89) Mutiny
The success of the British in India is largely a result of the first Industrial Revolution. "After the Indian [Sepoy] mutiny, one British colonial minister exclaimed, `The telegraph saved India'" (War Made New, Boot, p. 157). Along with impressive advances in transportation, as a result of the laying down of railroad tracks, the British improved their communications which resulted in the quick deployment of troops and the means to understand where they were needed most critically.
In the early 1600s, the British East India Company won trading rights on the fringe of the Mughal (also spelled Mogul) empire. The conquering Mughal/Mogul Empire was a Muslim dynasty founded by Baber that ruled India until 1857. As Mughal power declined, the company’s influence grew.
The transference of India from a Muslim dominated region to a British colony is clear with the onset of the gunpowder revolution (War Made New, Boot, Ch. 3, Flintlocks and Forbearance, pp. 77-102). With the battle of Assaye, "the Maratha Confederacy was the last major power that could challenge the British for mastery of India" (War Made New, Boot, p. 78). Nonetheless, if all the assembled forces, both in manpower and in artillery--Maratha vs. British were taken into account--the British were outnumbered 10-1.
Assaye on 24th September 1803.
Warning: this video contains simulated violence; do not view if you object.
The Maratha and British armies meet between the river Juah and the river Kaitna. British casualties mount as the Maratha artillery turns its attention to the infantry. The future Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley decides the only way to get his men off the killing fields is to march into the mouth of the artillery barrage. Wellesley orders his cannons abandoned and bayonets fixed.
Wellesley outflanked his Maratha opponents (War Made New, Boot, p. 96) while his orderly had his head blown off in the maneuver. Wellesley formed his infantry into two mile long parallel front lines while holding his cavalry in a third reserve line. The British charged straight at the Marathas and fighting was brutal but largely over by nightfall at 6 p.m. The British were victorious but too exhausted and with heavy losses could not pursue the fleeing Marathas. The overall British loss was estimated at 35% (War Made New, Boot, p. 99).
The battle had been won by Wellesley with a heavy cost and he needed to pursue the Marathas for an additional three months to finish the job. For his efforts at quadrupling the British holdings in India Wellesley was awarded knighthood War Made New, Boot, pp. 98-99).
By the mid-1800s, the British East India Company controlled three fifths of India.
Exploiting Indian Diversity
The British were able to conquer India by exploiting its diversity. Even when Mughal power was at its height, India was home to many people and cultures. As Mughal power crumbled, India became fragmented. Indians with different traditions and dozens of different languages were not able to unite against the newcomers. The British took advantage of Indian divisions by encouraging competition and disunity among rival princes. Where diplomacy or intrigue did not work, the British used their superior tactics, discipline, and weapons to overpower local rulers.
Why the Marathas Could Not Win
The British had mastered the gunpowder revolution while the Marathas had attempted it and found wanting (War Made New, Boot, p. 99). The Marathas had not updated updated their hit-and-run tactics with disciplined and sustained headlong infantry charges as the British had. The separate Indian chiefs issued contradictory orders while Wellesley commanded the entire British effort. The intellectual freedom and scientific pursuit of truth in battle was unknown to the tribal Marathas. Political liberalism was unknown and viewed as a threat to traditional, tribal structures in India; this proved to be their undoing (War Made New, Boot, pp. 101-102).
Implementing British Policies
The East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money, and leading officials often grew rich. At the same time, the company did work to improve roads, preserve peace, and reduce banditry.
The Sepoy Rebellion
For: Audio guided tour
Web Code: nap-2441
By the early 1800s, British officials introduced Western education and legal procedures. Missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity, which they felt was superior to Indian religions. The British also pressed for social change. They worked to end slavery and the caste system and to improve the position of women within the family. One law banned sati (suh tee), a Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes. It called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.
In the 1850s, the East India Company made several unpopular moves. First, it required sepoys (see poyz), or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. For high-caste Hindus, however, overseas travel was an offense against their religion (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 73). Second, the East India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry. Hindus viewed both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 75).
Then, in 1857, the Bengal Army rebelled for a variety of reasons but one particularly troublesome point was the introduction of a new gun using animal fat that offended both Muslims and Hindus. Indian officers sentenced the rebels to ten years of hard labor (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, p. 71).
The British East India Company had decided to equip the sepoys "with the new Enfield rifle in place of the smooth-bored `Brown Bess' musket" (Cf. The Lion and the Tiger, Judd, pp. 71-72).
1853 Enfield Rifle-Musket
The musketry books also recommended that “Whenever the grease around the bullet appears to be melted away, or otherwise removed from the cartridge, the sides of the bullet should be wetted in the mouth before putting it into the barrel; the saliva will serve the purpose of grease for the time being" (Cf. Instruction of Musketry, 1856).
This image is a work of the Smithsonian Institution, taken or made during the course of an employee's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.
Rebellion and Aftermath
Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northern and central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital. There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader.
In some places, the sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children. But the British soon rallied and crushed the revolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages and slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.
The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It also brought major changes in British policy. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxing Indians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While it slowed the “reforms” that had angered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.
What were the causes of the Sepoy Rebellion in northern and central India?
What were two effects of the Great Rebellion?
Benefits of British Rule
Costs of British Rule
After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India called the British Raj. A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army. Indians filled most other jobs. With their cooperation, the British made India the “brightest jewel” in the crown of their empire.
British policies were designed to incorporate India into the overall British economy. At the same time, British officials felt they were helping India to modernize. In their terms, modernizing meant adopting not only Western technology but also Western culture.
overall—(oh vur awl) adj. total
An Unequal Partnership
Britain saw India both as a market and as a source of raw materials. To this end, the British built roads and an impressive railroad network. Improved transportation let the British sell their factory-made goods across the subcontinent and carry Indian cotton, jute, and coal to coastal ports for transport to factories in England. New methods of communication, such as the telegraph, also gave Britain better control of India. After the Suez Canal opened in 1869, British trade with India soared. But it remained an unequal partnership, favoring the British. The British flooded India with inexpensive, machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.
Britain also transformed Indian agriculture. It encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops, such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market. Clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation, or cutting of trees.
Population Growth and Famine
The British introduced medical improvements and new farming methods. Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. The rising numbers, however, put a strain on the food supply, especially as farmland was turned over to growing cash crops instead of food. In the late 1800s, terrible famines swept India.
On the positive side, British rule brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside. The British revised the legal system to promote justice for Indians regardless of class or caste. Railroads helped Indians move around the country, while the telegraph and postal system improved communication. Greater contact helped bridge regional differences and develop a sense of national unity.
The upper classes, especially, benefited from some British policies. They sent their sons to British schools, where they were trained for posts in the civil service and military. Indian landowners and princes, who still ruled their own territories, grew rich from exporting cash crops.
How did British colonial rule affect Indian agriculture?
How was British rule degrading to Indians?
An Indian Nationalist Movement
During the years of British rule, a class of Western-educated Indians emerged. In the view of Macaulay and others, this elite class would bolster British power. As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, Western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement. Schooled in Western ideals such as democracy and equality, they dreamed of ending imperial rule.
Indian National Congress
In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress, which became known as the Congress party. Its members believed in peaceful protest to gain their ends. They called for greater democracy, which they felt would bring more power to Indians like themselves. The Indian National Congress looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported Western-style modernization.
At first, Muslims and Hindus worked together for self-rule. In time, however, Muslims grew to resent Hindu domination of the Congress party. They also worried that a Hindu-run government would oppress Muslims. In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals. Soon, they were talking of a separate Muslim state.
How are the origins of Indian nationalism linked to British rule?
What were the two goals of Mohandas Gandhi?
Colonial Indian Culture
How did the nationalist movement parallel cultural developments in India?
Section 4 Nation Building in Latin America
Prelude to Revolution
How did Napoleon's wars affect Latin America?
Revolt in Mexico
Revolts in South America
How did the French Revolution affect Mexico?
Difficulties of Nation Building
Rule of the Caudillos
A New Imperialism
What were some of the difficulties faced by the new Latin American republics?
The United States in Latin America
Revolution in Mexico
What was the United States' role as a colonial power?
Economic Change in Latin America
What caused the growth of a middle class in Latin America?
The Official Website of the British Monarchy
Self-check Quiz on Chapter
People, Places and Events
Psychoanalysis expert Timothy L. Hulsey, VCU psychology professor and dean of the honors college engages students and faculty in the Core Course and the psychology, MLC and English departments in a general forum on the relationship between Freudian theory and mainstream American psychological science. The conversation includes the impact of early experiences on adult behavior, the nature of memory and conceptions of the self and society: University of Richmond.
"In Memory of Sigmund Freud" by W.H. Auden (poetry reading):
Sigmund Freud's Hip Hop Cover Band
FREUD 01 World of Wonders
Paperback Freud, "Kate"
Paul Warner recording "Freud" in the studio from the album "Deadly Waterparks". Footage produced by Bright Elephant Films.
Kutcher is surprised to see a photo of the novel KISSING FREUD on his Nikon camera.
William the Conqueror ("Sexyback" by Justin Timberlake), 3:57
Rockwell, Somebody's Watching Me, 3:37
William Wordsworth updated in hip-hop style, 2:02.
HW: email (or hard copy) me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. p. 405, #1-2; p. 407, Picturing History.
1. p. 409, Connecting to the Past, #1-3
1. p. 409, Reading Check, Explaining, Why did states make a commitment to provide public education?
2. p. 410, Reading Check, Explaining, How did innovations in transportation change leisure activities during the Second Industrial Revolution?
3. p. 411, #8
1. p. 412, #1-2, p. 413, Reading Check, Summarizing, What is the principle of ministerial responsibility?
1. p. 413, Analyzing Political Cartoons