Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Honors World History II: 12 April 2011

12 April 1954 – Bill Haley & His Comets record "Rock Around the Clock" in New York City.


Beyond the Sound Bites:

The Chapter 16 Section 1 Quiz is Wednesday.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Chapter+16+Section+1+Quiz+Prep+Page+Spring+2011

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Cf. http://www.cueprompter.com/

The Philadelphia Inquirer is available.

URL: http://nie.philly.com
Click on the words "Access e-Inquirer" located on the gray toolbar underneath the green locker on the opening page.
Username: bshsinky@shanahan.org
Password: 10888

Cf. http://vozme.com/index.php?lang=en

Cf. http://www.xtranormal.com/

Cf. http://www.wordle.net/create

ABCya! Cf. http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm

Or, http://www.glogster.com/login/

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Cf. http://www.cueprompter.com/

Cf. http://ant.umn.edu/vae.php

Chapter 16 War and Revolution 1914-1919

Section 4 End of the War

The War's Legacy

Be sure to check the assignment on Moodle and access it there.

Cf. http://moodle.catholicschools-phl.org

Chapter 17 The West Between the Wars 1919-1939

The Dust Bowl

During the influenza pandemic, how many people were sickened?
How many died?
Describe the conditions during the pandemic.
In their own homes, how did people cope with the pandemic?
After 80 years, how and in what way are we prepared or unprepared today for a pandemic?
Summarize the compelling questions that remain after learning about the pandemic.
Are we better off today in preparing for a pandemic?

A documentary comparing the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic with modern-day health capabilities, in the event of an act of bioterrorism or any large-scale infectious disease outbreak.

Section 1

The peace settlement at the end of World War I left many nations unhappy and border disputes simmering throughout Europe. The League of Nations proved a weak institution. Democracy was widespread, and women in many European countries gained the right to vote. However, economic problems plagued France, Great Britain, and the German Weimar Republic. When Germany declared that it could not continue to pay reparations, France occupied one German region as a source of reparations. An American plan reduced the burden of reparations and led to a period of prosperity and American investment in Europe. The prosperity ended with the economic collapse of 1929 and the Great Depression. European governments tried different approaches to ending the depression. Many middle-class Germans began to identify with anti-democratic political parties. The new American president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, pursued a policy of active government intervention in the economy that came to be known as the New Deal.

5th, 8th

In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the questions.

League of Nations, 2:52

What was the problem with the structure of the League?
If a country did not like an idea submitted what could they do?
What weakness of the League was exposed?
What other problems existed?
What was the biggest problem?
Were there more successes or failures?
Did the League effectively settle the Manchurian Crisis?
Did appeasement (offering flowers) towards the aggressor--Japan--work?
Did the League effectively act in the Abyssinian (Ethiopian) Crisis?
Why not?

Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security

A Weak League of Nations

The peace was fragile. Although the Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war, it provided no way of enforcing the ban. The League of Nations, too, was powerless to stop aggression. In 1931, the League vigorously condemned Japan’s invasion of Manchuria, but did not take military action to stop it. Ambitious dictators in Europe noted the League’s weakness and began to pursue aggressive foreign policies.

Analyzing Political Cartoons

An End to War?

The Kellogg-Briand Pact raised hopes for an end to war. But not everyone was so optimistic, as this 1929 American cartoon shows.

*Kellogg-Briand Pact framed as a fire insurance policy
*Adequate navy as a fire extinguisher
*Uncle Sam looking at both

1. Do you think that the cartoonist feels that a fire insurance policy is enough to prevent a fire?

2. What point do you think the cartoonist is making about the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

French Demands

Inflation in Germany

The Treaty of Locarno

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the questions.

The Locarno Treaties and Germany's Entry into the League, :59

What happened under the Locarno Pact?
In what year did Germany become a full member of the League of Nations?

Despite disagreements, many people worked for peace in the 1920s. Hopes soared in 1925 when representatives from seven European nations signed a series of treaties at Locarno, Switzerland. These treaties settled Germany’s disputed borders with France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. The Locarno treaties became the symbol of a new era of peace.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact, which was sponsored by the United States in 1928, echoed the hopeful “spirit of Locarno.” Almost every independent nation signed this agreement, promising to “renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” In this optimistic spirit, the great powers pursued disarmament, the reduction of armed forces and weapons. The United States, Britain, France, Japan, and other nations signed treaties to reduce the size of their navies. However, they failed to agree on limiting the size of their armies.

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the following.

Reading Check


Why was the League of Nations unable to maintain peace?

The Great Depression

In-class assignment, with a partner, fill in the chart.

The post-war prosperity did not last. At the end of the 1920s, an economic crisis began in the United States and spread to the rest of the world, leaving almost no corner untouched.

Causes of the Depression

The wealth created during the 1920s in the United States was not shared evenly. Farmers and unskilled workers were on the losing end. Though demand for raw materials and agricultural products had skyrocketed during the war, demand dwindled and prices fell after the war. Farmers, miners and other suppliers of raw materials suffered. Because they earned less, they bought less. At the same time, better technology allowed factories to make more products faster. This led to overproduction, a condition in which the production of goods exceeds the demand for them. As demand slowed, factories cut back on production and workers lost their jobs.

Meanwhile, a crisis in finance—the management of money matters, including the circulation of money, loans, investments, and banking—was brewing. Few saw the danger. Prices on the New York Stock Exchange were at an all-time high. Eager investors acquired stocks through risky methods. To slow the run on the stock market, the Federal Reserve, the central banking system of the United States, which regulates banks, raised interest rates in 1928 and again 1929. It didn’t work. Instead, the higher interest rates made people nervous about borrowing money and investing, thereby hurting demand.

In the autumn of 1929, jitters about the economy caused many people to sell their stocks at once. Financial panic set in. Stock prices crashed, wiping out the fortunes of many investors. The Great Depression, a painful time of global economic collapse, had begun quietly in the summer of 1929 with decreasing production. The October stock market crash aggravated the economic decline.

Responses to the Depression

In 1931, the Federal Reserve again increased the interest rate, with an even more disastrous effect. As people bought and invested less, businesses closed and banks failed, throwing millions out of work. The cycle spiraled steadily downward. The jobless could not afford to buy goods, so more factories had to close, which in turn increased unemployment. People slept on park benches and lined up to eat in soup kitchens.

The economic problems quickly spread around the world. American banks stopped making loans abroad and demanded repayment of foreign loans. Without support from the United States, Germany suffered. It could not make its reparations payments. France and Britain were not able to make their loan payments.

Desperate governments tried to protect their economies from foreign competition. The United States imposed the highest tariffs in its history. The policy backfired when other nations retaliated by raising their tariffs. In 1932 and 1933, global world trade sank to its 1900 level. As you have read, the Great Depression spread misery from the industrial world to Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.

Reading Check


What were the results of the Great Depression?

Democratic States After the War

In-class assignment, with a partner, fill in the table.

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

Record main ideas from this section in a table like the one below.

In 1919, the three Western democracies—Britain, France, and the United States—appeared powerful. They had ruled the Paris Peace Conference and boosted hopes for democracy among the new nations of Eastern Europe. Beneath the surface, however, postwar Europe faced grave problems. To make matters worse, many members of the younger generation who might have become the next great leaders had been killed in the war.

At first, the most pressing issues were finding jobs for returning veterans and rebuilding war-ravaged lands. Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas more popular.

In addition to problems at home, the three democracies faced a difficult international situation. The peace settlements caused friction, especially in Germany and among some ethnic groups in Eastern Europe.


From its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the League of Nations encouraged cooperation and tried to get members to make a commitment to stop aggression. In 1926, after signing the Locarno agreements, Germany joined the League. Later, the Soviet Union was also admitted.


Like Britain, France emerged from World War I both a victor and a loser. Political divisions and financial scandals plagued the government of the Third Republic. Several parties—from conservatives to communists—competed for power. The parties differed on many issues, including how to get reparations payments from Germany. A series of quickly changing coalition governments ruled France.

France’s chief concern after the war was securing its borders against Germany. The French remembered the German invasions of 1870 and 1914. To prevent a third invasion, France built massive fortifications called the Maginot Line along its border with Germany. However, the line would not be enough to stop another German invasion in 1940.

In its quest for security, France also strengthened its military and sought alliances with other countries, including the Soviet Union. It insisted on strict enforcement of the Versailles treaty and complete payment of reparations. France’s goal was to keep the German economy weak.

Great Britain

Britain disagreed with this aim. Almost from the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, British leaders wanted to relax the treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany. They feared that if Germany became too weak, the Soviet Union and France would become too powerful.

In Britain during the 1920s, the Labour party surpassed the Liberal party in strength. The Labour party gained support among workers by promoting a gradual move toward socialism. The Liberal party passed some social legislation, but it traditionally represented middle-class business interests. As the Liberal party faltered, the middle class began to back the Conservative party, joining the upper class, professionals, and farmers. With this support, the Conservative party held power during much of 1920s. After a massive strike of over three million workers in 1926, Conservatives passed legislation limiting the power of workers to strike.

Britain still faced the “Irish question.” In 1914, Parliament passed a home-rule bill that was shelved when the war began. On Easter 1916, a small group of militant Irish nationalists launched a revolt against British rule. Although the Easter Rising was quickly suppressed, it stirred wider support for the Irish cause. When Parliament again failed to grant home rule in 1919, members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) began a guerrilla war against British forces and their supporters. In 1922, moderates in Ireland and Britain reached an agreement. Most of Ireland became the self-governing Irish Free State. The largely Protestant northern counties remained under British rule. However, the IRA and others fought for decades against the division.

In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the following.

Easter Rising, 5:50

In what year did a rebellion begint?
Who was the mastermind behind the guerilla war?

The Irish Resist

Members of the Irish Republican Army prepare to resist the British occupation of Dublin in 1921 by erecting a barbed wire barricade. The Irish Free State, established in 1922, was a compromise between the opposing sides, but peace was short-lived. The conflict has continued since that time.

The United States

In contrast, the United States emerged from World War I in good shape. A late entrant into the war, it had suffered relatively few casualties and little loss of property. However, the United States did experience some domestic unrest. Fear of radicals and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia set off a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920. Police rounded up suspected foreign-born radicals, and a number were expelled from the United States.

The “Red Scare” fed growing demands to limit immigration. Millions of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe had poured into the United States between 1890 and 1914. Some native-born Americans sought to exclude these newcomers, whose cultures differed from those of earlier settlers from northern Europe. In response, Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe. Earlier laws had already excluded or limited Chinese and Japanese immigration.

In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the question.

Reading Check


What did John Maynard Keynes think would resolve the Great Depression?

John Maynard Keynes and the Great Depression, 2:10

Hughes Rudd narrates:

Ch. 17 References

The Great Depression

Photo Essay on the Great Depression

Cf. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/tools/browser12.html

Diaries of people who lived during the Depression

Cf. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/our_america/great_depression/

People and events of the Dust Bowl

Cf. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/dustbowl/

Original photographs from the times

Cf. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fsahtml/fatop1.html

Cf. Click on links to view original documents from Mussolini's life and times.

Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/heroesvillains/g3/

Click on "Germany Image Gallery" for the slideshow.

Cf. http://www.worldwar2database.com/cgi-bin/slideviewer.cgi?list=preludegermany.slides

Read a detailed account of the life of Hitler

Cf. http://library.thinkquest.org/19092/hitler.html

Test yourself on how Hitler came to power

Cf. http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/lessons/riseofhitler/index.htm

Nazi propaganda posters: Election, Sower of peace, 'One People, One Nation, One Leader,' Saving for a Volkswagen, Jews, Anti-Bolshevism.

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/nazi_propaganda_gallery.shtml

Soviet Russia

Stalin and Industrialization of the USSR
See original documents and learn more about Stalin's methods.

Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/heroesvillains/g4/

View Soviet posters

Cf. http://www.internationalposter.com/country-primers/soviet-posters.aspx

Review Stalin's takeover of power

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/stalinsact.shtml

Find out more about jazz

Cf. http://www.smithsonianjazz.org/class/whatsjazz/wij_start.asp

Paul McCartney and Wings - Give Ireland back to the Irish, 3:43

Song about the British in the north eastern counties of Ireland which denies the Irish people the right of national self-determination.

Song performed by Wings.

Give ireland back to the irish
Dont make them have to take it away
Give ireland back to the irish
Make ireland irish today
Great britian you are tremendous
And nobody knows like me
But really what are you doin
In the land across the sea

Tell me how would you like it
If on your way to work
You were stopped by irish soliders
Would you lie down do nothing
Would you give in, or go berserk

Give ireland back to the irish
Dont make them have to take it away
Give ireland back to the irish
Make ireland irish today

Great britian and all the people
Say that all people must be free
Meanwhile back in ireland
Theres a man who looks like me

And he dreams of God and country
And hes feeling really bad
And hes sitting in a prison
Should he lie down do nothing
Should give in or go mad

Give ireland back to the irish
Dont make them have to take it away
Give ireland back to the irish
Make ireland irish today

Give ireland back to the irish
Dont make them have to take it away
Give ireland back to the irish
Make ireland irish today

Lyrics reproduced here for educational purposes only; copyright remains in the hands of the legitimate owners.

John & Yoko - Sunday Bloody Sunday, 5:03, from Lennon's 'Sometime In New York City' album.

Sunday Bloody Sunday - Wolfe Tones, 4:09

This is a song from their CD entitled Celtic Symphony.

One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Animated battle of the Somme

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml

Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

You can try your luck during several front line missions with

Trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/

American involvement in WW I, 4:11

The Great War #1, World War 1 Era Period Music and Pictures. WW 1 spanned from August of 1914 to November of 1918 and raged across the globe. The United States was officially involved in the war from April 1917 to the end.

The dough boys are nearly forgotten today in the shadow of World War 2, Vietnam and Iraq. Millions of American men and women, black and white, served our country in The Great War. This series of shorts shows the music of their time and photographs from the Great War.


BBC Schools Links

GCSE Bitesize Revision - History
A secondary revision resource for GCSE exams covering the First World War.

The Bitesize series features audio clips from history and commentators:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/

Standard Grade Bitesize Revision - History
A secondary revision resource for Standard Grade covering the First World War.

BBC Sites

BBC History - World War One
This World War One site from BBC History features interactive movies, animations, feature articles and 3-d models.

One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

History Trail – How to do History
Follow in the footsteps of professional historians and find out how they do history. Discover how postcards, council records, tapestries and people's memories of the past are all valuable sources for the historian.

Other Sites

Learning Curve – The Great War
This is a comprehensive offering from the Public Records Office, which tells the story of the First World War through six different source based investigations. It aims to show how the War developed and includes teachers' notes.

Spartacus Educational – The First World War
Spartacus' World War One website offers a growing encyclopaedia of entries about the war, as well as links to other websites.

First World War.com - The war to end all wars
This site gives a general overview of the First World War. It offers a collection of insightful feature articles, photos and footage, memoirs and diaries.

Spark Notes – World War 1 (1914-1918)
Gives a summary and commentary on each main study area of the First World War.

Art of the First World War
Presents 100 paintings from international collections from around the world to commemorate the First World War.

The World War One Document Archive
The World War One Document Archive presents primary documents concerning the Great War.

World War 1 - Web Links
This site lists links to in-depth articles on all aspects of the First World War, including a large collection of links to primary source material.

National Curriculum Online: History
Information about the National Curriculum for History, QCDA and DfEE schemes of work, pupils' work and information about standards and support materials.

QCDA History
The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Authority (QCDA) History section.

Examine key issues with the help of original documents.

Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/greatwar/g1/

The best overall war reference for the entire modern period:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot

All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque

Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett

Day of the Assassins: A Jack Christie Novel by Johnny O'Brien

War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray
The Encyclopedia of Warfare: The Changing Nature of Warfare From Prehistory to Modern-day Armed Conflicts by Robin Cross, pp. 170-193.

The Encyclopedia of Weaponry: The Development of Weaponry from Prehistory to 21st Century Warfare, Ian V. Hogg, pp. 112-139.

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcolm Swanston

A documentary about the battle of the Somme 1916 part 1, 9:58

War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921

By Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml
World War One News Report, High School History Project

World War 1 Songs, 5:40

Songs are in this order: It's A Long Way to Berlin but We'll Get There, The Yanks Started Yankin, I May Stay Away A Little Longer, It's A Long Way to Tipperary, What Kind of an American Are You, How Ya Gonna Keep Them Down on the Farm

Cf. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sH4-fYIfC-E

Creedence Clearwater Revival: Fortunate Son, 2:19

Chapter 17 References

The BBC on Weimar:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/weimaract.shtml

The BBC on Nazis:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/nazisact.shtml

Wagner - RIDE OF THE VALKYRIES - Furtwangler, 5:09

The Ride of the Valkyries, by Richard Wagner, in a classic recording with Wilhelm Furtwangler and the Vienna Philharmonic. Illustrations are by Arthur Rackham.

The music: probably the most famous and instantly identifiable of Wagner's works is this short orchestral prelude from Die Walkure, the second opera in the monumental Der Ring des Nibelungen. It has gone on to enter popular culture, being used in many films, most notably the helicopter attack sequence in Apocalypse Now. In terms of composition it perfectly demonstrates Wagner's epic sense of drama, and also his masterful orchestration.

The conductor: Wilhelm Furtwangler is probably unrivalled as an interpreter of the core Austro-German Romantic repertoire, setting benchmarks in the performance of Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms, Wagner, Bruckner and others. His recordings include two complete Ring Cycles, both of them classics.

The illustrations: Arthur Rackham was one of the greatest illustrators at the turn of the 19th century, creating classic visions for fairy tales and fantasies (Alice, Peter Pan, etc.).

His work on Der Ring des Nibelungen is often considered one of the finest visual depictions of Wagner's epic.

Duce! the rise and fall of Benito Mussolini by Richard Collier





Peace at Christmastime by Tina Micula, 4:49

Peace Train by Cat Stevens w/ Lyrics, 4:14

Elvis Costello (What's So Funny 'Bout) Peace Love and Understanding, 3:19

The Paris Peace Conference: Writing a Treaty to End World War I assignment is due in class on Thursday.

The Chapter 16 Section 1 Quiz is Wednesday.

Cf. http://shanawiki.wikispaces.com/Honors+World+History+II+Chapter+16+Section+1+Quiz+Prep+Page+Spring+2011

HW: email (or hard copy) me at gmsmith@shanahan.org.

Tuesday HW
1. p. 528, #10-12
Wednesday HW
1. p. 528, #13-15
Thursday HW
1. p. 528, #16-18
Friday HW
1. p. 528, #19