Sunday, June 10, 2012

Introduction to Honors World History 2 Fall 2011, Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution


Intro and housekeeping matters.

Assigned seating chart and randomly generated student classroom number (this is separate from your regular student I.D. number; it is for the purposes of this class only).

Your class number will consist of three numbers: the first number designates the Period, the second number is the row you sit in, and the third number is your seat in that row.

For example, if a student in 1st Period is sitting in the first row (my left), and in the first seat, their number will be #111. Likewise, the student sitting in 8th Period, in the sixth row, in the sixth seat, will be #866. Every student should easily be able to determine their class number.

The number is used for anything you post online--and your Homework as well--so no one can identify you other than the people you know right in class with you. Of course, nothing about your real name, school, or any personal information about you should ever be posted online.

Put your number and name on a folder for class work; your class folder is for filing In-class work, HW, Quizzes, and Tests.


Textbooks are available in the room and you will have an assigned textbook.

In addition, I have material online and will supply work that can be done in-class as well. Anything you need is available in-class; any material available online is a supplement to in-class work. My policy towards technology is that all material and supplements should be accessible or tried: no technology is required.

Answer the question. Note that it can be answered online, emailed to me at, or as a hard copy. All three ways of doing your HW are acceptable.


Should homework assignments be posted on Friday for the following week?


The class grade is calculated automatically by GradeConnect using the Category Weighted Assessments feature.

"Each assessment is assigned to a category (ex [sic] Tests, Labs, Presentations,etc [sic]) and the category is assigned a weight (ex [sic] Tests - 40%, Presentations - 20%, etc). Individual assessment weights are then automatically calculated by based on these category weights."

Tests 65%

HW & Daily Class Work 20%

Quizzes 15%

Grading is based on Quizzes, Tests, and other participatory work such as in-class work, daily participation, and other assignments.

Quizzes are smaller exams and may be unannounced.

Tests are always scheduled, announced well in advance, and worth more points.

Homework & Daily in-class work is required. There is HW and Daily in-class work due every day. HW is due daily barring absence, and with your absence, HW is due the day you return.

If you are absent for a longer period simply inform me and we can make separate arrangements. HW is posted and available online even when you are absent.

Emailed HW and daily in-class assignments might be best, but it is not required if you do not have access to a computer. I am connected online most of the day so I generally will be available.

Class participation includes debate, discussion, reactions, games, and projects of various sorts, details will be provided as we come to these more involved assignments.

All written work follows the Honor Code stating:

This is my work and I have not cheated in any way.

Access to a bathroom during class time is a privilege, not a right, and of course it is necessary in case of an emergency. The admonition here is that you are to remain on task throughout the period. You should not have access to materials for other classes or other distractions in this class. I consider this behavior to be defiance and you will receive demerits.

Students are using learning tools--such as


Understanding_by_Design--that reflects the use of vastly different materials than the types of learning aids that students traditionally used. In fact, learning for your generation is so different than previous learners that you have often been described as the "Digital Generation" (the first generation living entirely since the Internet has been invented) or as the "Millennials" (since you were born around the turn of the Millennium). Your cohort is characterized by:

Doting parents



Open to Change

Value Collaboration

The list describes the leading characteristics of the Digital Millenials. Next, we will consider what endeavors you should strive for as a student (they are listed in descending order):







You will realize that you have arrived as a student when you can apply yourself to real world, unpredictable situations. I am fond of saying that the old chaos is the new normal. In short, this is the unpredictable world that we are living in currently. Events are taking place rapidly, change is constant, and the challenges are enormous. Yet, this is an exciting time to be studying disciplines such as history or Economics for their practical application. We will begin the class with other challenging, game-changing periods in history.

Course material: We will begin with the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment; we will finish with the contemporary world.

Chapter 10: Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800

The Scientific Revolution gave rise to a intellectual movement—the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thought provided the philosophical foundations for the American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in North America to the newly formed United States, while Spain and Portugal held onto their profitable Latin American colonies.

Section 1 The Scientific Revolution

Sixteenth-century Europeans began to question the scientific assumptions of the ancient authorities and to develop new theories about the universe. Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Galileo Galilei revolutionized astronomy.

Copernicus claimed that the sun, not the earth, was at the center of the universe—an idea considered heresy by the Catholic Church.

Equally revolutionary were Isaac Newton's explanations of gravity and the movement of the planets.

There were breakthroughs in medicine and chemistry, and numerous women contributed to the body of scientific research. The new view of the universe affected Western philosophy.

The Frenchman Rene Descartes, the first rationalist, declared that matter could be independently investigated by reason.

Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, developed the scientific method—a system for collecting and analyzing evidence.

Section 2 The Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution gave rise to the Enlightenment, an eighteenth-century movement that stressed the role of philosophy and reason in improving society. Enlightenment intellectuals, known as philosophes, were chiefly social reformers from the nobility and the middle class. They often met in the salons of the upper classes to discuss the ideas of such giants as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. In the economic sphere, Adam Smith put forth the doctrine of laissez-faire economics. The later Enlightenment produced social thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an early advocate of women's rights, Mary Wollstonecraft. Salon gatherings, along with the growth of book and magazine publishing, helped spread Enlightenment ideas among a broad audience. Most Europeans were still Christians. However, the desire for a more spiritual experience inspired new religious movements, such as the Methodism of John Wesley.

Section 3 The Impact of the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment influenced both art and politics. The baroque and neoclassical styles of art endured, while a more delicate style, called rococo, emerged. The works of Bach, Handel, Haydn, and Mozart represented one of the greatest periods in European music. Novels attracted a middle-class audience. The Enlightenment interested the absolutist rulers of Europe. However, only one, Joseph II of Austria, attempted far-reaching reforms based on Enlightenment ideas; they were largely a failure. The reforms of Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia were far more limited. Territorial disputes in Europe and in the colonial empires of Britain and France produced the War of Austrian Succession, followed by the Seven Years' War. In the end, France lost India and most of North America, and Britain emerged as the world's greatest colonial power.

Section 4 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution

In the sixteenth century, Portugal came to control Brazil, while Spain established an empire in the Western Hemisphere that included parts of North America and most of Latin America. Portugal and Spain held onto their Latin American colonies for over 300 years. During that time, they profited richly by exporting Latin American gold, silver, and other natural resources and farm products. Spanish and Portuguese officials and Christian missionaries played important roles in Latin American societies. In North America, British control over its colonies began to unravel over issues of taxation. Multiple crises led the Americans to declare their independence in 1776 and to fight Britain until its defeat in 1783. The Articles of Confederation that formed the United States were soon replaced with a Constitution, which created a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights added important freedoms derived from the natural rights expressed by the philosophes.


Section 1 The Scientific Revolution

In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong: And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers. Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later her persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization. The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.

Material for your Notebook (not an In-class assignment, do not hand in):

The Scientific Revolution Objectives

* Explain how new discoveries in astronomy changed the way people viewed the universe.

* Understand the new scientific method and how it developed.

* Analyze the contributions that Newton and other scientists made to the Scientific Revolution.

Terms, People, and Places

Nicolaus Copernicus


Tycho Brahe

Johannes Kepler


Francis Bacon

René Descartes

scientific method


Robert Boyle

Isaac Newton



The definitions of these Terms, People, and Places can be posted on our Moodle wiki at some point, more immediately I will provide examples for your perusal about Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution.

In 1609, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei heard of a new Dutch invention, the telescope. It was designed to help people see distant enemy ships. Galileo was interested for another reason—he wondered what would happen if he trained a telescope on the night sky. So he built his own telescope for this purpose. When he pointed it at the sky, he was amazed. The new telescope allowed him to see mountains on the moon, fiery spots on the sun, and four moons circling the planet Jupiter. “I did discover many particulars in Heaven that had been unseen and unheard of until this our age,” he later wrote.

In-class assignment: you may work with a partner but on your own sheet of paper.


Focus Question

How did discoveries in science lead to a new way of thinking for Europeans?

The Renaissance and the Reformation facilitated the breakdown of the medieval worldview. In the mid-1500s, a profound shift in scientific thinking brought about the final break with Europe’s medieval past. Called the Scientific Revolution, this movement pointed toward a future shaped by a new way of thinking about the physical universe. At the heart of the Scientific Revolution was the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe. The physical world, therefore, could be known, managed, and shaped by people.

Contact info: Twitter: Shanahan: 610.518.1300 x4281 For Honors Business Economics and Honors World History II: For World History 2:

Book references are available at:


HW or in-class work due the following day.

You may email to

1. Peruse Chapter 10 Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550-1800 (by Monday): in particular, when reading, be familiar with the material in Section 1 The Scientific Revolution;

2. If not answered already:

This was your first Homework assignment. Answer the question. Note that it can be answered online, emailed to me at, or as a hard copy. All three ways of doing your HW are acceptable. Nonetheless, it is most likely easiest to answer online.

Should homework assignments be posted on Friday for the following week?

3. Look up in the textbook, and be able to define the Terms, People, and Places about Chapter 10 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution.