Wednesday, September 14, 2016

PHI 210 Week 11 Summer 2016

"When Nietzsche Wept"


President Reagan's Farewell Address to the Nation — 1/11/89, 21:22

https://youtu.be/UKVsq2daR8Q



In Laos, Obama Repeatedly Calls Americans 'Lazy' 1:12

https://youtu.be/LzcpXdKbhOE



50% Trump Supporters 'BASKET OF DEPLORABLES' :40

https://youtu.be/ryS2VTtqXiM



Logical Fallacies in Clinton's Campaign Speech, 6:02

https://youtu.be/4VQDvYhP2rE



Muslim Imam in Orlando called for death to gays before night club attack, 2:32

"The Husseini Islamic Center, 5211 Hester Ave, Sanford, FL 32773, invited Sheikh Farrokh Sekaleshfar to speak at their Mosque. Dr. Sekaleshfar says the killing of homosexuals is the compassionate thing to do.

https://youtu.be/Vev-OzHQy94



The Center for Security Policy’s report, Shariah Law and American State Courts: An Assessment of State Appellate Court Cases evaluates 50 Appellate Court cases from now 30 states that involve conflicts between Shariah (Islamic law) and American state law. The cases resulted in favoring sharia law over existing American law.



These cases are the stories of Muslim American families, mostly Muslim women and children, who were asking American courts to preserve their rights to equal protection and due process.  These families came to America for freedom from the discriminatory and cruel laws of Shariah.  When our courts then apply Shariah law in the lives of these families, and deny them equal protection, they are betraying the principles on which America was founded.

The study’s findings suggest that Shariah law has entered into state court decisions, in conflict with the Constitution and state public policy. Some commentators have said there are no more than one or two cases of Shariah law in U.S. state court cases; yet 50 significant cases were found just from the small sample of appellate published cases.

The Report’s Key Findings include:

•    22 trial court decisions refused to apply Shariah; 15 utilized or recognized Shariah; 9 were indeterminate; and in 4 cases Shariah was not applicable to the decision at the trial court level, but was applicable at the appellate level.

•    23 appellate decisions refused to apply Shariah; 12 utilized or recognized Shariah; 8 were indeterminate; and in 7 cases Shariah was not applicable to the appellate decision, but had been applicable at the trial court level.

•    The 50 cases arose in 23 different states: 6 cases were found in New Jersey; 5 in California; 4 each in Florida, Massachusetts and Washington; 3 each in Maryland, Texas and Virginia; 2 each in Louisiana, Iowa and Nebraska; and 1 each in Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, Ohio and South Carolina.


http://publicpolicyalliance.org/media-kit/shariah-law-and-american-state-courts-report/

David Wood, 7:16



https://youtu.be/a13Rj5yrAhg



Ft. Hood Hero: Obama 'Betrayed' Victims, 2:30

New video shows chaos after massacre at Texas Army base that killed 13.

http://youtu.be/-OEwEzFgKP4



A BEHEADING IN OKLAHOMA, 4:19
 
2014

It was not just a "workplace incident." The brutal beheading of an American woman by a radicalized Muslim is just the latest in a series of un- or under-reported atrocities deemed unfit for the American people by the Mainstream Media. In this horrifying analysis, Bill Whittle describes the events in Oklahoma.

https://youtu.be/hfaTIRYE8tM



Temple University Students and Muslims Walk-Out, 4:42 (2012)

https://youtu.be/6_ncNokPnfA



Brooklyn College Students Harassing Pamela Geller (Muslim Students Stifling Free Thought), 6:16

Published on May 5, 2015 Brooklyn College Students Harassing Pamela Geller (Muslim Students Stifling Free Thought)

https://youtu.be/osdyH0fT0pc





1960s and 1970s, a period of social protest and discontent.




Black Identity

https://youtu.be/FmzldNFgD40

1968

James Brown, Say It Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud, 5:57

"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" is a funk song performed by James Brown and written with his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis in 1968.

It was released as a two-part single which held the number-one spot on the R&B singles chart for six weeks, and peaked at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100.[1][2]

Both parts of the single were later included on James Brown's 1968 album A Soulful Christmas and on his 1969 album sharing the title of the song.

"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" was Brown's first recording to feature trombonist Fred Wesley.

The song addresses the Black Power movement of 1968: but how it address black power is the interesting aspect of the song.

Brown is distancing himself from the radical Black Power movement emerging in 1968.

Consider that the lyrics "We've been 'buked and we've been scorned/We've been treated bad, talked about as sure as you're born" in the first verse of the song paraphrases the spiritual "I've Been 'Buked" by Mahalia Jackson which was performed at the March on Washington.

From Mahalia and the March on Washington we can understand that relying on "Jesus" and "God" are important. 

Martin Luther King, Jr., significantly, was a Christian minister.

Themes from Peter, Paul, and Mary, as well as Bob Dylan, indicate that social change is coming ringing in justice and freedom for my brothers and my sisters. 

The Civil Rights movement is a Judeo-Christian, American movement that James Brown is tapping into.

Several other Brown singles from the same era as "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud", notably "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door, I'll Get It Myself)", explored similar themes of black empowerment and self-reliance. 

And, coupled with his "America Is My Home" tune we can see that American Jews and Christians are relying on their talent, hard work, and education to bring about social change.

Will only Judeo-Christian, pro-American forces be the only important political movement of the decade?

https://youtu.be/2VRSAVDlpDI










1960s and 1970s, a period of social protest and discontent.

Gil Scott-Heron 
Gil Scott-Heron - The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, 2:50

"You will not be able to plug in, turn on, and cop out."

"There will be no pictures of pigs shooting down brothers in the instant replay."

"The revolution will not be televised; the revolution will be live."

Thus, when did the revolution occur?

https://youtu.be/rGaRtqrlGy8





FACT 1. Over 1,400 more black Americans murdered other blacks in two years than were lynched from 1882 to 1968.

FACT 2. Black People (mostly men) commit a grossly disproportionate amount of crime.

FACT 3. Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks committed half of homicides in the United States for nearly 30 years.

FACT 4. Chicago’s death toll is almost equal to that of both wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, combined.

FACT 5. It would take cops 40 years to kill as many black men as have died at the hands of others black men in 2012 alone.




James Brown. Views on Martin Luther King, Jr., Vietnam and Promised Land speech, April 3, 1968, 1:11

James Brown. A clip from the documentary, "The Night James Brown Saved Boston", features his views on Dr. King speaking out on Vietnam. James Brown believed as a religious leader Dr. King should not have spoken out about the Vietnam War.

The clip also includes an excerpt of the Promised Land speech by Martin Luther King. Jr. given on April 3, 1968. Video transcript:

Those were the most difficult days for Martin because he was being pulled apart by two movements. The Civil Rights movement and the war in Vietnam.

When Dr. King spoke out against the Vietnam war, Mr. Brown thought he was wrong because Mr. Brown thought that he is a religious leader.

He is not a politician. He is getting out of his bag, as we would say, he is getting out of what he stands for and he can create a problem for himself.

Because the powers that be are not going to stand for this.Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: I just want to do God's will, and he has allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land.

https://youtu.be/qhpP6DC-H5Y

James Brown vs. Martin Luther King



Politics

During the 1968 presidential campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies.

Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January 1969.

Brown's endorsement of Nixon during the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his career during that period with several national Black organizations boycotting his records and protesting at his concert shows.

Brown stated he was neither Democratic nor Republican despite his support of Republican presidents such as Nixon and Ronald Reagan.

In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century, Brown mentioned John F. Kennedy and 96-year-old, former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' And that's great for our country. He's like a grandfather to me." In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard."


James Brown, I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing, MDS 1969, 4:06

Embedding disabled by request

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYNJK5sHHeo

June 30, 1969: JB doin' the tune "I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing (Open Up The Door I'll Get It Myself)"


The JB'S-You Can Have Watergate,But Gimme Some Bucks (1973), 6:10


Brown's band went on to sing this topical, political song during the Watergate era.



America Is My Home (Pt. 1), 3:20

Provided to YouTube by Universal Music Group International America Is My Home (Pt. 1) · James Brown & The Famous Flames The 50 Greatest Songs ℗ 1967 Universal Records, a Division of UMG Recordings, Inc. Released on: 2007-01-01 Producer: James Brown Composer, Author: Haywood E. Moore Composer, Author: James Brown Music Publisher: Intersong Music Ltd

https://youtu.be/nT1e0H1himc








"America Is My Home"
Talking 'bout me leaving America
You gotta be crazy, man, I like
All the nice thing, Jack
Colonial suits and things, look at here
Now I am sorry for the man
Who don't love this land
Now black and white, they may fight
But when up the enemy come
We'll get together and run about all side
I love it
The sun don't come out in rainy weather
But when you ball it down they are still together
Now let's not overlook the fact that we are, we are still in reach
You got to chance to make it and you got a freedom of speech
Say what you wanna, tell 'em how you feel
There may be a lot of places, a lot of places that you like to go
But believe me if you get an education you can blow
You can all it blow, dig this
Now you tell me if I'm wrong
America is still the best country
And that's without a doubt
America is still the best country
Without a doubt
And if anybody says it ain't, you can try to put him out
They ain't going nowhere, you got a good fight
When I tell you one time that I was a shoeshine boy
Every word I said, I meant
But name me any other country
You can start out as a shoeshine boy
And shake hand with the president
It ain't gonna help you gotta had that royal blood to make it
And I ain't got nothing royal but me
So I can take the chances, I'm gonna stay home
And look at here I got a brand new jet
When I need to move
I saw a brother made it
Now it ain't that a rule
So look at here
Brothers and sisters and friends, dig this
So quit your dreaming all night
Stop beatin' yourself and get up and fight
Don't give up, you might give up, but just don't give out
I know if you give out don't give up
There's no quick going, I mean like keep it moving you know
'Cause if you stop like a ball quit rolling
Now we got two of the [Incomprehensible] from Florida to Rome
Which we know there's one thing we'll never forget
America's still our home, hit it bad
God bless America, I'm talking about me too
You know I'm American myself, I like that kind of thing, look at here
Songwriters

Hayward Epps Moore;James Brown
Published by

DYNATONE PUBLISHING CO

James Brown managed to criticize the state and yet he was proud to be an American.

As a result, he accurately reflects the American notion of civil disobedience similar to Henry David Thoreau. Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.

In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.

Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican–American War (1846-1848).

The challenge within the black power movement, as in all protests movements, would be to balance criticism of the state against the denunciation of America.

There was a division between those aligned with Martin Luther King, Jr. and those aligned with Stokely Carmichael, marked by their respective slogans, "Freedom Now" and "Black Power."[27]

Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American revolutionary active in the Civil Rights Movement, and later, the global Pan-African movement.

Can you think of any other Americans who grew up in the Third World and as a result may have a Third World perspective?  

Growing up in the United States from the age of 11, he graduated from Howard University.

He rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and finally as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP).[1]

Anti-Semitism

Jews had comprised a disproportionate number of the white supporters of the southern civil rights movement. The subsequent rejection of white activists from groups like SNCC and CORE, accompanied by ideological factors such as the shift in emphasis to a revolutionary anti-colonialist struggle, and anti-Zionist sympathy for the Palestinians, led to a permanent souring of relations in America between blacks and Jews.

In 1970 Carmichael proclaimed: "I have never admired a white man, but the greatest of them, to my mind, was Hitler."[27]

Anti-woman

In November 1964 Carmichael made a joking remark in response to a SNCC position paper written by his friends Casey Hayden and Mary E. King on the position of women in the movement. In the course of an irreverent comedy monologue he performed at a party after SNCC's Waveland conference, Carmichael said,

"The position of women in the movement is prone."[28]

A number of women were offended. In a 2006 The Chronicle of Higher Education article, historian Peniel E. Joseph later wrote:

While the remark was made in jest during a 1964 conference, Carmichael and black-power activists did embrace an aggressive vision of manhood — one centered on black men's ability to deploy authority, punishment, and power. In that, they generally reflected their wider society's blinders about women and politics.[29]

Despite the anti-woman aspects of the radical black power movement women, such as Hillary Rodham, were involved.

Stokely Carmichael vs. Liberals, Liberal Racism, Alinsky-Obama


Racist white society


Portion of speech by Kwame Ture, then still known as Stokely Carmichael, chairman of the militant Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), delivered it in front of the Mississippi State Capitol at Jackson on June 26, 1966, 1:28


SNCC was successful in the South with poor blacks.


https://youtu.be/UpQ1woQ57j4



Black Power


Stokely Carmichael, Black Power, 8:03

https://youtu.be/4zg4dhFb7aQ



The first popular use of the term "Black Power" as a political and racial slogan was by Stokely Carmichael (later known as Kwame Ture) and Willie Ricks (later known as Mukasa Dada), both organizers and spokespersons for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). 

On June 16, 1966, in a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi, after the shooting of James Meredith during the March Against Fear, Stokely Carmichael said:[5][6]


This is the twenty-seventh time I have been arrested and I ain't going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin' now is Black Power!


Carmichael saw the concept of "Black Power" as a means of solidarity between individuals within the movement. 

It was a replacement of the "Freedom Now!" slogan of Carmichael's contemporary, the non-violent leader Martin Luther King. 

With his use of the term, Carmichael felt this movement was not just a movement for racial desegregation, but rather a movement to help end how American racism had weakened blacks. 

He said, "'Black Power' means black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs."[7]

Carmichael split from Martin Luther King as well as Liberal racism.

Today, who might be representative of liberal racism?




Harry Reid "Obama Electable Because he is Light Skinned with no Negro Dialect,"

1:14

White Liberals

https://youtu.be/kQnlcUN3qcQ



Biden: clean and articulate Obama, :40



https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=vJSfBKQA_KQ




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RTj1WazIFw

In contemporary politics, several themes have emerged since the revolution will be not be televised. 

First, there is a split between the religious, American social movement of civil rights; 

second, black power emerged as a split from the Martin Luther King movement but it also identified liberal racism. 

Finally, the respectable type of radical, following Alinsky, has emerged.


D' Sousa Talks About Alinsky & Obama, 4:42



Nonetheless, and in contrast to the Alinsky or Black Power radicals, the American, hard-working ethic of African-Americans is well-represented by Berry Gordy and James Brown.



Motown Message Songs
 
Valadiers

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=SYDWLGGHFDg

“Greetings” appeared nearly a decade before Motown allowed Marvin Gaye’s protest anthem “What’s Going On” to hit the airwaves on January 20, 1971.

Gaye’s masterpiece followed on the heels of such politically charged hit singles as the Temptations’ “Ball of Confusion” (May 7, 1970) and Edwin Starr’s “War” (June 9, 1970), which paved the way for Gaye’s effort.

Marvin Gaye - What's Going On, 3:51

https://youtu.be/H-kA3UtBj4M



The radicals though were emerging during the period.

In 1965, Hillary Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science.[18]

During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans;[19][20] with this Rockefeller Republican-oriented group.[21]

In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.[26] Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty.[26]

Rodham wrote her senior thesis about the radical community organizer Saul Alinsky.[29] (Years later, while she was first lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.[29])

Saul David Alinsky (January 30, 1909 – June 12, 1972) was a Jewish American community organizer and writer. He is generally considered to be the founder of modern community organizing. He is often noted for his 1971 book Rules for Radicals.

In the course of nearly four decades of political organizing, Alinsky received much criticism, but also gained praise from many public figures. His organizing skills were focused on improving the living conditions of poor communities across North America. In the 1950s, he began turning his attention to improving conditions in the African-American ghettos, beginning with Chicago's and later traveling to other ghettos in California, Michigan, New York City, and a dozen other "trouble spots".

His ideas were adapted in the 1960s by some U.S. college students and other young counterculture-era organizers, who used them as part of their strategies for organizing on campus and beyond.[5] Time magazine wrote in 1970 that "It is not too much to argue that American democracy is being altered by Alinsky's ideas."[6] Conservative author William F. Buckley, Jr. said in 1966 that Alinsky was "very close to being an organizational genius".[7]

1:40

Hillary's Mentor: From Hell

 Shortly before his death Alinsky had discussed life after death in Playboy:[4]




ALINSKY: ... if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
PLAYBOY: Why?
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I've been with the have-nots. Over here, if you're a have-not, you're short of dough. If you're a have-not in hell, you're short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I'll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They're my kind of people.

https://youtu.be/uYx7ymCSua0








After graduating from college, Hillary worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).[36]


Hillary's radical politics is shared with another young man in college during the era. In his autobiography, he states:

"To avoid being mistaken for a sellout, I chose my friends carefully.

The more politically active black students.

The foreign students.

The Chicanos.

The Marxist professors and structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets.

We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets.

At night, in the dorms, we discussed neocolonialism, Franz Fanon, Eurocentrism, and patriarchy.

When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling conventions.

We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure.

We were alienated.

But this strategy alone couldn't provide the distance I wanted, from Joyce or my past.

After all, there were thousands of so-called campus radicals, most of them white and tenured and happily tolerant.

No, it remained necessary to prove which side you were on, to show your loyalty to the black masses, to strike out and name names."

The young man identified with radical blacks, foreigners, and Marxists while rejecting the culture of the Western humanities and middle-class society as represented by the Irish novelist James Joyce.

Does anyone recognize the young, radical college student's quote and who it is?

The young radical introduced the Marxist professor, Derrick Bell, at Harvard, 1:44

Bell advocates Critical Race Theory which hold that racism is engrained in the fabric and system of the American society. The individual racist need not exist but all of American culture is institutionally racist. CRT contends that these power structures are based on white privilege and white supremacy, which perpetuates the marginalization of people of color.[11]

http://youtu.be/a1wghYexaP4

Derrick Bell

http://www.frontpagemag.com/2012/john-perazzo/barack-obamas-first-jeremiah-wright/



The young radical is of course:

-- Barack Obama


BREITBART: Sowell Destroys 'Totalitarian' Derrick Bell on 'Hannity'; 'Ideological Intolerance' 5:02

Thomas Sowell (/soʊl/; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author.

Perhaps it is best to introduce him as a high school drop-out from Harlem.

He is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Sowell was born in North Carolina, but grew up in Harlem, New York. He dropped out of high school and served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War. He received a bachelor's degree, graduating magna cum laude[3] from Harvard University in 1958 and a master's degree from Columbia University in 1959. In 1968, he earned his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Chicago.

Sowell has served on the faculties of several universities, including Cornell University and University of California, Los Angeles. He has also worked for think tanks such as the Urban Institute. Since 1980, he has worked at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He writes from a libertarian conservative perspective, advocating supply-side economics. Sowell has written more than thirty books (a number of which have been reprinted in revised editions), and his work has been widely anthologized. He is a National Humanities Medal recipient.


https://youtu.be/MkVl5_Dq6ZY





The emerging type of American culture highlights race in contrast to Dr. King's admonition to judge people by their character and not by the color of their skin. However, since the late 1960s, Dr. King's ideas have fallen out of favor so as to judge race over character. For example, consider how Muhammad Ali has been glorified at his passing. Yet, he called his opponents names and insulted some of them unmercifully.

Is it funny to call people names like "gorilla?"

Is it acceptable for "Smokin' Joe" Frazier to be `black and proud?'

Fearless Funny MAN Muhammad Ali vs The Gorilla in Manila Ali at His BEST 1975, 1:00

https://youtu.be/s1Jd5B0GGfw




Alinsky Revolutionaries

Hillary, Obama and the Cult of Alinsky"True revolutionaries do not flaunt their radicalism, Alinsky taught. He urged them to cut their hair, put on suits, and infiltrate the system from within

Alinsky viewed revolution as a slow, patient process. The trick was to penetrate existing institutions such as churches, unions and political parties. 


                                                              "Revolution"


You say you want a revolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world

But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me out

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

You say you got a real solution
Well, you know
We'd all love to see the plan
You ask me for a contribution
Well, you know
We're all doing what we can

But if you want money for people with minds that hate
All I can tell you is brother you have to wait

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright, al...

You say you'll change the constitution
Well, you know
We all want to change your head
You tell me it's the institution
Well, you know
You'd better free your mind instead

But if you go carrying pictures of Chairman Mao
You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow

Don't you know know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright


http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/beatles/revolution.html 





As noted earlier, for the 1963 March on Washington,  Mahalia Jackson, and she sung her "How I Got Over" and an old African American spiritual called "I've been 'buked."


Early Trump

What were the non-radical, non-Alinsky types such as Berry Gordy and James Brown doing during this time?



1998-1999 Jesse Jackson Endorses Trump

Jackson pro-Trump

https://youtu.be/7U6Pp5iflTs



Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for two years. He entered the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, as Wharton then offered one of the few real estate studies departments in U.S. academia.[25] While there, he worked at the family's company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, named for his paternal grandmother.[26] Trump graduated from Wharton in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in economics.[27][28]

Trump was not drafted into the Vietnam War, for several reasons: student deferments, a medical deferment, and then a lucky high number in the draft lottery.[29] While in college, he obtained four student deferments.[29] He was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination in 1966, and was briefly classified as fit by a local draft board in 1968, but was then medically disqualified later in 1968.[29] Trump has attributed his medical deferment to "heel spurs" in both feet according to a 2015 biography.[24] Selective Service records from the National Archives confirm that Trump received the medical deferment and eventually received a high selective service lottery number in 1969.[30][nb 2] Trump put it this way in 2011: "I actually got lucky because I had a very high draft number".[30]
25 Years Ago https://youtu.be/SEPs17_AkTI 

3:10








Vietnam and its protest movements, 5:15

https://youtu.be/rHmZjs6t9oc



What were John Kerry's politics during the protest era?

Who is John Kerry?


John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943)[1] is an American diplomat and Democratic Party politician who is the 68th and current United States Secretary of State. He previously served in the United States Senate, where he chaired the Senate Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Kerry was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush.

Kerry was born in Aurora, Colorado and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. He graduated from Yale University class of 1966 with a political science major. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, and during 1968–1969 served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge (OIC) of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal, and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War. He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he deemed United States war policy in Vietnam to be the cause of war crimes.

After receiving his J.D. from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked in Massachusetts as an Assistant District Attorney. He served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was re-elected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. In 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein", but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war.

In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War. He and his running mate, North Carolina Senator John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney. Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and then of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and then confirmed by the U.S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013.



Today, Kerry, Hillary, and Obama preside over the longest war in American history.

Following the September 11 attacks inside the United States in 2001, NATO invaded Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom. The purpose of this was to defeat Al-Qaeda, to remove the Taliban from power, and to create a viable democratic state.

The United States still has troops in Afghanistan and during the Obama administration there has been the rise of the Islamic State.

John Kerry - Anti-War Speech (1971) [short clip] 3:05

On April 22nd, 1971, 27 year-old former Navy Lt. John Kerry testified against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War as a member of "Vietnam Veterans Against the War". Senator J. William Fulbright (D-Arkansas) chaired the committee. This event was filmed by NBC News.

https://youtu.be/yixdveuf0GQ



Kerry and Hillary protested, as did much of popular music during the era, against the Establishment.

The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organization. The Establishment may be a closed social group which selects its own members (as opposed to selection by merit or election) or specific entrenched elite structures, either in government or in specific institutions.

Today, these former protestors are the Establishment.

Are Democrats violent?

Dan Rather states "I think we have a bunch of thugs here." 1:00

Dan Rather Convention Floor Fight 1968 ElectionWallDotOrg.flv ElectionWall.Org

https://youtu.be/wItUjFU1i4M



1968 Democratic National Convention- www.NBCUniversalArchives.com, 1:45

Should police attack protestors?

Was the 1968 Democratic Party nominee to blame for the police riot?

It has now been 45 years since rallies outside of the 1968 Democratic National Convention turned violent. As the Chicago Police Department clashed with the protesters, news cameras rolled. This week, we present you with a short compilation of the footage that many concerned Americans around the country watched all those years ago -- scenes that left two legendary newsmen, Chet Huntley and David Brinkley, virtually speechless.

https://youtu.be/6ZlD4Dn_U7U






1968 DNC: Democratic nightmare in Chicago, 1:14

Chaos before Hubert Humphrey's nomination sets the modern standard for a harmful convention.

https://youtu.be/epxmX_58tOo




After Nixon's election in 1968 he was lampooned as "Tricky Dick."


The nomenclature was coined by Democratic politician Helen Gahagan Douglas.










"For What It's Worth" is a song written by Stephen Stills. It was performed by Buffalo Springfield, recorded on December 5, 1966, and released as a single in January 1967; it was later added to the re-release of their first album, Buffalo Springfield. The single peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. This song is currently ranked #63 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time as well as the eighth best song of 1967 by Acclaimed Music.[3]

Although "For What It's Worth" is often mistaken as an anti-war song, Stephen Stills was inspired to write the track because of the "Sunset Strip riots" in November 1966. The trouble, which started during the early stages of the counterculture era, was in the same year Buffalo Springfield had become the house band at the Whisky a Go Go on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles.[4]

It was within this period that local residents and businesses had become increasingly annoyed by late-night traffic congestion caused by crowds of young people going to clubs and music venues along the Strip. In response they lobbied the city to pass local ordinances that stopped loitering and enforced a strict curfew on the Strip after 10pm. However young music fans felt the new laws were an infringement of their civil rights.[5]

On Saturday, November 12, 1966, fliers were distributed on Sunset Strip inviting people to join demonstrations later that day. Several of Los Angeles' rock radio stations also announced that a rally would be held outside the Pandora's Box club on the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights.[5] That evening as many as 1,000 young demonstrators, including celebrities like Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda (who was handcuffed by police), gathered to protest against the enforcement of the curfew laws. Although the rallies began peacefully, trouble eventually broke out among the protesters and police. The unrest continued the next night and periodically throughout the rest of November and December forcing some clubs to shut down within weeks.[5]

Against the background of these civil disturbances, Stills recorded the song on December 5, 1966.
Buffalo Springfield - For What It's Worth 1967, 2:37


Sunset Strip Teen Riots November '66

https://youtu.be/D9ialZHUFVc?list=RDD...

There's something happening here
what it is ain't exactly clear
there's a man with a gun over there
telling me i got to beware
i think it's time we stop, children,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down

There's battle lines being drawn
nobody's right if everybody's wrong
young people speaking their minds
getting so much resistance from behind
i think it's time we stop, hey,
what's that sound every body look what's going down

What a field-day for the heat
a thousand people in the street
singing songs and carrying signs
mostly say, hooray for our side
it's time we stop, hey, what's that sound
everybody look what's going down

Paranoia strikes deep
into your life it will creep it
starts when you're always afraid
you step out of line, the man come and take you away we
better stop, hey, what's that sound everybody
look what's going down stop, hey, what's that
sound everybody look what's going down stop, now,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down stop,
children, what's that sound everybody look what's going down

https://youtu.be/gp5JCrSXkJY






uestion 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Statistics come from gathering and ________data.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    analyzing
    Correct Answer:
     
    analyzing


Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Mary grows hundreds of fruit trees in her orchard. The trees range in age, size, and type. Mary's neighbor states, "Now that Mary has listened to my advice, 93% of her trees are bearing fruit." What makes this conclusion difficult to evaluate?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    There is missing background information.
    Correct Answer:
     
    There is missing background information.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An "explanation" is a statement that provides a _________ for why or how something became the way it is.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    reason
    Correct Answer:
     
    reason

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is MOST likely to be a sign of pseudoscience?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence
    Correct Answer:
     
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Sally reads a report about a casual study of students and their attitudes to drugs. "A group of high school students were asked if they had ever used an illegal substance; the majority of those students said 'No.'" Sally then cites this study in her paper about drug use. She says, "A study of students revealed that only 10% of high school students use drugs." Why is her conclusion flawed?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    The sample size is too small.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The data relied on the self-reporting of participants.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Patricia found a huge nest of black widow spiders in her basement. She asked her husband what the best way to get rid of so many dangerous spiders would be. Her husband said to set them on fire. Patricia responded, "Without burning down our home, what's the best way to get rid of them?" What did Patricia do?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    She worked backwards from the ultimate goal.
    Correct Answer:
     
    She revised the initial problem statement.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following BEST demonstrates "articulating the goal of the decision?"
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    John explains to his friends that he is putting himself through medical school because he wants to get a job in which he can save lives.
    Correct Answer:
     
    John explains to his friends that he is putting himself through medical school because he wants to get a job in which he can save lives.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is something that can lead to making good decisions?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    clearly defining the problem
    Correct Answer:
     
    clearly defining the problem

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Angela and Glenn are deciding if they should get married. Their biggest point of contention by far is over money. Angela believes strongly that the right way to handle family finances is to save as much as possible for the future. Glenn, however, has no problem spending freely, using credit cards, and borrowing for lifestyle. As Angela is considering whether or not to marry Glenn, which of the following questions would help her to evaluate the problem of finances?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values?

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    After weeks of touring different places to live, Maria signs the lease for an apartment in a new city. Three weeks later, she notices there is a severe ant problem in the apartment and she decides that next time she is apartment-hunting, she'll ask the landlord about any potential insect problems before she signs her lease. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Maria practicing?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    implementing and reflecting
    Correct Answer:
     
    implementing and reflecting

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Why might advertisers find it appealing to promise that they have a "better" product than the competition?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Using clear language will influence more consumers to buy their product and will prove that their product is superior to the competition.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Using vague language will influence more customers to buy their product and protect their own claims from being disproven.

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In what way is the statement "Marcie gave her cat food" syntactically ambiguous?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Without context, you can't tell if Marcie gave food to a cat that belongs to her, or if Marcie gave another woman cat food.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Without context, you can't tell if Marcie gave food to a cat that belongs to her, or if Marcie gave another woman cat food.

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    determine what a particular word means given the specific context
    Correct Answer:
     
    determine what a particular word means given the specific context

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which statement BEST represents the syntactic meaning of love as physical affection?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Ainsley shows her love for her son by hugging him when she picks him up from school.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Ainsley shows her love for her son by hugging him when she picks him up from school.

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Using the term "snail mail" to describe postal mail is an example of which of these?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    a euphemism
    Correct Answer:
     
    a dysphemism

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Your company is operating as a subcontractor on a large government contract. The government decides to request proposals for another upcoming project. Your boss asks you to submit a proposal on behalf of your company, knowing it would violate the current agreement with the primary contractor. If you do what your boss says because he is your boss, you are operating under which moral theory?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Kantian ethics
    Correct Answer:
     
    authoritarian moral theory

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In a science fiction movie, an officer is implementing an experimental process to prevent a catastrophic geologic event affecting a primitive indigenous alien population. A crew of a starship vessel is willing to save him; however, environmental conditions prevent simple extraction. The commander refuses to let the crew extract the officer, proclaiming "the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few, or in this case, one." The commander's conclusion is based on which moral theory?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    utilitarianism
    Correct Answer:
     
    utilitarianism

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    ethical altruism
    Correct Answer:
     
    ethical altruism

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following BEST illustrates a justification?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry.

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Consider the following argument: Premise 1: Steven played a video game with heavy gun use. Premise 2: Simulating shooting guns at people is wrong. Conclusion: Therefore, Steven should not be playing the video game. The statement, "Steven should not be playing the video game," is an example of which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a conclusion based on a moral statement
    Correct Answer:
     
    a conclusion based on a moral statement

Question 21:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When listening to people debating a topic, a critical thinker should ignore _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    if they are dressed in a professional manner
    Correct Answer:
     
    if they are dressed in a professional manner

Question 22:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A claim and an argument are similar in that they both _________, however, an argument specifically _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    make an assertion; provides evidence and reasoning to support the assertion
    Correct Answer:
     
    make an assertion; provides evidence and reasoning to support the assertion

Question 23:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When the topic at hand is a complicated scientific issue, it is important to _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    understand the fundamentals before considering arguments from opposing sides
    Correct Answer:
     
    understand the fundamentals before considering arguments from opposing sides

Question 24:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The straw man fallacy is a fallacy where the arguer _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    sets up a vulnerable version of his or her opponent's position and then presents evidence to knock down the distorted position
    Correct Answer:
     
    sets up a vulnerable version of his or her opponent's position and then presents evidence to knock down the distorted position

Question 25:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    To get the latest information on stem cell research and its future applications, it would be best to consult a researcher in the field of _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Developmental Biology
    Correct Answer:
     
    Developmental Biology

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Steven has to produce a survey for his class project due tomorrow, although he really wants to go to the local high school football game tonight with his father. Steven decides to hand out a survey at the gate of the football stadium which holds roughly 1,000 fans. The survey reads, "Do you prefer sport activities that focus on group achievement or individual achievements?" Which of the following explains why this question could lead to obtaining poor data?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The sample is biased.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The sample is biased.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    routinely invalidated by later investigations
    Correct Answer:
     
    routinely invalidated by later investigations

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Brian's eighth grade biology class is conducting a scientific investigation to find out what types of rock the school is built on. The class goes out to collect rocks from an exposure at the edge of the school property. Which scientific process is the class involved in when they do this?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    gathering evidence
    Correct Answer:
     
    gathering evidence

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Tentative explanations for phenomena that need to be tested are called which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    hypotheses
    Correct Answer:
     
    hypotheses

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Cliff wants to determine whether people prefer red apples or green apples. In order to obtain good results, he decides to conduct this survey at a car festival. Out of the 5000 people who attended the festival, Cliff surveys 10 attendees randomly. The survey reads, "Which do you prefer, red apples or green apples?" Seven of ten people surveyed answer that they prefer red apples. From his survey, Cliff concludes that most people prefer red apples. Cliff's results may not be reliable because of which of the following problems with his study?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    small sample size
    Correct Answer:
     
    small sample size

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Wallace is having a frustrating day at work after his manager changes deadlines on him, leaves him out of the loop in an important email chain, and turns down his time-off request. In the middle of a meeting that afternoon, Wallace stands up, announces that he's quitting, and walks out of the office. Which decision-making misstep did Wallace commit?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    acting impulsively
    Correct Answer:
     
    acting impulsively

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is something that can lead to making good decisions?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    clearly defining the problem
    Correct Answer:
     
    clearly defining the problem

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Of the following questions, which one would likely be the LEAST helpful to ask?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Which of these options would require the least amount of effort?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Which of these options would require the least amount of effort?

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Patricia found a huge nest of black widow spiders in her basement. She asked her husband what the best way to get rid of so many dangerous spiders would be. Her husband said to set them on fire. Patricia responded, "Without burning down our home, what's the best way to get rid of them?" What did Patricia do?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    She revised the initial problem statement.
    Correct Answer:
     
    She revised the initial problem statement.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Charlie completely forgot he had a paper on the complications of giving aid to developing countries due the next day. He considers pulling an all-nighter to complete the paper, emailing his instructor to ask for an extension, or copying an essay he found online and submitting it as his own work. He eliminates the option of copying someone else's work because he believes that misusing sources is a betrayal of trust to both his instructor and classmates. Which of the following questions likely had the MOST weight in his decision?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Does it fit with my personal ethics?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Does it fit with my personal ethics?

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Margo told her friend Lisa about a recent study that she had read. Which statement is an indicator to Lisa of Margo's use of a proof surrogate in her argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    "Everyone knows that all of our cells regenerate every couple of years."
    Correct Answer:
     
    "Everyone knows that all of our cells regenerate every couple of years."

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Using the term "snail mail" to describe postal mail is an example of which of these?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a dysphemism
    Correct Answer:
     
    a dysphemism

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    "Acknowledging a right to benefit from the presence of animals requires government action to ensure human access to animals in a number of different spheres," writes Jessica Pierce, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. The pragmatic meaning of the term "right" in this statement is _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    being able to own a pet
    Correct Answer:
     
    being able to own a pet

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is another term for semantic meaning?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    denotative meaning
    Correct Answer:
     
    denotative meaning

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A word that can be interpreted in different ways because it has multiple meanings could be described as which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    semantic ambiguity
    Correct Answer:
     
    semantic ambiguity

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What makes an argument an ethical argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation
    Correct Answer:
     
    a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A state senator testifies under oath not to accept a large campaign contribution. The prosecutor argues the senator lied under oath, so the senator should go to jail. What is the enthymeme in the prosecutor's argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    People who lie under oath is should go to jail.
    Correct Answer:
     
    People who lie under oath is should go to jail.

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A bank states that its decision to offer home loans at an extremely low initial, but variable, rate is rooted in the idea that all have a right to owning an affordable home. The bank does not state that the loans are packaged in a product sold to another, larger bank that may or may not work with customers in difficult situations. The smaller bank is no longer exposed to the risk of longer-term loans, and makes a large profit. Which moral theory is the bank operating under?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Ethical Egoism. The bank did what was best for the institution.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Ethical Egoism. The bank did what was best for the institution.

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is an argument claiming the violation of some moral principle is the right course of action?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a justification
    Correct Answer:
     
    a justification

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    ethical altruism
    Correct Answer:
     
    ethical altruism

Question 21:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following statements uses "innuendo"?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking.

Question 22:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    When the topic at hand is a complicated scientific issue, it is important to _________.
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    understand that if scientists don't see eye-to-eye on this issue, then there is no answer
    Correct Answer:
     
    understand the fundamentals before considering arguments from opposing sides

Question 23:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy is a fallacy in which the arguer _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    assumes that because there is a correlation between two events (i.e., one preceded the other), then the first must have caused the second
    Correct Answer:
     
    assumes that because there is a correlation between two events (i.e., one preceded the other), then the first must have caused the second

Question 24:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following would be an example of the false dichotomy fallacy?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Unless all scientists agree that climate change is caused by human activity, there's no point in taking steps to reduce carbon emissions.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Unless all scientists agree that climate change is caused by human activity, there's no point in taking steps to reduce carbon emissions.

Question 25:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An expert may not be considered a credible source if he or she has _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a view in direct opposition to the vast majority of other experts in the subject
    Correct Answer:
     
    a view in direct opposition to the vast majority of other experts in the subject

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Steven has to produce a survey for his class project due tomorrow, although he really wants to go to the local high school football game tonight with his father. Steven decides to hand out a survey at the gate of the football stadium which holds roughly 1,000 fans. The survey reads, "Do you prefer sport activities that focus on group achievement or individual achievements?" Which of the following explains why this question could lead to obtaining poor data?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The sample is biased.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The sample is biased.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following practices would MOST likely be considered pseudoscience?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    hypnotizing a person in order to ensure that they are immune to a communicable disease
    Correct Answer:
     
    hypnotizing a person in order to ensure that they are immune to a communicable disease

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Mary grows hundreds of fruit trees in her orchard. The trees range in age, size, and type. Mary's neighbor states, "Now that Mary has listened to my advice, 93% of her trees are bearing fruit." What makes this conclusion difficult to evaluate?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    There is missing background information.
    Correct Answer:
     
    There is missing background information.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Statistics come from gathering and ________data.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    analyzing
    Correct Answer:
     
    analyzing

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is MOST likely to be a sign of pseudoscience?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence
    Correct Answer:
     
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    If you see a couple of viable options among your top choices, you may benefit from making which of these? Select the BEST option.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a pro/con list
    Correct Answer:
     
    a pro/con list

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Putting in the effort to adequately define the problem is which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    helpful when the time comes to properly generate options
    Correct Answer:
     
    helpful when the time comes to properly generate options

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Bryan is the manager of his company's IT department. One morning a server cluster loses power. Bryan first checks the power supply, the power cables, the wall outlet, and finally the circuit breaker to find what caused the power outage. What did Bryan do?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He explored potential causes of the problem.
    Correct Answer:
     
    He explored potential causes of the problem.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Wallace is having a frustrating day at work after his manager changes deadlines on him, leaves him out of the loop in an important email chain, and turns down his time-off request. In the middle of a meeting that afternoon, Wallace stands up, announces that he's quitting, and walks out of the office. Which decision-making misstep did Wallace commit?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    acting impulsively
    Correct Answer:
     
    acting impulsively

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Dharamdas is looking to buy a new laptop since his old laptop has finally stopped working. He has made a list of all the laptop brands that could potentially fit his needs, and now he is reading reviews and narrowing down his list based on what he learns. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Dharamdas practicing?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    evaluating options
    Correct Answer:
     
    evaluating options

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Using the term "snail mail" to describe postal mail is an example of which of these?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a dysphemism
    Correct Answer:
     
    a dysphemism

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Which statement BEST describes the relationship between defining terms and clear thinking?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Clear thinking is independent of how well terms are defined.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Clear thinking is helped by well-defined terms.

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    determine what a particular word means given the specific context
    Correct Answer:
     
    determine what a particular word means given the specific context

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    "Acknowledging a right to benefit from the presence of animals requires government action to ensure human access to animals in a number of different spheres," writes Jessica Pierce, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. The pragmatic meaning of the term "right" in this statement is _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    being able to own a pet
    Correct Answer:
     
    being able to own a pet

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is the Allstate Insurance slogan "You're in Good Hands" an example of emotive language?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The slogan evokes a positive emotional reaction by associating safety with the company.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The slogan evokes a positive emotional reaction by associating safety with the company.

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    During a discussion about women being subjugated in the Middle East, Vanessa argues that you can't judge other countries for their practices because people in different parts of the world have different beliefs. What moral theory is Vanessa using?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    cultural relativism
    Correct Answer:
     
    cultural relativism

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A top official of the government is presenting a case for the continued use of drone airplanes in military conflicts. The official states that "using drones during military surveillance missions is the right course of action because it saves soldiers' lives." What is the enthymeme in the official's argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The right course of action is to save soldiers' lives.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The right course of action is to save soldiers' lives.

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Consider the following ethical argument. Which of the three statements represents the moral statement about a moral principle? Statement 1: A dealership advertised a car at a very low price, but only had a similar higher priced model in stock. Statement 2: It is wrong to perform a bait and switch. Statement 3: The dealership was wrong to advertise the car on special sale when in actually it was not available.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Statement 2
    Correct Answer:
     
    Statement 2

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is an inherent problem with moral relativism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It can become contradictory; two people can perceive one action as right and wrong.
    Correct Answer:
     
    It can become contradictory; two people can perceive one action as right and wrong.

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What makes an argument an ethical argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation
    Correct Answer:
     
    a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation

Question 21:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is an irrelevant question to ask when evaluating a claim?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Do I like the person making the claim?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Do I like the person making the claim?

Question 22:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is an example of the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.

Question 23:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Which of the following would be an example of the false dichotomy fallacy?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    With information spreading so fast on the Internet these days and corporations buying out the media, it's impossible for us to separate fact from fiction or know anything for sure.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Unless all scientists agree that climate change is caused by human activity, there's no point in taking steps to reduce carbon emissions.

Question 24:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Adam posted in a thread about theoretical physics. In his post he refuted General Relativity and cited a paper that was recently self-published by one person on her own personal website and had no references to other works in the field.Which important question did Adam not answer sufficiently when evaluating the cited paper?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    What person or organization vouches for the credibility of information on this website?
    Correct Answer:
     
    What person or organization vouches for the credibility of information on this website?

Question 25:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Since the start of the Industrial Revolution more than 250 years ago, there has been a marked increase in average global temperature. Tom thinks that since this past year was cooler than normal, scientific claims that Earth's climate is changing must not be true. Tom's thinking is flawed because of which of the following?
Given Answer:
Correct 
small sample size
Correct Answer:
 
small sample size


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is MOST likely to be driven by ideology, culture, or commercial goals?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    pseudoscience
    Correct Answer:
     
    pseudoscience

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An "explanation" is a statement that provides a _________ for why or how something became the way it is.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    reason
    Correct Answer:
     
    reason

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Courtnie has been allergic to cats as long as she can remember; this requires her doctor to give her an allergy shot. On her 26th birthday she spends the day in a house with cats and has no reaction. Therefore the allergy shot has helped Courtnie overcome her reaction to cats. The explanation for why she had no reaction describes which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    causal relationship
    Correct Answer:
     
    causal relationship

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is MOST likely to be a sign of pseudoscience?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence
    Correct Answer:
     
    relying primarily on anecdotal evidence

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Conspiracy theories often lack which of the following?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    simplicity and falsifiability
    Correct Answer:
     
    simplicity and falsifiability

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Angela and Glenn are deciding if they should get married. Their biggest point of contention by far is over money. Angela believes strongly that the right way to handle family finances is to save as much as possible for the future. Glenn, however, has no problem spending freely, using credit cards, and borrowing for lifestyle. As Angela is considering whether or not to marry Glenn, which of the following questions would help her to evaluate the problem of finances?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values?

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Matt and his roommate Gamal argue repeatedly about wearing shoes in the house versus taking them off at the door. Eventually, both are fed up with constantly arguing. They decide to sit down and talk, and not get up until they come to a resolution. This is an example of which decision-making strategy?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    deciding to be committed to finding a solution
    Correct Answer:
     
    deciding to be committed to finding a solution

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Charlie completely forgot he had a paper on the complications of giving aid to developing countries due the next day. He considers pulling an all-nighter to complete the paper, emailing his instructor to ask for an extension, or copying an essay he found online and submitting it as his own work. He eliminates the option of copying someone else's work because he believes that misusing sources is a betrayal of trust to both his instructor and classmates. Which of the following questions likely had the MOST weight in his decision?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Does it fit with my personal ethics?
    Correct Answer:
     
    Does it fit with my personal ethics?

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which is a strategy to use to help generate multiple options to solve a problem?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Look at the problem from different perspectives.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Look at the problem from different perspectives.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Elsa was offered a new job and wants to discuss it with her husband. Which step of the decision-making process are Elsa and her husband involved in when they consider how much the new job will pay, where it is located, and what Elsa's new work hours will be?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    analyzing the problem
    Correct Answer:
     
    analyzing the problem

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is the Allstate Insurance slogan "You're in Good Hands" an example of emotive language?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The slogan evokes a positive emotional reaction by associating safety with the company.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The slogan evokes a positive emotional reaction by associating safety with the company.

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is sarcasm?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    form and intent being at odds
    Correct Answer:
     
    form and intent being at odds

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why might advertisers find it appealing to promise that they have a "better" product than the competition?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Using vague language will influence more customers to buy their product and protect their own claims from being disproven.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Using vague language will influence more customers to buy their product and protect their own claims from being disproven.

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which statement BEST describes why using an innuendo in communication can be misleading?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The innuendo plants an idea in the audience's mind without going on record directly stating the idea.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The innuendo plants an idea in the audience's mind without going on record directly stating the idea.

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of these statements demonstrate the use of a euphemism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Your coworker announces that her cat was put to sleep over the weekend.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Your coworker announces that her cat was put to sleep over the weekend.

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A bank states that its decision to offer home loans at an extremely low initial, but variable, rate is rooted in the idea that all have a right to owning an affordable home. The bank does not state that the loans are packaged in a product sold to another, larger bank that may or may not work with customers in difficult situations. The smaller bank is no longer exposed to the risk of longer-term loans, and makes a large profit. Which moral theory is the bank operating under?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Ethical Egoism. The bank did what was best for the institution.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Ethical Egoism. The bank did what was best for the institution.

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Kantian ethics
    Correct Answer:
     
    ethical egoism

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Your company is operating as a subcontractor on a large government contract. The government decides to request proposals for another upcoming project. Your boss asks you to submit a proposal on behalf of your company, knowing it would violate the current agreement with the primary contractor. If you do what your boss says because he is your boss, you are operating under which moral theory?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    authoritarian moral theory
    Correct Answer:
     
    authoritarian moral theory

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A state senator testifies under oath not to accept a large campaign contribution. The prosecutor argues the senator lied under oath, so the senator should go to jail. What is the enthymeme in the prosecutor's argument?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    People who lie under oath is should go to jail.
    Correct Answer:
     
    People who lie under oath is should go to jail.

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is the BEST example of an amoral claim?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Fire can be used for cooking and generating heat.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Fire can be used for cooking and generating heat.

Question 21:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following statements uses "innuendo"?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking.

Question 22:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following is an example of the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.

Question 23:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When the topic at hand is a complicated scientific issue, it is important to _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    understand the fundamentals before considering arguments from opposing sides
    Correct Answer:
     
    understand the fundamentals before considering arguments from opposing sides

Question 24:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An expert may not be considered a credible source if he or she has _________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a view in direct opposition to the vast majority of other experts in the subject
    Correct Answer:
     
    a view in direct opposition to the vast majority of other experts in the subject

Question 25:   Multiple Choice

Correct
The false dichotomy fallacy is a fallacy in which the arguer _________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
inaccurately portrays a circumstance as having a limited number of possible outcomes, thus setting up an either-or situation
Correct Answer:
 
inaccurately portrays a circumstance as having a limited number of possible outcomes, thus setting up an either-or situation