Monday, April 11, 2016

HUM 112 Week 2

Pre-Built Course Content

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Week 2 Checklist

  • Complete and submit Week 2 Quiz 1 covering Chapters 21 and 22 - 40 Points
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 23: The Baroque Court – Europe; the Americas
    • Chapter 24: The Rise of the Enlightenment in England
  • Explore the Week 2 Music Folder
  • View the Week 2 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 2 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 2 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 10 pm tonight)--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.

What is the canzona's dominant rhythm?
Given Answer:
Correct Answer:

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is a defining characteristic of Baroque art?
    Given Answer:
    Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work
    Correct Answer:
    Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the meaning of the Portuguese term barroco, from which "Baroque" likely derived?
    Given Answer:
    Misshapen pearl
    Correct Answer:
    Misshapen pearl

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music?
    Given Answer:
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea
    Correct Answer:
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What Greek myth inspired Monteverdi's first opera?
    Given Answer:
    Orpheus and Eurydice
    Correct Answer:
    Orpheus and Eurydice

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    From where did Europe receive the first load of tulip bulbs?
    Given Answer:
    Correct Answer:

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What requirement did the Dutch state place on people in public service?
    Given Answer:
    Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church
    Correct Answer:
    Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Of what does a vanitas painting remind the viewer?
    Given Answer:
    To focus on the spiritual, not the material
    Correct Answer:
    To focus on the spiritual, not the material

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What distinguished Bach's cantatas from the simple melodies of the Lutheran chorales on which they were based?
    Given Answer:
    Addition of counterpoint
    Correct Answer:
    Addition of counterpoint

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

What might the pearls In Vermeer's Woman with a Pearl Necklace represent?
Given Answer:
Correct Answer:

A video clip from Neil Tyson, explaining how the Middle east suddenly went from a region of Science and development, into the socially backwards third world human wasteland we see today. 4:13

As Islam fell behind the West scientifically, the regressive nature of Islam should be clear; moreover, as the West developed free institutions based on constitutional monarchs, and ultimately, liberal constitutions, the Muslim majority countries were still characterized by absolute or despotic monarchs. Despots or monarchs still rule the Middle East today.  

Absolute monarchy or despotic monarchy[1][2] is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Absolute monarchies are often hereditary but other means of transmission of power are attested. Absolute monarchy differs from constitutional monarchy, in which a monarch's authority in a constitutional monarchy is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution.[3]
In theory, the absolute monarch exercises total power over the land, yet in practice the monarchy is counterbalanced by political groups from among the social classes and castes of the realm, such as the aristocracy, clergy, and middle and lower classes.

Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where the monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei,[4] Qatar,[5] Oman,[6] Saudi Arabia,[7] Swaziland,[8] the emirates comprising the United Arab Emirates,[9] and Vatican City.[10]

Obama Bows to Saudi King, :12

All Hail the Sun King!
I'm Painting if You're Paying
English Enlightenment: We Know More, Now What?

Pre-Built Course Content

HUM112 Music Clips for Week 2

In this week's readings (chaps. 23-24), there are several musical compositions mentioned, especially on pp. 751-753, 757 (in chap. 23) and p. 790 (in chap. 24).  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give them a listen.   Here below is some background with description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps).

Jean-Baptiste Lully (French: [ʒɑ̃ ba.tist]; born Giovanni Battista Lulli [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista ˈlulli]; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661.

Armide is an opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. The libretto by Philippe Quinault is based on Torquato Tasso's poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered). The work is in the form of a tragédie en musique, a genre invented by Lully and Quinault.

Critics in the 18th century regarded Armide as Lully's masterpiece. It continues to be well-regarded, featuring some of the best-known music in French baroque opera and being arguably ahead of its time in its psychological interest. Unlike most of his operas, Armide concentrates on the sustained psychological development of a character — not Renaud, who spends most of the opera under Armide's spell, but Armide, who repeatedly tries without success to choose vengeance over love.
  1. Lully: Armide, Act 2 - Enfin, il est en ma puissance ("At last, he is in my power"; p. 752)
Jean-Baptiste Lully composed the opera Armide in the late 1600s, during the reign of Louis XIV.  Read p. 752 carefully as it describes that work and this part of it.  Armide (=Armida) is the female character, the main character.  Armida lives in Muslim culture and is variously described as a sorceress, an enchantress, and a witch.  She has been asked to thwart the efforts of the crusader knight Renaud, even murder him.  She does succeed in casting a spell on him, but finds that she also has fallen in love with him, so following through with murder seems impossible.  She approaches to do the deed--that is the setting for this song from the end of Act II of the opera.  The story itself was based on a fictional epic poem of the 1500s. 

  1. Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre: Pieces de clavecin ("Pieces for the Harpischord"; p. 753
    Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre (full name Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre; born Élisabeth Jacquet, 17 March 1665, Paris – 27 June 1729, Paris) was a French musician, harpsichordist and composer.
This female composer and musician had performed in the court of Louis XIV since she was age 5.  This composition was for a dance.  Read the description on p. 753. Note the sound of the harpischord (clavecin), precursor to the modern piano.

  1. Henry Purcell: Dido and Aeneas, Dido’s Lament (p. 75Henry Purcell (/ˈpɜːrsəl/;[1] c. 10 September 1659[Note 1] – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no other native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward ElgarDido and Aeneas (Z. 626)[1] is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. The dates of the composition and first performance of the opera are uncertain. It was composed no later than July 1688,[2] and had been performed at Josias Priest's girls' school in London by the end of 1689.[3] Some scholars argue for a date of composition as early at 1684.[4][5] The story is based on Book IV of Virgil's Aeneid.[6] It recounts the love of Dido, Queen of Carthage, for the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair when he abandons her. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works.[6] It was also Purcell's first opera, as well as his only all-sung dramatic work. One of the earliest English operas, it owes much to John Blow's Venus and Adonis, both in structure and in overall effect.[6] The influence of Cavalli's opera Didone is also apparent.
"Dido's Lament", by Purcell, is also called "When I am laid in earth".  The story it relates to is from Book 4 of the ancient epic poem by Vergil called The Aeneid.  Dido, the Queen of Carthage, and Aeneas, the warrior prince from ancient Troy, had fallen in love.  But, Aeneas was determined to fulfill his duty and divine destiny and go to Italy to found a new kingdom; eventually that becomes Rome.  Aeneas is pulled by duty and destiny, and as queen, Dido cannot leave with him.  In anguish of his departure, she makes arrangements to put herself to death on a funeral pyre. Thus--the lament.  On "Dido's Lament": This song is one ARIA in Purcell's opera called Dido and Aeneas.  Read the great description of this on p. 757.

  1. Handel: Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus (p. 790)
This famous chorus is part of the renowned ORATORIO called MessiahRead p. 790 carefully for the description of the term "oratorio" and note how it differs from opera.  Then read that page for its description of this work in particular.  Handel took the common Christian approach and understanding of scriptures as predicting and praising Jesus as the Christ, the Messiah.  Most of the lyrics are taken from scriptural passages, especially those found in the Biblical books of Isaiah, Luke, and Revelation. 

Messiah (HWV 56)[1] is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742 and received its London premiere nearly a year later. After an initially modest public reception, the oratorio gained in popularity, eventually becoming one of the best-known and most frequently performed choral works in Western music.[n 1]

Handel's reputation in England, where he had lived since 1712, had been established through his compositions of Italian opera. He turned to English oratorio in the 1730s in response to changes in public taste; Messiah was his sixth work in this genre. Although its structure resembles that of opera, it is not in dramatic form; there are no impersonations of characters and no direct speech. Instead, Jennens's text is an extended reflection on Jesus Christ as Messiah. The text begins in Part I with prophecies by Isaiah and others, and moves to the annunciation to the shepherds, the only "scene" taken from the Gospels. In Part II, Handel concentrates on the Passion and ends with the "Hallelujah" chorus. In Part III he covers the resurrection of the dead and Christ's glorification in heaven.

Handel wrote Messiah for modest vocal and instrumental forces, with optional settings for many of the individual numbers. In the years after his death, the work was adapted for performance on a much larger scale, with giant orchestras and choirs. In other efforts to update it, its orchestration was revised and amplified by (among others) Mozart. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the trend has been towards reproducing a greater fidelity to Handel's original intentions, although "big Messiah" productions continue to be mounted. A near-complete version was issued on 78 rpm discs in 1928; since then the work has been recorded many times.

Week 2 Explore

The Arts and Royalty

Philosophers Debate Politics

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury,[a] was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.[1]

Though on rational grounds a champion of absolutism for the sovereign, Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.[2]

He was one of the founders of modern political philosophy and political science.[3][4] His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy.
In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy.

John Locke FRS (/ˈlɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.[4]

Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau, and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.[5]

23 The Baroque Court

Fig. 23.1 Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, King of France. 1701

Oil on canvas, 9'1" × 6'4⅜". Musée du Louvre, Paris. In his ermine coronation robes, his feet adorned in shoes with high, red heels, Louis both literally and figuratively looks down his nose at the viewer, his sense of superiority fully captured by Rigaud.


    23.1 Define absolutism and discuss how it impacted the arts in the court of Louis XIV.

    23.2 Describe how political conflict affected art in the English court.

    23.3 Examine the role of the arts in Golden Age Spain.

    23.4 Characterize the impact of Native American traditions on Baroque art in the Americas.

Louis XIV (r. 1643–1715), King of France, thought of himself as Le Roi Soleil, “the Sun King,” because like the sun (associated with Apollo, the ancient Greek god of peace and the arts) he saw himself dispensing bounty across the land. His ritual risings and retirings (the levée du roi and the couchée du roi) symbolized the actual rising and setting of the sun. They were essentially state occasions, attended by either the entire court or a select group of fawning aristocrats who eagerly entered their names on waiting lists.

Louis’s sense of his own authority—to say nothing of his notorious vanity—is wonderfully captured in Hyacinthe Rigaud’s (1659–1743) official state portrait of 1701 (Fig. 23.1). The king has flung his robes over his shoulder in order to reveal his white stockings and shoes with high, red heels. He designed the shoes himself to compensate for his 5-foot-4-inch height. He is 63 years old in this portrait, but he means to make it clear that he is still a dashing courtier.

Louis’s control over the lives of his courtiers had the political benefit of making them financially dependent on him. According to the memoirs of the duc de Saint Simon, Louis de Rouvroy (1675–1755):

He loved splendour, magnificence, and profusion in all things, and encouraged similar tastes in his Court; to spend money freely on equipages and buildings, on feasting and at cards, was a sure way to gain his favour, perhaps to obtain the honour of a word from him. Motives of policy had something to do with this; by making expensive habits the fashion, and, for people in a certain position, a necessity, he compelled his courtiers to live beyond their income, and gradually reduced them to depend on his bounty for the means of subsistence.

Louis, in fact, encouraged the noblewomen at court to consider it something of an honor to sleep with him; he had many mistresses and many illegitimate children. Life in his court was entirely formal, governed by custom and rule, so etiquette became a way of social advancement. He required the use of a fork at meal times instead of using one’s fingers. Where one sat at dinner was determined by rank. Rank even determined whether footmen opened one or two of his palace’s glass-paneled “French doors” as each guest passed through.


Absolute monarchy or despotic monarchy[1][2] is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

Absolutism and the Arts: Louis XIV and the French Court 745

The Tastes of Louis XIV 746
The Painting of Peter Paul Rubens: Color and Sensuality 748
The Painting of Nicolas Poussin: Classical Decorum 749
Music and Dance at the Court of Louis XIV 751
Theater at the French Court 753

Patronage of the arts

Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts.
Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. He brought the Académie Française under his patronage and became its "Protector". He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine, whose works remain greatly influential to this day. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud, whose works became famous throughout Europe. In music, composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. In 1661 he founded the Académie Royale de Danse and in 1669 the Académie d'Opéra, important driving events in the evolution of ballet.

The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles. With the exception of the current Royal Chapel (built near the end of Louis's reign), the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682.

Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries. At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat. For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.[38] Alternatively, there has been speculation that the revolt of the Fronde caused Louis to hate Paris, which he abandoned for a country retreat. However, his sponsorship of many public works in Paris, such as the establishment of a police and street-lighting,[84] lend little credence to this theory. As a further example of his continued care for the capital, Louis constructed the Hôtel des Invalides, a military complex and home to this day for officers and soldiers rendered infirm either by injury or old age. While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.[85]

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre, however his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris. Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of Perrault's elegant colonnade. With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public.[86] During his visit from Rome, Bernini also executed a renowned portrait bust of the king.

The Art and Politics of the English Court 755
Anthony Van Dyck: Court Painter 756

Sir Anthony van Dyck (Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛi̯k], many variant spellings;[1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching.
Puritan and Cavalier Literature 756
Henry Purcell and English Opera 757
The Arts of the Spanish Court 757
Diego Velázquez and the Royal Portrait 757
The Literature of the Spanish Court 759
The Baroque in the Americas 762
Lima and Cuzco 763
Baroque Music in the Americas: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 764
The Churrigueresque Style: Retablos and Portals in New Spain 764
23.1 from Molière, Tartuffe, Act 3, Scenes 2 and 3 (1664) 770

Excerpts from the theatre classic 'Tartuffe' by Molière, 4:14

Excerpts from the theatre classic 'Tartuffe' by Molière, adapted by David Ball and directed by Dominique Serrand. The cast includes Cate Scott Campbell, Christopher Carley, Steven Epp, Brian Hostenske, Nathan Keepers, Lenne Klingaman, Gregory Linington, Michael Manuel, Luverne Seifert and Suzanne Warmanen. Ensemble members include Becca Lustgarten, James MacEwan, Callie Prendiville and Nick Slimmer. 'Tartuffe' is onstage at SCR May 9 - June 8, 2014.

23.1a from Molière, Tartuffe, Act 5 (1664) 754
23.2 Robert Herrick, “To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time” (1648) 756
23.3 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, “To Her Self-Portrait” (posthumous publication 1700) 764
CLOSER LOOK Velázquez’s Las Meninas 760
CONTINUITY & CHANGE Excess and Restraint 76

Chapter 24: The Rise of the Enlightenment in England

Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800, The Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution gave rise to the Enlightenment, an eighteenth-century movement that stressed the role of philosophy and reason in improving society. Enlightenment intellectuals, known as philosophes, were chiefly social reformers from the nobility and the middle class. They often met in the salons of the upper classes to discuss the ideas of such giants as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. In the economic sphere, Adam Smith put forth the doctrine of laissez-faire economics. The later Enlightenment produced social thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an early advocate of women's rights, Mary Wollstonecraft. Salon gatherings, along with the growth of book and magazine publishing, helped spread Enlightenment ideas among a broad audience. Most Europeans were still Christians. However, the desire for a more spiritual experience inspired new religious movements, such as the Methodism of John Wesley.

* Explain how science led to the Enlightenment.
* Compare the ideas of Hobbes and Locke.
* Identify the beliefs and contributions of the philosophes.
* Summarize how economic thinking changed during this time.

Terms, People, and Places

philosophe (notice the spelling: this is not the same thing as philosopher)

separation of powers



social contract

natural law

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

natural right

salon (there is a common everyday word, but in reference to the Enlightenment, it means a physical place more specific and relates directly to the Enlightenment).
In Leviathan, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states and legitimate governments and creating an objective science of morality. This gave rise to social contract theory. Leviathan was written during the English Civil War; much of the book is occupied with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil of discord and civil war.

Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without government, a condition which he calls the state of nature; much of this was based on Hugo Grotius' works. In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This, Hobbes argues, would lead to a "war of all against all" (bellum omnium contra omnes). The description contains what has been called one of the best known passages in English philosophy, which describes the natural state mankind would be in, were it not for political community: [16]
In such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing, such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.[17]
In such a state, people fear death, and lack both the things necessary to commodious living, and the hope of being able to toil to obtain them. So in order to avoid it people accede to a social contract and establish a civil society. According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede some rights for the sake of protection. Any power exercised by this authority can not be resisted because the protector's sovereign power derives from individuals' surrendering their own sovereign power for protection. The individuals are thereby the authors of all decisions made by the sovereign.[18] "he that complaineth of injury from his sovereign complaineth that whereof he himself is the author, and therefore ought not to accuse any man but himself, no nor himself of injury because to do injury to one's self is impossible". There is no doctrine of separation of powers in Hobbes's discussion.[19] According to Hobbes, the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial, and ecclesiastical powers.

State of nature

Locke defines the state of nature thus:
"To properly understand political power and trace its origins, we must consider the state that all people are in naturally. That is a state of perfect freedom of acting and disposing of their own possessions and persons as they think fit within the bounds of the law of nature. People in this state do not have to ask permission to act or depend on the will of others to arrange matters on their behalf. The natural state is also one of equality in which all power and jurisdiction is reciprocal and no one has more than another. It is evident that all human beings – as creatures belonging to the same species and rank and born indiscriminately with all the same natural advantages and faculties – are equal amongst themselves. They have no relationship of subordination or subjection unless God (the lord and master of them all) had clearly set one person above another and conferred on him an undoubted right to dominion and sovereignty."[11]
The work of Thomas Hobbes made theories based upon a state of nature popular in 17th-century England, even as most of those who employed such arguments were deeply troubled by his absolutist conclusions. Locke's state of nature can be seen in light of this tradition. There is not and never has been any divinely ordained monarch over the entire world, Locke argues. However, the fact that the natural state of humanity is without an institutionalized government does not mean it is lawless. Human beings are still subject to the laws of God and nature. In contrast to Hobbes, who posited the state of nature as a hypothetical possibility, Locke takes great pains to show that such a state did indeed exist. Actually, it still exists in the area of international relations where there is not and is never likely to be any legitimate overarching government (i.e., one directly chosen by all the people subject to it). Whereas Hobbes stresses the disadvantages of the state of nature, Locke points to its good points. It is free, if full of continual dangers (2nd Tr., §123). Finally, the proper alternative to the natural state is not political dictatorship/tyranny but democratically elected government and the effective protection of basic human rights to life, liberty, and property under the rule of law.

Nobody in the natural state has the political power to tell others what to do. However, everybody has the right to authoritatively pronounce justice and administer punishment for breaches of the natural law. Thus, men are not free to do whatever they please. "The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that... no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions" (2nd Tr., §6). The specifics of this law are unwritten, however, and so each is likely to misapply it in his own case. Lacking any commonly recognised, impartial judge, there is no way to correct these misapplications or to effectively restrain those who violate the law of nature.

The law of nature is therefore ill enforced in the state of nature.
IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? Why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and control of any other power? To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very unsecure. This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is not without reason, that he seeks out, and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I call by the general name, property. (2nd Tr., §123)
It is to avoid the state of war that often occurs in the state of nature, and to protect their private property that men enter into civil or political society, i.e., state of society.

Path to the Enlightenment
By the early 1700s, European thinkers felt that nothing was beyond the reach of the human mind. Through the use of reason, insisted these thinkers, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. In essence, these writers, scholars, and philosophers felt they could change the world.

The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. In the 1700s, other scientists expanded European knowledge. For example, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox, a disease whose path of death spanned the centuries.

Applying science to the physical world, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton demonstrated that the universe operates according to natural laws which could be discovered by reason. Applying reason to the affairs of men, Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot put forth ideas of democracy, freedom, and equality. These ideals were translated into action as the American and French Revolutions.

Scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Natural law, or rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism. Why not, then, use natural law to better understand social, economic, and political problems? Using the methods of the new science, reformers thus set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society. In this way, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, known as the Enlightenment. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher best known for his work The Critique of Pure Reason, was one of the first to describe this era with the word “Enlightenment.” Despite Kant’s skepticism about the power of reason, he was enthusiastic about the Enlightenment and believed, like many European philosophers, that natural law could help explain aspects of humanity.

Philosophes and Their Ideas
In the 1700s, there was a flowering of Enlightenment thought. This was when a group of Enlightenment thinkers in France applied the methods of science to understand and improve society. They believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. These thinkers were called philosophes (fee loh zohfs), which means “philosophers.” Their ideas soon spread beyond France and even beyond Europe.
Age of Enlightenment In Europe, 1:59

24 The Rise of the Enlightenment in England
18th Century England, 8:21

A graphical exploration of 18th Century England! This video covers the peak of the Age of Enlightenment, the continuation of the Scientific Revolution, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and a handful of 18th Century English authors.

The Age of Reason | The Enlightenment - AP EURO, 6:33

    The New London: Absolutism Versus Liberalism 775
Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism (AP Euro), 9:47

Mr. Richey contrasts absolutism and constitutionalism as forms of government while discussing the development of English constitutionalism in the Late Middle Ages, which started with King John signing the Magna Carta. This is the first in a series of lectures on the development of English constitutionalism for AP European History students.

        Absolutism versus Liberalism: Thomas Hobbes and John Locke 776
POLITICAL THEORY - Thomas Hobbes, 6:45

Thomas Hobbes believed that it is always better to have security rather than liberty in a country. He was therefore deeply opposed to the English Civil War – and would have predicted the chaos of the Arab Spring. Please subscribe here: If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): Brought to you by Produced in collaboration with Mad Adam


POLITICAL THEORY - John Locke, 9:13

John Locke's greatness as a philosopher is based on his theories on childhood, his work on religious toleration and his concept of the rights of citizens. He helped to make us who we are. If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): Brought to you by Produced in collaboration with Refle

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Two Philosophers Compared, 16:31

Timestamps: 02:11 - Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) 09:33 - John Locke (Two Treatises of Government) 13:00 - Compare/Contrast with Graphic Organizer Mr. Richey discusses the works of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, two of the most influential philosophers of government in the seventeenth century. Hobbes and Locke were both influential in the development of social contract theory. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes advances the idea of a permanent social contract in which people give up sovereignty to a governing authority in order to avoid the state of nature, which is a state of war with "every man against every man." After the Glorious Revolution, John Locke responded with his Two Treatises of Government, in which he argued that people enter into a social contract and form a government in order to preserve their natural rights (life, liberty, and property). In Locke's social contract, the people retain sovereignty and reserve the right to alter or abolish the social contract if the government fails to protect their natural rights. I spend the first part of the lecture providing a summary of Hobbes' Leviathan, followed by a summary of Locke, then I use a graphic organizer to compare and contrast Hobbes' and Locke's social contract philosophies, noting key similarities and differences between the two theorists. Mastodon's Leviathan album is brought in from time to time just because it's awesome. This lecture is designed specifically for AP European History students studying Absolutism and Constitutionalism in preparation for their exam, but can also serve students in other disciplines, such as US History and Government, as well. I use a picture in this video (Green Nature) that should be attributed to Rudolf Getel. I neglected to do so in the video, so I am doing so here.

        John Milton’s Paradise Lost 777
Paradise Lost Whiteboard Stopmotion, 2:34

Paradise Lost quasi-summary English project music:

    The English Enlightenment 780

        Satire: Enlightenment Wit 781

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.[1] Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"[2]—but parody, burlesque, exaggeration,[3] juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. This "militant" irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of (or at least accept as natural) the very things the satirist wishes to attack.

Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including literature, plays, commentary, television shows, and media such as lyrics.

'A Welch wedding' Satirical Cartoon c.1780

The Age of Enlightenment, an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th century advocating rationality, produced a great revival of satire in Britain. This was fuelled by the rise of partisan politics, with the formalisation of the Tory and Whig parties — and also, in 1714, by the formation of the Scriblerus Club, which included Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Robert Harley, Thomas Parnell, and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. This club included several of the notable satirists of early 18th century Britain. They focused their attention on Martinus Scriblerus, "an invented learned fool... whose work they attributed all that was tedious, narrow-minded, and pedantic in contemporary scholarship".[83] In their hands astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon. The turn to the 18th century was characterized by a switch from Horatian, soft, pseudo-satire, to biting "juvenal" satire.[84]

Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists, and one of the first to practise modern journalistic satire. For instance, In his A Modest Proposal Swift suggests that Irish peasants be encouraged to sell their own children as food for the rich, as a solution to the "problem" of poverty. His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor. In his book Gulliver's Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular. John Dryden wrote an influential essay entitled "A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire"[85] that helped fix the definition of satire in the literary world. His satirical Mac Flecknoe was written in response to a rivalry with Thomas Shadwell and eventually inspired Alexander Pope to write his satirical The Rape of the Lock. Other satirical works by Pope include the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot.

Alexander Pope b. May 21, 1688 was a satirist known for his Horatian satirist style and translation of the Illiad. Famous throughout and after the long 18th century, Pope died in 1744.[86] Pope, in his The Rape of the Lock, is delicately chiding society in a sly but polished voice by holding up a mirror to the follies and vanities of the upper class. Pope does not actively attack the self-important pomp of the British aristocracy, but rather presents it in such a way that gives the reader a new perspective from which to easily view the actions in the story as foolish and ridiculous. A mockery of the upper class, more delicate and lyrical than brutal, Pope nonetheless is able to effectively illuminate the moral degradation of society to the public. The Rape of the Lock assimilates the masterful qualities of a heroic epic, such as the Iliad, which Pope was translating at the time of writing The Rape of the Lock. However, Pope applied these qualities satirically to a seemingly petty egotistical elitist quarrel to prove his point wryly.[87]

Daniel Defoe pursued a more journalistic type of satire, being famous for his The True-Born Englishman which mocks xenophobic patriotism, and The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters – advocating religious toleration by means of an ironical exaggeration of the highly intolerant attitudes of his time.

The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th-century England.[88] The medium developed under the direction of its greatest exponent, James Gillray from London.[89] With his satirical works calling the king (George III), prime ministers and generals (especially Napoleon) to account, Gillray's wit and keen sense of the ridiculous made him the pre-eminent cartoonist of the era.[89]

Ebenezer Cooke (1665–1732), author of "The Sot-Weed Factor" (1708), was among the first American colonialists to write literary satire. Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) and others followed, using satire to shape an emerging nation's culture through its sense of the ridiculous.
Jonathan Swift, Satire, and Gulliver's Travels Lesson, 11:52

Don't forget to hit the Like and Subscribe videos to make sure you receive notifications about upcoming Literature, Grammar, Reading, Writing, and World History lessons from MrBrayman.Info. This lesson gives students background information on Jonathan Swift, a conceptual introduction to satire, and background knowledge on Gulliver's Travels, especially Part 4. It's a good lesson to use before "A Modest Proposal" too. Below is the outline of the slides used in the lesson: Jonathan Swift, Satire, and Gulliver's Travels Lesson Biography of Swift Satire—Definition and Examples Background of Gulliver's Travels Connections to the Project Jonathan Swift, 1667-1745 Born in Ireland of English, Anglican parents At a time when tensions between England and Ireland were high for political and religious reasons Conflicts with the English government over his family's politics after the English Civil War and over his writing Had a great sympathy for the Irish—became somewhat of a member of both cultures Became the Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin Satire A literary form (poetry, prose, or drama) that exaggerates tendencies to make people laugh as a form of protest Uses humor as a weapon A more enlightened form of sarcasm Can be subtle or blatant, and can be serious or silly Examples of Satire How Satire Works Literal Satire: looks, feels, seems just like realistic art, but little things are exaggerated to show how ridiculous they are Unrealistic Satire (like Gulliver's Travels): fantastic places and unrealistic settings serve as metaphors for the world we live in When people laugh, they are more relaxed and willing to engage with a speaker or artist When people see things that aren't them but who do the same things they do, they can look at those things more objectively Gulliver's Travels Travel narrative—Lemuel Gulliver goes to four places: Liliput—the land of the small people Brobdingnag—the land of the giants Laputa—the land of the "scientists" The Land of the Houyhnhnms—talking horses who have more reason than men Gulliver's Travels Liliput—Swift makes fun of people's pettiness; for example, two political parties fight furiously over which end of an egg should be cracked Brobdingnag—By encountering giant humans, Gulliver shows us just how disgusting people are Laputa—The scientists of Laputa are so busy with all of their imaginary learning that their wives go astray Gulliver's Travels The Land of the Houyhnhnms In comparison to humans, horses seem very wise, just, and reasonable—so much for the Enlightenment Gulliver comes to identify with the horses and not the Yahoos—a race of human-ish creatures that have all of humanity's worst qualities What is a human? What is an animal? Are humans all that great? Connection to the Project Swift shows us slavery, racism, and genocide, and he asks us questions about all of them He makes us question the Enlightenment and the very idea of civilization and who is civilized Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he realized that Europe needed to humble itself Lesson Completed—Good Job I have provided a read-along for this Be prepared to write about satirical episodes in the selections from the book that I have given you—like a metaphor, what's the tenor and what's the vehicle, and what's Swift's purpose for the satire?

        The English Garden 785
Stockton Bury Gardens - home garden of The English Garden magazine, 3:21
Take a video tour of the beautiful Stockton Bury Gardens in Herefordshire, England, which The English Garden magazine uses as its home garden for practical articles and videos. It is a traditional English garden featuring a kitchen garden, mixed borders, meadows and ponds, and medieval farm buildings. Open from April to September - see for more information.

        Isaac Newton: The Laws of Physics 787
Newton's 3 Laws, with a bicycle - Joshua Manley, 3:32
Watch full lesson here: Why would it be hard to pedal a 10,000 pound bicycle? This simple explanation shows how Newton's 3 laws of motion might help you ride your bike.

        The Industrial Revolution 788
Industrial Revolution - Great Britain around 1800, 3:13

Clip taken from the DVD "The Industrial Revolution. Great Britain 1750-1850" See more clips referred to the Industrial Revolution on our channel: Are you interested in any of our films or textbooks? Write us a mail at: Further Information can be found on:

        Handel and the English Oratorio 790

    Literacy and the New Print Culture 790
Print Culture, 2:37

The Enlightenment and Print

        The Tatler and The Spectator 790
Letters Richard Steele, 3:46

A brief selection from the hundreds of letters from Sir Richard Steele, of The Tatler, The Spectator, etc., to his good wife. Read aloud by Brad Craft.

        The Rise of the English Novel 791
Development of the English Novel (17th and 18th Centuries & Development of the English Novel Part 2), 2:00 - Development of the English Novel is Part 2 of The 17th and 18th Centuries and the Development of the English Novel 2 - a History of British Literature title Survey the poetry and prose of the 17th and 18th centuries, and examine literary developments during the Age of Enlightenment, a period that witnessed the emergence of modern science and popular journalism. Gain insight to the complex imagery and style of the Metaphysical poets and the elegant, witty sentiments favoured by the Augustan poets, and explore their relationship to contemporaneous social, political, and intellectual currents. Trace the development of the English novel, from this genre's forerunners to its formal beginnings with Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding, concluding with two major novelists of the early nineteenth century: Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott. Examine the subjects and themes explored by early English novelists. Zane Education owns the largest library of K-12 curriculum-based subtitled video currently available online. Each video is fully subtitled so as to enable each student to study the topic and improve their reading and literacy skills at the same time.

    Exploration in the Enlightenment 795
European exploration HD, 3:34

        Cook’s Encounters in the South Pacific 796
Captain James Cook - Mini Series - Intro, 2:15

An Australian - German co productionBased on Captain James Cook's three voyages. It was on his first voyage, in 1770 (while in the South Pacific region to observe the transit of Venus), that Captain Cook discovered the east coast of Australia.

    Cook in the North Pacific 800
Captain Cook | Antarctic Journey Proves Flat Earth, 5:06

This Captain was on par with Admiral Byrd who traveled into Antarctic Ice. Why did it take him years to travel around the globe? Is there something that they're not telling us? James Cook Scientific American: Supplement Volume 48 (James Cook section on page 19803). Cook's Map of New Zealand Cook's map of Hawaii Cook's Map of Australia Captain Cook's Second Voyage Summary Video Time lapse of Cook's Voyage


    24.1 from John Dryden, “Annus Mirabilis” (1667) 776
Annus Mirabilis is a poem written by John Dryden published in 1667. It commemorated 1665–1666, the "year of miracles" of London. Despite the poem's name, the year had been one of great tragedy, including the Great Fire of London. Johnson writes that Dryden uses the term "year of miracles" for this period of time to suggest that events could have been worse.[1] Dryden wrote the poem while at Charlton in Wiltshire, where he went to escape one of the great events of the year: the Great Plague of London.[1]
    24.2 from Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651) 803
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668).[1][3] Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.[4] Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong undivided government.
    24.3 from John Locke, Essay on Human Understanding (1690) 777
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding. It first appeared in 1689 (although dated 1690) with the printed title An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate (tabula rasa, although he did not use those actual words) filled later through experience. The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Book I of the Essay is Locke's attempt to refute the rationalist notion of innate ideas. Book II sets out Locke's theory of ideas, including his distinction between passively acquired simple ideas, such as "red," "sweet," "round," etc., and actively built complex ideas, such as numbers, causes and effects, abstract ideas, ideas of substances, identity, and diversity. Locke also distinguishes between the truly existing primary qualities of bodies, like shape, motion and the arrangement of minute particles, and the secondary qualities that are "powers to produce various sensations in us"[1] such as "red" and "sweet." These secondary qualities, Locke claims, are dependent on the primary qualities. He also offers a theory of personal identity, offering a largely psychological criterion. Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.
    24.4 from John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government (1690) 804
John Locke's conception of the social contract differed from Hobbes' in several fundamental ways, retaining only the central notion that persons in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state. Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would be bound morally, by the Law of Nature, not to harm each other in their lives or possession, but without government to defend them against those seeking to injure or enslave them, people would have no security in their rights and would live in fear. Locke argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a "neutral judge", acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.

While Hobbes argued for near-absolute authority, Locke argued for inviolate freedom under law in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke argued that government's legitimacy comes from the citizens' delegation to the government of their right of self-defense (of "self-preservation"), along with elements of other rights as necessary to achieve the goal of security (e.g. property will be liable to taxation). The government thus acts as an impartial, objective agent of that self-defense, rather than each man acting as his own judge, jury, and executioner—the condition in the state of nature. In this view, government derives its "just powers from the consent [i.e, delegation] of the governed,".
    24.5 from John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 6 (1667) 806
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674). The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books (in the manner of Virgil's Aeneid) with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification.[1] It is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, and it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time.[2]

The poem concerns the Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men".[5]
    24.5a–b from John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5 (1667) 780

    24.6 from Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal (1729) 783
A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People From Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick,[1] commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729. Swift suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies. This satirical hyperbole mocks heartless attitudes towards the poor, as well as British policy toward Ireland in general.

In English writing, the phrase "a modest proposal" is now conventionally an allusion to this style of straight-faced satire.
    24.7 from Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Book 4, Chapter 6 (1726) 784
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships, commonly known as Gulliver's Travels (1726, amended 1735), is a prose satire[1][2] by Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre. It is Swift's best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature.

The book became popular as soon as it was published. John Gay wrote in a 1726 letter to Swift that "It is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery."[3] Since then, it has never been out of print.
    24.8 from Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man (1732–34) 784
An Essay on Man is a poem published by Alexander Pope in 1733-1734.[1][2][3] Is an effort to rationalize or rather "vindicate the ways of God to man" (l.16), a variation of John Milton's claim in the opening lines of Paradise Lost, that he will "justify the ways of God to men" (1.26). It is concerned with the natural order God has decreed for man. Because man cannot know God's purposes, he cannot complain about his position in the Great Chain of Being (ll.33-34) and must accept that "Whatever IS, is RIGHT" (l.292), a theme that was satirized by Voltaire in Candide (1759).[4] More than any other work, it popularized optimistic philosophy throughout England and the rest of Europe.

Pope's Essay on Man and Moral Epistles were designed to be the parts of a system of ethics which he wanted to express in poetry. Moral Epistles has been known under various other names including Ethic Epistles and Moral Essays.

On its publication, An Essay on Man received great admiration throughout Europe. Voltaire called it "the most beautiful, the most useful, the most sublime didactic poem ever written in any language".[5] In 1756 Rousseau wrote to Voltaire admiring the poem and saying that it "softens my ills and brings me patience". Kant was fond of the poem and would recite long passages from it to his students.[6]
Later however, Voltaire renounced his admiration for Pope's and Leibniz's optimism and even wrote a novel, Candide, as a satire on their philosophy of ethics. Rousseau also critiqued the work, questioning "Pope's uncritical assumption that there must be an unbroken chain of being all the way from inanimate matter up to God."[7]

The essay, written in heroic couplets, comprises four epistles. Pope began work on it in 1729, and had finished the first three by 1731. They appeared in early 1733, with the fourth epistle published the following year. The poem was originally published anonymously; Pope did not admit authorship until 1735.
Pope reveals in his introductory statement, "The Design," that An Essay on Man was originally conceived as part of a longer philosophical poem, with four separate books. What we have today would comprise the first book. The second was to be a set of epistles on human reason, arts and sciences, human talent, as well as the use of learning, science, and wit "together with a satire against the misapplications of them." The third book would discuss politics, and the fourth book "private ethics" or "practical morality." Often quoted is the following passage, the first verse paragraph of the second book, which neatly summarizes some of the religious and humanistic tenets of the poem:
Know then thyself, presume not God to scan
The proper study of Mankind is Man.[8]
Placed on this isthmus of a middle state,
A Being darkly wise, and rudely great:
With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride,
He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;
In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast;
In doubt his mind or body to prefer;
Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err;
Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little, or too much;
Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd;
Still by himself, abus'd or disabus'd;
Created half to rise and half to fall;
Great Lord of all things, yet a prey to all,
Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl'd;
The glory, jest and riddle of the world.
Go, wondrous creature! mount where science guides,
Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides;
Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,
Correct old time, and regulate the sun;
Go, soar with Plato to th’ empyreal sphere,
To the first good, first perfect, and first fair;
Or tread the mazy round his followers trod,
And quitting sense call imitating God;
As Eastern priests in giddy circles run,
And turn their heads to imitate the sun.
Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule—
Then drop into thyself, and be a fool!
Pope says that man has learnt about Nature and God's creation by using science; science has given man power but man intoxicated by this power thinks that he is "imitating God". Pope uses the word "fool" to show how little he (man) knows in spite of the progress made by science.
    24.9 from Samuel Richardson, Pamela (1740) 792
Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. It tells the story of a beautiful 15-year-old maidservant named Pamela Andrews, whose country landowner master, Mr. B, makes unwanted advances towards her after the death of his mother. After Mr. B attempts unsuccessfully to seduce and rape her, he eventually rewards her virtue when he sincerely proposes an equitable marriage to her. In the novel's second part, Pamela marries Mr. B and tries to acclimatize to upper-class society. The story, a best-seller of its time, was very widely read but was also criticized for its perceived licentiousness.
    24.10 from Henry Fielding, Shamela (1741) 793
An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews, or simply Shamela, as it is more commonly known, is a satirical burlesque, a novella written by Henry Fielding, first published in April 1741 under the name of Mr. Conny Keyber. Fielding never admitted to writing the work, but it is widely considered to be his.[1] It is a direct attack on the then-popular novel Pamela (1740) by Fielding's contemporary and rival Samuel Richardson and is composed, like Pamela, in epistolary form.
    24.11a from Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Chapter 1 (1813) 793
Pride and Prejudice is a novel of manners by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character, Elizabeth Bennet, as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of the British Regency. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman, Mr. Bennet, living in Longbourn.

Page 2 of a letter from Jane Austen to her sister Cassandra (11 June 1799) in which she first mentions Pride and Prejudice, using its working title First Impressions. (NLA)
Set in England in the early 19th century, Pride and Prejudice tells the story of Mr. and Mrs. Bennet's five unmarried daughters after the rich and eligible Mr. Bingley and his status-conscious friend, Mr. Darcy, have moved into their neighbourhood. While Bingley takes an immediate liking to the eldest Bennet daughter, Jane, Darcy is disdainful of local society and repeatedly clashes with the Bennets' lively second daughter, Elizabeth.
Pride and Prejudice retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of "most loved books". It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature, selling over 20 million copies, and receives considerable attention from literary scholars. Likewise, it has paved the way for archetypes that abound in many contemporary literature of our time.Modern interest in the book has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and an abundance of novels and stories imitating Austen's memorable characters or themes.[1]
    24.11b from Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Chapter 43 (1813) 794

Pride & Prejudice (2005) - Official Trailer, 2:26
Sparks fly when spirited Elizabeth Bennett meets single, rich, and proud Mr. Darcy. But Mr. Darcy reluctantly finds himself falling in love with a woman beneath his class. Can each overcome their own pride and prejudice? Released on 2005 Directed by: Joe Wright Starring: Keira Knightley, Matthew Macfadyen,Talulah Riley, Rosamund Pike, Jena Malone, Carey MulliganDonald Sutherland, Brenda Blethyn, Kelly Reilly, Simon Woods

    24.12 from Samuel Johnson, The Rambler No. 4, Saturday, March 31, 1750 795
The Rambler was published on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 1750 to 1752 and totals 208 articles. It was Johnson's most consistent and sustained work in the English language. Though similar in name to preceding publications such as The Spectator and The Tatler, Johnson made his periodical unique by using a style of prose which differed from that of the time period. The most popular publications of the day were written in the common or colloquial language of the people whereas The Rambler was written in elevated prose. As was then common for the type of publication, the subject matter was confined only to the imagination of the author (and the sale of the publication); typically, however, The Rambler discussed subjects such as morality, literature, society, politics, and religion. Johnson included quotes and ideas in his publication from Renaissance humanists such as Erasmus and Descartes. His writings in The Rambler are considered to be neoclassical.
    24.13 from John Ledyard, A Journal of Captain Cook’s Last Voyage in the Pacific (1783) 800
In June 1776, Ledyard joined Captain James Cook's third and final voyage as a British marine. The expedition lasted until October 1780. During these four years, its two ships stopped at the Sandwich Islands, Cape of Good Hope, the Prince Edward Islands off South Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, Tasmania, New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Tahiti, and then Hawaii (first documented by the expedition). It continued to the northwest coast of North America, making Ledyard perhaps the first U.S. citizen to touch its western coast, along the Aleutian islands and Alaska into the Bering Sea, and back to Hawaii where Cook was killed. He attempted to climb from Kealakekua Bay to Mokuaweoweo, the summit of Mauna Loa, but had to turn back.[2] The return voyage touched upon Kamchatka, Macau, Batavia (now Jakarta), around the Cape of Good Hope again, and back to England.[1]

Still a marine in the British Navy, Ledyard was sent to Canada to fight in the American Revolution. Instead he deserted, returned to Dartmouth, and began to write his Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage. It was published in 1783, five years after he had visited Hawaii,[3] and was the first work to be protected by copyright in the United States. (It was in fact protected by Connecticut state copyright by special act of the legislature; federal copyright was not introduced until 1790.) Today, this work is annotated in rare-book bibliographies as the first travelogue describing Hawaii ever to be published in America.[3]

    CLOSER LOOK Wren’s Saint Paul’s Cathedral 778

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Growing Crisis of the Slave Trade 801
Milton Friedman - Capitalism, Slavery and Colonialism, 5:22

Did western democracies gain their wealth through slavery and colonialism? Professor Friedman answers. Source: Milton Friedman Speaks Buy it:

Week 2 Discussion
"The Arts and Royalty; Philosophers Debate Politics" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • In this week’s readings, a dispute in the French royal court is described about whether Poussin or Rubens was the better painter. Take a painting by each, either from our book or a Website below, and compare them and explain which you prefer. There is another conflict between the playwright Moliere and a well-born Parisian; Louis XIV stepped in. Explain how Louis XIV used the various arts and his motives for doing so. Identify one (1) example of a modern political leader approaching the arts this way.
  • The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed on the understanding of political authority, with Locke taking what is commonly called the “liberal” view. Choose a side (be brave perhaps; take a side you actually disagree with). Using the writings of each given in our class text or at the Websites below, make your case for the side you chose and against the other side. Identify one (1) modern situation in the world where these issues are significant.

Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800
The Scientific Revolution gave rise to a intellectual movement—the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thought provided the philosophical foundations for the American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in North America to the newly formed United States, while Spain and Portugal held onto their profitable Latin American colonies.
The Scientific Revolution
* How did new discoveries in astronomy change the way people viewed the universe?
* What is the new scientific method and what impact did it have?
* What contributions did Newton and other scientists make to the Scientific Revolution?
The Enlightenment
The Impact of the Enlightenment
Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong: And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers.
Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later her persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization.
The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.
Chapter 23: The Baroque Court -- Europe: the Americas
The Weekly videos are helpful here.
The English Enlightenment, 2:17
The Sun King, 2:50
Patronage, 2:20
Click the image below to learn more about Louis XIV and Versailles, Royal Court Patronage, and the English Enlightenment.