Pre-Built Course Content
The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.
Week 2 Checklist
- Complete and submit Week 2 Quiz 1 covering Chapters 21 and 22 - 40 Points
- Read the following from your textbook:
- Chapter 23: The Baroque Court – Europe; the Americas
- Chapter 24: The Rise of the Enlightenment in England
- Explore the Week 2 Music Folder
- View the Week 2 Lecture videos
- Do the Week 2 Explore Activities
- Participate in the Week 2 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points
We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 10 pm tonight)--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.
What is the canzona's dominant rhythm?
Question 2: Multiple Choice
What is a defining characteristic of Baroque art?
Given Answer:Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work Correct Answer:Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work
Question 3: Multiple Choice
What is the meaning of the Portuguese term barroco, from which "Baroque" likely derived?
Given Answer:Misshapen pearl Correct Answer:Misshapen pearl
Question 4: Multiple Choice
Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music?
Given Answer:Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea Correct Answer:Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea
Question 5: Multiple Choice
What Greek myth inspired Monteverdi's first opera?
Given Answer:Orpheus and Eurydice Correct Answer:Orpheus and Eurydice
Question 6: Multiple Choice
From where did Europe receive the first load of tulip bulbs?
Given Answer:Turkey Correct Answer:Turkey
Question 7: Multiple Choice
What requirement did the Dutch state place on people in public service?
Given Answer:Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church Correct Answer:Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church
Question 8: Multiple Choice
Of what does a vanitas painting remind the viewer?
Given Answer:To focus on the spiritual, not the material Correct Answer:To focus on the spiritual, not the material
Question 9: Multiple Choice
What distinguished Bach's cantatas from the simple melodies of the Lutheran chorales on which they were based?
Given Answer:Addition of counterpoint Correct Answer:Addition of counterpoint
Question 10: Multiple Choice
What might the pearls In Vermeer's Woman with a Pearl Necklace represent?
A video clip from Neil Tyson, explaining how the Middle east suddenly went from a region of Science and development, into the socially backwards third world human wasteland we see today. 4:13
As Islam fell behind the West scientifically, the regressive nature of Islam should be clear; moreover, as the West developed free institutions based on constitutional monarchs, and ultimately, liberal constitutions, the Muslim majority countries were still characterized by absolute or despotic monarchs. Despots or monarchs still rule the Middle East today.
Absolute monarchy or despotic monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Absolute monarchies are often hereditary but other means of transmission of power are attested. Absolute monarchy differs from constitutional monarchy, in which a monarch's authority in a constitutional monarchy is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution.
In theory, the absolute monarch exercises total power over the land, yet in practice the monarchy is counterbalanced by political groups from among the social classes and castes of the realm, such as the aristocracy, clergy, and middle and lower classes.
Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where the monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, the emirates comprising the United Arab Emirates, and Vatican City.
Obama Bows to Saudi King, :12
I'm Painting if You're Paying
English Enlightenment: We Know More, Now What?
Pre-Built Course Content
HUM112 Music Clips for Week 2
Jean-Baptiste Lully (French: [ʒɑ̃ ba.tist ly.li]; born Giovanni Battista Lulli [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista ˈlulli]; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661.
Armide is an opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. The libretto by Philippe Quinault is based on Torquato Tasso's poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered). The work is in the form of a tragédie en musique, a genre invented by Lully and Quinault.
Critics in the 18th century regarded Armide as Lully's masterpiece. It continues to be well-regarded, featuring some of the best-known music in French baroque opera and being arguably ahead of its time in its psychological interest. Unlike most of his operas, Armide concentrates on the sustained psychological development of a character — not Renaud, who spends most of the opera under Armide's spell, but Armide, who repeatedly tries without success to choose vengeance over love.
- Lully: Armide, Act 2 - Enfin, il est en ma puissance ("At last, he is in my power"; p. 752)
- Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre: Pieces de clavecin ("Pieces for the Harpischord"; p. 753)
Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre (full name Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre; born Élisabeth Jacquet, 17 March 1665, Paris – 27 June 1729, Paris) was a French musician, harpsichordist and composer.
- Henry Purcell: Dido and Aeneas, Dido’s Lament (p. 75) Henry Purcell (//; c. 10 September 1659[Note 1] – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no other native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar. Dido and Aeneas (Z. 626) is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. The dates of the composition and first performance of the opera are uncertain. It was composed no later than July 1688, and had been performed at Josias Priest's girls' school in London by the end of 1689. Some scholars argue for a date of composition as early at 1684. The story is based on Book IV of Virgil's Aeneid. It recounts the love of Dido, Queen of Carthage, for the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair when he abandons her. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works. It was also Purcell's first opera, as well as his only all-sung dramatic work. One of the earliest English operas, it owes much to John Blow's Venus and Adonis, both in structure and in overall effect. The influence of Cavalli's opera Didone is also apparent.
- Handel: Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus (p. 790)
Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742 and received its London premiere nearly a year later. After an initially modest public reception, the oratorio gained in popularity, eventually becoming one of the best-known and most frequently performed choral works in Western music.[n 1]
Handel's reputation in England, where he had lived since 1712, had been established through his compositions of Italian opera. He turned to English oratorio in the 1730s in response to changes in public taste; Messiah was his sixth work in this genre. Although its structure resembles that of opera, it is not in dramatic form; there are no impersonations of characters and no direct speech. Instead, Jennens's text is an extended reflection on Jesus Christ as Messiah. The text begins in Part I with prophecies by Isaiah and others, and moves to the annunciation to the shepherds, the only "scene" taken from the Gospels. In Part II, Handel concentrates on the Passion and ends with the "Hallelujah" chorus. In Part III he covers the resurrection of the dead and Christ's glorification in heaven.
Handel wrote Messiah for modest vocal and instrumental forces, with optional settings for many of the individual numbers. In the years after his death, the work was adapted for performance on a much larger scale, with giant orchestras and choirs. In other efforts to update it, its orchestration was revised and amplified by (among others) Mozart. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the trend has been towards reproducing a greater fidelity to Handel's original intentions, although "big Messiah" productions continue to be mounted. A near-complete version was issued on 78 rpm discs in 1928; since then the work has been recorded many times.
- Chapter 23 (pp. 742-755); Rubens; Poussin; Moliere; royalty using the arts; review the Week 2 “Music Folder”
- Rubens and Poussin at http://www.visitmuseums.com/exhibition/from-baroque-to-classicism-rubens-poussin-and-17th-85 and http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/p/poussin/biograph.html
Philosophers Debate Politics
- Chapter 24 (pp. 776-7; 803-805)
- Hobbes: text at http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Hobbes/hobbes_human_nature.html; summary at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/; also http://jim.com/hobbes.htm
- Locke: text at http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Locke-2ndTreatise.html; General background of the concept at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/teachers/lesson_plans/pdfs/unit1_12.pdf
- In this week’s readings, a dispute in the French royal court is described about whether Poussin or Rubens was the better painter. Take a painting by each, either from our book or a Website below, and compare them and explain which you prefer. There is another conflict between the playwright Moliere and a well-born Parisian; Louis XIV stepped in. Explain how Louis XIV used the various arts and his motives for doing so. Identify one (1) example of a modern political leader approaching the arts this way.
- The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed on the understanding of political authority, with Locke taking what is commonly called the “liberal” view. Choose a side (be brave perhaps; take a side you actually disagree with). Using the writings of each given in our class text or at the Websites below, make your case for the side you chose and against the other side. Identify one (1) modern situation in the world where these issues are significant.
Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800
The Scientific Revolution gave rise to a intellectual movement—the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thought provided the philosophical foundations for the American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in North America to the newly formed United States, while Spain and Portugal held onto their profitable Latin American colonies.
The Scientific Revolution
* How did new discoveries in astronomy change the way people viewed the universe?
* What is the new scientific method and what impact did it have?
* What contributions did Newton and other scientists make to the Scientific Revolution?
The Impact of the Enlightenment
Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
The Scientific Revolution
In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong: And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers.
Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later her persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization.
The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.
Chapter 23: The Baroque Court -- Europe: the Americas
The Weekly videos are helpful here.
The English Enlightenment, 2:17
The Sun King, 2:50
Click the image below to learn more about Louis XIV and Versailles, Royal Court Patronage, and the English Enlightenment.