Tuesday, January 24, 2017

HUM 112 Week 4 Winter 2017

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 9:45 pm--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.


  • Complete and submit Week 4 Quiz 3 covering Chapters 25 and 26 - 30 Points
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 27: The Romantic World View – Europe
    • Chapter 28: Industry and the Working Class – Europe
  • Explore the Week 4 Music Folder
  • View the Week 4 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 4 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 4 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points
  • Complete and submit Assignment 1: Essay - 100 points

HUM112 Music Clips for Week 4


This week's eight music selections all relate to chapter 27, pp. 907-913. 

Ludwig van Beethoven (Listeni/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbˌtvən/, /ˈbtˌhvən/; German: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːtˌhoːfn̩]; baptised 17 December 1770[1] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 16 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis and an opera, Fidelio.

Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and by composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn, and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf. In 1811 he gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works come from these last 15 years of his life.

Mini BIO - Ludwig van Beethoven, 3:38

A short biography of Ludwig van Beethoven. Learn more about Ludwig van Beethoven: http://bit.ly/V4NPNc Watch more Ludwig van Beethoven video: http://bit.ly/RyswTg Learn more about Famous Songwriters and Composers: http://bit.ly/OFoBqp Learn more about Famous Lefties: http://bit.ly/RCfsQ2
https://youtu.be/-kSEi9QL0Qc 







Eroica 

Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Opus 55 (also Italian Sinfonia Eroica, Heroic Symphony) is a structurally rigorous composition which marked the beginning of the creative middle-period of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.

Beethoven began composing the third symphony soon after Symphony No. 2 in D major, Opus 36; he completed the composition in early 1804, and the first public performance of Symphony No. 3 was on 7 April 1805 in Vienna.
Beethoven Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op.36: III. Scherzo. Allegro, 4:36

Performed by Orchestra Seattle, George Shangrow conductor. From 2007-2008 season. With special thanks to Seattle Community Colleges Television.

https://youtu.be/TcqIcAiYQvQ


  1. Ludwig van Beethoven's Eroica:  In this week's readings (chaps. 27-28), we encounter a number of musical pieces, all of them covered in chapter 27, pp. 907-913.  On pp. 907 and 909, there is a brief discussion of Beethoven's Eroica  (Italian for "Heroic"), formally called Symphony No. 3 in E-Flat.  This was first performed in 1804 and was composed in the 2 or 3 years leading up to that, a time when he was wrestling with increasing deafness and depression (pp. 908-909).  Beethoven personally embraced the ideals of the French Revolution and at some point seemed to admire Napoleon greatly.  So much so that at some point Napoleon's name was in the title of this work and the work's dedication was to him.  But, Beethoven changed this and renamed it Eroica and removed the dedication to Napoleon.  One account says this was because of his disenchantment with Napoleon's autocratic drift, as especially revealed when Napoleon finally proclaimed himself "Emperor", a move Beethoven despised.  

See http://www.beethovenseroica.com/Pg1_why/whyeroica.htm 

Among history's innumerable examples of symphonic genius, the Eroica stands pre-eminent. Though few would contest the above proposition the question arises, why the Eroica? What sets it apart from the rest? Neither size, complexity or a profusion of soaring melodies distinguish the Eroica. So how is it that this one creation has come to be regarded as the ne plus ultra of symphonic endeavor.

That distinction arose when it interrupted the evolution of symphonic development and appeared suddenly, without precedent or prototype. Forged in a fiery new style, the impact of this Grand Sinfonie was such that its influence would be heard for a generation to come. Equally significant, the Eroica initiated the notion that a symphony could be used as a vehicle to convey beliefs and the ideas associated with the Eroica are well known. Napoleon, heroism, death, apotheosis, revolution - the list goes on. Imagine a public accustomed to the proprieties of Mozart and Haydn having those ideas thrust upon them. They were not ready for a manifesto in the concert hall and therein lies another reason for its eminence. It brought about change.
The change it fostered involves more than issues of harmony, counterpoint or the addition of a French horn. Post Eroica appreciation of a symphony involves not only attention to compositional technique but now includes the added dimension of meaning and interpretation. All the more remarkable since Beethoven, the high priest of absolute music, affected this change.

The Eroica is now one of the most written about and analyzed works in music history. Scholars explore the historical and biographical dimensions of the work while musicologists deconstruct it piece by piece to see what makes it tick. We are driven to probe this amazing work of art on as many levels as we can. Yet, it is the Eroica's eloquence in the auditorium that pleases above all. Whether we discern this or that connection is irrelevant. Once the mighty E-flat chords resound we are transported in a manner that only Beethoven can affect. We will never know what lead him to put those exact notes to paper. We can only be thankful that he did.

and  http://www.beethovenseroica.com/Pg2_hist/history.html  .  Perhaps Beethoven's reasons for the change were more pragmatic.  In any case, the result was this masterpiece, which changed the direction of music forever. 




This work is considered transitional from the CLASSICAL style of music perfected by Haydn and Mozart  in the late 1700s to the ROMANTIC style of music that would prevail for most of the 1800s.








The first clip below is a 10-minute clip of the first movement.    The second is a clip of the second movement which shows short clips of it in three different versions.  Note:  Beethoven composed this for a bigger symphony orchestra and made it a much longer work than anything done by Haydn and Mozart. His work is also much more charged with emotion and drama and change.  Enjoy the following links
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica"), 1st Movement
Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie, Beethoven 3. 1st Mvt - Part 1, 9:51

The Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen with Paavo Järvi live in Minato Mirai, Yokohama, Japan on May 26th 2006. Beethoven Symphony No.3 (Eroica), 1st Movement - Part 1

https://youtu.be/9XL2ha18i5w


Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica"), 2nd Movement
Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie, Beethoven 3. 2nd Mvt - Part 1, 9:53

The Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen with Paavo Järvi live in Minato Mirai, Yokohama, Japan on May 26th 2006. Beethoven Symphony No.3 (Eroica), 2nd Movement Part 1

https://youtu.be/drxcjTbDsts


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The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67, was written between 1804–1808. It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music, and one of the most frequently played symphonies.[1] First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterward. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time". The symphony consists of four movements. The first movement is Allegro con brio; the second movement is Andante con moto; the third movement is a Scherzo Allegro; the fourth movement is Allegro.

It begins by stating a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif twice: (About this sound listen )
{\clef treble \key c \minor \time 2/4 {r8 g'8[ g'8 g'8] | ees'2\fermata | r8 f'8[ f'8 f'8] | d'2~ | d'2\fermata | } }
  1. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony: On pp. 909-910 (chap. 27), we encounter a discussion of Beethoven's famous Fifth Symphony, first performed in 1808.  Read the description carefully and give this a listen:
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5, 1st Movement
BEETHOVEN - Symphony No. 5 - Leonard Bernstein (1), 8:55

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 I Allegro con brio Wiener Philharmoniker Leonard Bernstein Konzerthaus, Vienna, 1977.

https://youtu.be/zM3y09RjKLs


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Music Stirs Emotions
Romantic composers also tried to stir deep emotions.

Ludwig van Beethoven

The passionate music of German composer Ludwig van Beethoven combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound. He was the first composer to take full advantage of the broad range of instruments in the modern orchestra. In all, Beethoven produced nine symphonies, five piano concertos, a violin concerto, an opera, two masses, and dozens of shorter pieces. To many, he is considered the greatest composer of his day.


An accomplished musician by age 12, composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) agonized over every note of every composition. The result was stunning music that expresses intense emotion. The famous opening of his Fifth Symphony conveys the sense of fate knocking at the door. "Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, which he began in 1804, was first performed in Vienna in December 1808 (Cf. Hickok, Music, p. 206)."

Beethoven wrote Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 between 1804 and 1808. It comprises four movements: an opening sonata allegro, an andante, and a fast scherzo which leads attacca to the finale.












Metallica beethoven 5th symphony, 2:45

https://youtu.be/kWVMf4rdYYc



Beethoven 5th by Steve Vai, 3:24

https://youtu.be/X0pz2D7-k-M



WALTER MURPHY- A Fifth of Beethoven (extended version), 5:35

Walter Anthony Murphy, Jr. (born December 19, 1952) is an American instrumentalist, songwriter, and arranger who rose to cult status with the hit instrumental "A Fifth of Beethoven", a disco adaptation of some passages of the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, in 1976, when disco was at the height of its popularity.

Born and raised in Manhattan, Murphy attended the Manhattan School of Music and studied jazz and classical music. Upon graduation, Murphy served as an arranger for Doc Severinsen and the Tonight Show Band. In the early 1970s, Murphy wrote jingle music for television advertising and acted as the frontman of WAM, a soul-R&B band who frequently performed in New Rochelle.

During the 1970s, Murphy developed interest in adapting classical music into disco, and mailed a demo tape to various record labels in New York. Although response was unimpressive, a rendition of Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5 In 'C' Minor" generated interest amongst the owner of Private Stock Records, Larry Uttal. Murphy agreed to produce the song under contract and recorded it in 1976, creatively dubbing it "A Fifth of Beethoven". The record was credited towards "Walter Murphy & The Big Apple Band" upon encouragement from the company, who believed it would become a hit if credited towards a group rather than an individual. However, two days following the record's release, Private Stock discovered the existence of another Big Apple Band; the record was later re-released and credited towards "The Walter Murphy Band" before dropping the tradition altogether.

The song was a smash hit, and reached number 80 on the Hot 100 on May 29, 1976, eventually reaching number 1 within nineteen weeks, where it stayed for one week. An album under the same name was released later during the year; the album notably featured a rendition of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee" entitled "Flight '76", which reached number 44 on the Hot 100. He released four albums within the following six years, and in 1982, released his final single, a medley of "Themes From E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial)" which climbed to number 47 on the Hot 100.

https://youtu.be/4MFbn8EbB4k



Minor Swing & Beethoven's Fifth symphony - The McKinney Company @ The Rock, 5-28-10, 5:35
The McKinney Company: National Banjo Championship winner for 1982, James McKinney & Nikki Forman (?). On stage at The Rock, Memorial Day Weekend Bluegrass Festival, Rockmart , GA, 5-28-10.

https://youtu.be/bLhZX3JeJig



ELO combined both Chuck Berry and Beethoven for their version of the Fifth.

Electric Light Orchestra - Roll Over Beethoven, 4:37

Electric Light Orchestra performing Roll Over Beethoven on the Midnight Special in 1973.

https://youtu.be/PLNR4xfh1Qc


  1. Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30, E major, Op. 109 : Read about this beautiful piano composition on p. 910.  Then, give this a listen:
Beethoven: Sonata No. 30, E Major, Op. 109, 1st Movement
               
Barenboim plays Beethoven Sonata No. 30 in E Major Op. 109 1st Mov., 7:11

Daniel Barenboim plays Beethoven Sonata No. 30 in E Major Op. 109 1st Mov.

https://youtu.be/HxB1MKOo9FI

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  1. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, Ode to Joy: On pp. 910-911 (in chap. 27), there is a fine discussion of Beethoven's crowning work, his Ninth Symphony, first performed in 1824.  (Beethoven died in 1827).  Note his innovation of combining a vocal chorus as part of this symphonic work. 
In the YouTube below, Leonard Bernstein introduces Beethoven and this particular work.  If you wish to get right to the music, fast forward (click and drag) to the 3:37 mark.  Bernstein is conducting the Vienna Philharmonic.  Give this a listen:
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9, in D Minor, Ode to Joy
Leonard Bernstein performs Beethoven's Ode to Joy, 9:17

Leonard Bernstein with the Vienna Philharmonic performs Beethoven's Ode to Joy. Notice how dramatic his conducting is; it's pretty funny. Because of Youtube limitations, I split this piece up into 3 sections. This is Part 1/3. I highly recommend sticking around for the famous choral reprise of the first verse in Part 2/3 and the incredible prestissimo finale in Part 3/3.

Soloists are Gwyneth Jones, Shirley Verrett, Placido Domingo, and Martti Talvela.
This first video clip is divided into the following sections:

0:00-3:36 Bernstein's introduction 1:27-2:15 The Ode to Joy played solemnly by Cello and Contrabass 2:15-3:04 A lighter, sweeter variation now including Viola and Bassoon 3:04-3:51 Larger, more expressive second variation with addition of 1st and 2nd Violins 3:52-4:38 Triumphant and majestic third variation utilizing entire orchestra. Instruments added: Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, contrabassoon, cornet, trombone, and timpani 4:39-5:31 Dizzying flight of passion including the brief introduction of a blithe tune that is almost immediately interrupted by a thunderous cadence 5:33-6:30 The bass introduces the chorus to the audience 6:30-9:17 The Ode to Joy theme is now replayed with the significant inclusion of the chorus singing Schiller's poem.

German words and English translation:
Baritone Solo: O Freunde, nicht diese Töne! Oh friends, not these sounds! Sondern lasst uns angenehmere Rather let us sing more anstimmen und freudenvollere. pleasant ones, and more full of joy.
Choral Bass join in: Freude! Freude! Joy! Joy!
 
Baritone Solo: Freude, schöner Götterfunken Joy, beautueous spark of divinity, Tochter aus Elysium, Daughter of Elysium Wir betreten feuertrunken, We enter drunk with fire Himmlische, dein Heiligtum! Heavenly One, your sanctuary! Deine Zauber binden wieder Thy magic power reunites, Was die Mode streng geteilt; All that custom has strictly divided Alle menschen werden Brüder, All men become brothers Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt. Where your gentle wing abides.

Chorus sans Soprano: Deine Zauber binden wieder Thy magic power reunites, Was die Mode streng geteilt; All that custom has strictly divided Alle menschen werden Brüder, All men become brothers Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt. Where your gentle wing abides.

Solo Alto, Tenor, and Baritone sans Soprano: Wem der grosse Wurf gelungen, Whoever has been so fortunate, Eines Freundes Freund zu sein; To be the friend of a friend
 
Solo Soprano enters, Alto, Tenor, and Baritone continue: Wer ein holdes Weib errungen, He who has obtained a dear wife, Mische seinen Jubel ein! Add his jubilation! Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele Yes, whoever also one soul Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund! Can call his own in the earthly round! Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle And who never could, he should steal Weinend sich aus diesem Bund! Weeping from this fellowship!

All Chorus responds (Bass one beat ahead): Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele Yes, whoever also one soul Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund! Can call his own in the earthly round! Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle And who never could, he should steal Weinend sich aus diesem Bund! Weeping from this fellowship!
Tenor and Baritone: Freude trinken alle Wesen All beings drink joy An den Brüsten der Natur; At the breasts of Nature; Alto enters: Alle Guten, alle Bösen All things good, all things evil Folgen ihrer Rosenspur. Follow her rosy trail. Soprano enters: Küsse gab sie uns und Reben, Kisses gave she us and wine, Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod; A friend, proven even in death; Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben, Ecstasy is granted even to the worm Und der Cherub steht vor Gott. And the cherub stands before God
 
All Chorus responds: Küsse gab sie uns und Reben, Kisses gave she us and wine, Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod; A friend, proven even in death; Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben, Ecstasy is granted even to the worm Und der Cherub steht vor Gott. And the cherub stands before God Und der Cherub steht vor Gott. And the cherub stands before God (Alto a beat ahead) steht vor Gott. vor Gott. vor Gott.
 
https://youtu.be/nZJ1Tgf4JL8


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Clockwork Orange - Beethoven 9th, 1:33

From "A Clockwork Orange". Beethoven's 9th Symphony (second movement)

Do filme "Laranja Mecânica". Nona sinfonia de Beethoven, (segundo movimento)

A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 British darkly satirical science fiction film adaptation of Anthony Burgess's 1962 novel of the same name. The film concerns Alex (Malcolm McDowell), a charismatic delinquent whose pleasures are classical music (especially Beethoven), rape, and so-called 'ultra-violence.' He leads a small gang of thugs (Pete, Georgie, and Dim), whom he calls his droogs (from the Russian друг, "friend", "buddy"). The film tells the horrific crime spree of his gang, his capture, and attempted rehabilitation via a controversial psychological conditioning technique. Alex narrates most of the film in Nadsat, a fractured, contemporary adolescent argot comprising Slavic (especially Russian), English, and Cockney rhyming slang.

This cinematic adaptation was produced, directed, and written by Stanley Kubrick. It features disturbing, violent images, to facilitate social commentary about psychiatry, youth gangs, and other contemporary social, political, and economic subjects in a dystopian, future Britain. A Clockwork Orange features a soundtrack comprising mostly classical music selections and Moog synthesizer compositions by Wendy Carlos. A notable exception is "Singin' in the Rain", chosen because it was a song whose lyrics actor Malcolm McDowell knew. The now-iconic poster of A Clockwork Orange, and its images, were created by designer Bill Gold. The film also holds the Guinness World Record for being the first film in media history to use the Dolby Sound system.


https://youtu.be/cQCQRLA05AA





Hector Berlioz[1] (French: [ɛktɔʁ bɛʁljoːz] (English: /ˈbɛrliz/); 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts (Requiem). Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians.[2] He also composed around 50 songs. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.[3]


What term did Hector Berlioz give to the leading theme or melody in his symphonies?




vid 4 8 Introduction to Hector Berlioz, 3:49

https://youtu.be/3oUVEFMLTLY





 

What term did Hector Berlioz give to the leading theme or melody in his symphonies?

 Idée fixe

Symphonie fantastique: Épisode de la vie d'un artiste ... en cinq parties (Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts) Op. 14 is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important piece of the early Romantic period, and is popular with concert audiences worldwide. The first performance was at the Paris Conservatoire in December 1830.

Leonard Bernstein described the symphony as the first musical expedition into psychedelia because of its hallucinatory and dream-like nature, and because history suggests Berlioz composed at least a portion of it under the influence of opium.

According to Bernstein, 'Berlioz tells it like it is. You take a trip, you wind up screaming at your own funeral.'

In 1831, Berlioz wrote a lesser known sequel to the work, Lélio, for actor, orchestra and chorus. Franz Liszt made a piano transcription of the symphony in 1833 (S.470).





  1. Hector Berlioz, Symphony Fantastique: This is discussed on pp. 911-912 (in chap. 27).  This grand work is often presented as the great example of the ROMANTIC style of music in the 1800s, a style that is emotional and given to drama.  It was composed in 1830.  Berlioz did this in a grandiose manner.  Read carefully pp. 911-912 about "program music" and the idée fixe ("fixed idea") as they relate to this work.  You realize that a dramatic story is being told, not just a change of mood. Listen to the following clips. 
Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 1st Movement
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique" - 1st Mvt. (part 1) - Leonard Bernstein, 3:59

Leonard Bernstein conducts the "Orchestre National de France" in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique 1st movement: part 1: Largo (Rêveries) Paris, 1976

https://youtu.be/vjri6MyXKRI



Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 4th Movement (March to the Scaffold; artist hallucinates)  
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique" : 4th Mvt.- Leonard Bernstein, 4:54

Leonard Bernstein conducts the "Orchestre National de France" in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique 4th Movement: Allegretto non troppo (Marche au supplice) Paris, 1976

https://youtu.be/roX70PAu3oA



Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 5th Movement (Dream of a Witches Sabbath)  
Berlioz: "Symphonie Fantastique" - 5th Mvt. - Leonard Bernstein, 9:32

Leonard Bernstein conducts the "Orchestre National de France" in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique 5th Movement:Larghetto, Allegro (Songe d'une nuit de Sabbat) Paris, 1976

https://youtu.be/cao6WyF-61s


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Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (German: [ˈjaːkɔp ˈluːtvɪç ˈfeːlɪks ˈmɛndl̩szoːn baʁˈtɔldi]; 3 February 1809 – 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn,[n 1] was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.

A grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family. He was brought up without religion until the age of seven, when he was baptised as a Reformed Christian. Mendelssohn was recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent.

Mendelssohn enjoyed early success in Germany, where he also revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, and in his travels throughout Europe. He was particularly well received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there – during which many of his major works were premiered – form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes, however, set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner and Hector Berlioz. The Leipzig Conservatoire (now the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig), which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook.

Mendelssohn wrote symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano music and chamber music. His best-known works include his Overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the overture The Hebrides, his mature Violin Concerto, and his String Octet. His Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical tastes and anti-Semitism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his creative originality has now been recognised and re-evaluated. He is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era.
Short Biography - Felix Mendelssohn, 1:49

Born into a wealthy and cultured Jewish family on February 3rd 1809 in Hamburg Germany, Felix Mendelssohn enjoyed all of the educational advantages which came from being part of the upperclass. He made his musical debut on the piano at the age of 9, and by age 13 he was already an accomplished composer. Like many composers of the Romantic Period, Mendelssohn drew inspiring from the work of various writers and poets. The scherzo of his String Octet was imagined from the “Witches’ Sabbath” scene in Johann von Goethe’s “Faust”. In like fashion, Mendelssohn took his inspiration for the overture of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” from a comedic play of the same name by William Shakespeare. Both pieces had been completed by the age of 16. Mendelssohn was known for his appreciation of past great composers and in 1829 he revived Johann Sebastian Bach’s “St. Matthew Passion” in a performance which took place in Leipzig, Germany. This was the first performance of this piece since Bach’s death in 1750. Mendelssohn’s prominent career took form not only as composer, conductor, pianist, and organist, but also as an educator and later in his life, in 1843, he founded the Leipzig Conservatory of Music. It is said that the grief upon hearing of the sudden death of his beloved sister Fanny, coupled with deep exhaustion from overwork is what caused Felix Mendelssohn’s death on November 4th 1847 in Leipzig, Germany.

https://youtu.be/nD-OZw1Z2y8


  1. Felix Mendelssohn, Concerto in E Minor for Violin: This work was composed in 1844.  Read carefully p. 912 (in chap. 27) and note the skill required on the part of a violinist to play this. Sarah Chang will do this in the YouTube below. Then, give this a listen: 
Mendelssohn: Concerto in E minor for Violin
           
The recording of the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto by Nathan Milstein and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter was the first classical long-playing record, and the first 12" LP of any kind, in 1948. The issue marked Columbia Records' move away from the 78 rpm format for classical, and the success of Columbia's format soon forced RCA to follow suit.[1][2] The recording had already been released as Columbia Masterworks Set M-MM-577 in 1946.[3][4] The release was not the first LP, since a 10" LP reissue of The Voice of Frank Sinatra had already been issued by Columbia Record's popular music division. Milstein's playing in the concerto, which was already familiar in the concert hall, received wide critical acclaim.[5][6] Milstein made four other recordings of the concerto. The first in 1945,[7] then the 1946 recording with Walter, later with the London Philharmonia Orchestra under Léon Barzin,[8] then with the Pittsburgh Symphony under William Steinberg for Capitol,[9] and finally a 1973 recording for Deutsche Grammophon with the Vienna Philharmonic conducted by Claudio Abbado.[10] 

Sarah Chang: Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Mvt.1 Part 1, 9:55

Mendelssohn Violin Concerto Movement 1 Allegro, molto appassionato: PART 1 OF 2 SARAH CHANG, NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC & KURT MASUR - AVERY FISHER HALL 1995 PART2 HERE: http://youtube.com/watch?v=0_3PJf4lAj0

https://youtu.be/CCLxso5XDN4

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Robert Schumann[1] (8 June 1810 – 29 July 1856) was a German composer and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. He had been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing.

Schumann's published compositions were written exclusively for the piano until 1840; he later composed works for piano and orchestra; many Lieder (songs for voice and piano); four symphonies; an opera; and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works. Works such as Kinderszenen, Album für die Jugend, Blumenstück, the Sonatas and Albumblätter are among his most famous. His writings about music appeared mostly in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (New Journal for Music), a Leipzig-based publication which he jointly founded.

In 1840, Schumann married Friedrich Wieck's daughter Clara, against the wishes of her father, following a long and acrimonious legal battle, which found in favor of Clara and Robert. Clara also composed music and had a considerable concert career as a pianist, the earnings from which formed a substantial part of her father's fortune.

Schumann suffered from a lifelong mental disorder, first manifesting itself in 1833 as a severe melancholic depressive episode, which recurred several times alternating with phases of ‘exaltation’ and increasingly also delusional ideas of being poisoned or threatened with metallic items. After a suicide attempt in 1854, Schumann was admitted to a mental asylum, at his own request, in Endenich near Bonn. Diagnosed with "psychotic melancholia", Schumann died two years later in 1856 without having recovered from his mental illness.





  1. Robert Schumann, Widmung (=Dedication):  This is an example of  a lied (plural= lieder ) of the Romantic style in the mid-1800s, which were normally songs for a solo voice with a piano.  Read carefully pp. 912-913 (in chap. 27).  Schumann composed the music for this in 1840 to celebrate his wedding. His wife, Clara Schumann, not only inspired some great compositions, she became a well known piano virtuoso.  One of the links below has the German lyric and translation.  Watch and listen to the great Jessye Norman sing this in German:  
Robert Schumann: Widmung (Dedication) sung by Jessye Norman
Jessye Norman - A Portrait - Widmung (Schumann), 1:54

https://youtu.be/fHq4FKsLFsQ


          -------------------------   

Frédéric François Chopin (/ˈʃpæn/; French pronunciation: ​[fʁe.de.ʁik fʁɑ̃.swa ʃɔ.pɛ̃]; 1 March 1810 – 17 October 1849), born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin,[n 1] was a Polish composer and a virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano. He gained and has maintained renown worldwide as one of the leading musicians of his era, whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation."[1] Chopin was born in what was then the Duchy of Warsaw, and grew up in Warsaw, which after 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw before leaving Poland at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising.

At the age of 21 he settled in Paris. Thereafter, during the last 18 years of his life, he gave only some 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon. He supported himself by selling his compositions and teaching piano, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his musical contemporaries, including Robert Schumann. In 1835 he obtained French citizenship. After a failed engagement to Maria Wodzińska, from 1837 to 1847 he maintained an often troubled relationship with the French writer George Sand. A brief and unhappy visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 was one of his most productive periods of composition. In his last years, he was financially supported by his admirer Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. Through most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor health. He died in Paris in 1849, probably of tuberculosis.

All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces, and some songs to Polish lyrics. His keyboard style is highly individual and often technically demanding; his own performances were noted for their nuance and sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of instrumental ballade. His major piano works also include mazurkas, waltzes, nocturnes, polonaises, études, impromptus, scherzos, preludes and sonatas, some published only after his death. Influences on his compositional style include Polish folk music, the classical tradition of J. S. Bach, Mozart and Schubert, the music of all of whom he admired, as well as the Paris salons where he was a frequent guest. His innovations in style, musical form, and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.

In his native Poland, in France, where he composed most of his works, and beyond, Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest superstars, his association (if only indirect) with political insurrection, his love life and his early death have made him, in the public consciousness, a leading symbol of the Romantic era. His works remain popular, and he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying degrees of historical accuracy.

Frédéric Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu in C-sharp minor, Op. posth. 66, is a solo piano composition. It was composed in 1834 and published posthumously in 1855 although he had instructed that none of his unpublished manuscripts should be published.[1] Despite negative comments, the Fantaisie-Impromptu is one of Chopin's most frequently performed and popular compositions.[2]

Short Biography - Frederic Chopin, 2:07

A piano virtuoso and great composer of the Romantic period, Frederic Chopin was born on March 1st 1810 in Warsaw, Poland. His father was a French school teacher who emigrated to Poland where he met and married Chopin’s mother. Chopin’s extraordinary talent as a musician was apparent at a very young age. By the age of 7 he was already composing music on the piano as well as performing publicly. Although he did compose a number of chamber pieces, Chopin was vastly more well-known and sought after for his work on the piano, which included 51 Mazurkas, 12 Polonaises, 17 Waltzes, and 19 Nocturnes. His Nocturne in Eb Major, Prelude in E minor, and Piano Sonata No. in Bb minor, more commonly known as the Funeral March are some of his more famous pieces today. The expression of beauty, inner personal turmoil, and heroism throughout his music earned him the respect and friendship of some of his more notable peers including Felix Mendelssohn and Hector Berlioz, among others. Like many great composers, Chopin suffered an untimely death. After touring through England and Scotland he contracted tuberculosis and died on October 17th 1849 in Paris, France at the age of 39.

https://youtu.be/XJw4nzWqHW0


  1. Frederic Chopin, Fantasie Impromptu:  Chopin (pronounce SHOH-pan) composed this Romantic style work for the piano.   Read carefully p. 913 (in chap. 27) about this work and how it exemplifies Romantic style musicianship.  Note the tempo changes. Then, give this a listen: 
Chopin: Fantasie Impromtu




Horowitz plays Chopin: Fantasie-Impromptu Op. 66, 4:33

The Last Recording October 20, 24, 27, 31 & November 1, 1989

https://youtu.be/x93pwAvUkAA





Week 4 Explore Beethoven Chapter 27 (pp. 907-914), Beethoven, qualities of the Romantic style in music (classical style was on pp. 826-832); review Week 4 “Music Folder” The Beethoven-Haus Website at http://www.beethoven-haus-bonn.de/sixcms/detail.php?template=portal_en (Note: Click on Digital Archives > Works by Ludwig von Beethoven; then find one [1] of his symphonies and listen to a clip.) Beethoven's Eroica at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XL2ha18i5w and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RFG5rGVL1s

Art Reacting to the Industrial Revolution Chapter 28 ( 920-944), art and literature in Industrial Revolution The Museum of Fine Art in Ghent, Belgium (MSK Gent) – Romantic and Realist Art of the 1800s at http://www.mskgent.be/en/collection/1820-romanticism-and-realism/romanticism-and-realism New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art – French Realist Art of the 1800s at http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rlsm/hd_rlsm.htm


Romanticism and Realism  Intro

The museum has a sizeable and rich collection of French paintings from the 19th century. It reflects the taste of the private collectors and salon organisers in Ghent at that time.'Romantic' painters started reacting against the 'cool' and academic Neoclassicism of their age in the beginning of the 19th century.

They aimed at truthfulness and tried to observe their surroundings directly, focusing on its 'reality'.

It was no longer a matter of 'composing' a piece of nature into a harmonious whole; on the contrary, they sought to represent a 'fragment' of reality on the canvas.

Consequently, seeing that nature – including any person sitting for a portrait – changes constantly, they adopted sketchier techniques, and painters abandoned established academic rules and guidelines.

Nineteenth-Century French Realism

The Realist movement in French art flourished from about 1840 until the late nineteenth century, and sought to convey a truthful and objective vision of contemporary life. 

Realism emerged in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1848 that overturned the monarchy of Louis-Philippe and developed during the period of the Second Empire under Napoleon III. 

As French society fought for democratic reform, the Realists democratized art by depicting modern subjects drawn from the everyday lives of the working class. 

Rejecting the idealized classicism of academic art and the exotic themes of Romanticism, Realism was based on direct observation of the modern world. 

In keeping with Gustave Courbet‘s statement in 1861 that “painting is an essentially concrete art and can only consist in the representation of real and existing things,” 

Realists recorded in often gritty detail the present-day existence of humble people, paralleling related trends in the naturalist literature of Émile Zola, Honoré de Balzac, and Gustave Flaubert. 

The elevation of the working class into the realms of high art and literature coincided with Pierre Proudhon’s socialist philosophies and Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto, published in 1848, which urged a proletarian uprising.




Goya and Industrialization

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes[A] (/ˈɡɔɪə/; Spanish: [fɾanˈθisko xoˈse ðe ˈɣoʝa i luˈθjentes]; 30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his long career was a commentator and chronicler of his era. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. He was born to a modest family in 1746 in the village of Fuendetodos in Aragon.

He studied painting from age 14 under José Luzán y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773; the couple's life together was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages. He became a court painter to the Spanish Crown in 1786 and the early portion of his career is marked by portraits commissioned by the Spanish aristocracy and royalty, as well as the Rococo style tapestry cartoons designed for the royal palace. Goya was a guarded man and although letters and writings survive, we know comparatively little about his thoughts. He suffered a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf.

After 1793 his work became progressively darker and pessimistic. His later easel and mural paintings, prints and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal, social and political levels, and contrast with his social climbing. He was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Càmara, the then highest rank for a Spanish court painter. In the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family.

In 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain. He remained in Madrid during the Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not vocalise his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his "Disasters of War" series of prints (although published 35 years after his death) and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Other works from his mid period include the "Caprichos" and Los Disparates etching series, and a wide variety of paintings concerned with insanity, mental asylums, witches, fantastical creatures and religious and political corruption, all of which suggest that he feared for both his country's fate and his own mental and physical health.

His output culminates with the so-called "Black Paintings" of 1819-1823, applied on oil on the plaster walls of his house the "Quinta del Sordo" (house of the deaf man) where, disillusioned by domestic political and social developments he lived in near isolation. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city of Bordeaux, accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, who may or may not have been his lover. There he completed his "La Tauromaquia" series and a number of canvases. Following a stroke which left him paralysed on his right side, and suffering failing eyesight and poor access to painting materials, he died and was buried on 16 April 1828 aged 82. His body was later re-interred in Spain.


Pre-Built Course Content




PART FIVE ROMANTICISM, REALISM, AND EMPIRE

1800–1900 880

27 The Romantic World View


Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution,[1] the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature.[2] It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education,[4] and the natural sciences.[5] It had a significant and complex effect on politics, and while for much of the Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism, its long-term effect on the growth of nationalism was perhaps more significant.

The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It considered folk art and ancient custom to be noble statuses, but also valued spontaneity, as in the musical impromptu. In contrast to the rational and Classicist ideal models, Romanticism revived medievalism[6] and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.[7] The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.[8]

Are You Romantic or Classical?, 4:30

Consider the Odes of Keats:

The words 'Romantic' and 'Classical' usefully bring into focus important themes in our personalities. We're all both, but which are you a little more of? If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://www.theschooloflife.com/shop/all/ SUBSCRIBE to our channel for new films every week: http://tinyurl.com/o28mut7 Brought to you by http://www.theschooloflife.com Produced in collaboration with Mike Booth http://www.YouTube.com/somegreybloke

https://youtu.be/5QmJofRAB9M



The Self in Nature and the Nature of Self

THINKING AHEAD

    27.1 Define Romanticism as it manifests itself in both literature and painting.

    27.2 Describe the characteristics of the Romantic hero and their darker implications.

    27.3 Account for Goya’s pessimistic vision.

    27.4 Identify the chief characteristics of Romantic music.

The Romantic Imagination 885

    The Idea of the Romantic: William Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” 885

Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, 2:52

For Approaches to Literature, ENG 2012 Professor: Peter Hargitai Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey Credits Read by: Tim McMullan Poetictouch.com Images: uweb.ucsb.edu commons.wikimedia.org matthewsalomon.wordpress.com morethangrammar.com freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com rwapplewannabe.wordpress.com historyfish.net Music: "Mrs. Darcy" by Dario Marianelli "Granada" by Emilio de Benito

https://youtu.be/2-3X8Q2gFgg

    A Romantic Experiment: Lyrical Ballads 885


Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature.[1] The immediate effect on critics was modest, but it became and remains a landmark, changing the course of English literature and poetry.

Most of the poems in the 1798 edition were written by Wordsworth, with Coleridge contributing only four poems to the collection, including one of his most famous works, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner".
A second edition was published in 1800, in which Wordsworth included additional poems and a preface detailing the pair's avowed poetical principles.[2] For another edition, published in 1802, Wordsworth added an appendix titled Poetic Diction in which he expanded the ideas set forth in the preface.[3]

    Romanticism as a Voyage of Discovery: Samuel Taylor Coleridge 887


Samuel Taylor Coleridge (/ˈkoʊləˌrɪdʒ/; 21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria. His critical work, especially on Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. Coleridge coined many familiar words and phrases, including suspension of disbelief. He was a major influence on Emerson and American transcendentalism.

Throughout his adult life Coleridge had crippling bouts of anxiety and depression; it has been speculated that he had bipolar disorder, which had not been defined during his lifetime. He was physically unhealthy, which may have stemmed from a bout of rheumatic fever and other childhood illnesses. He was treated for these conditions with laudanum, which fostered a lifelong opium addiction.



Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 3:36

Developed for the British Literature Classroom, biographical look at the life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

https://youtu.be/zj9FEzKYGo4

Why in Lyrical Ballads did Wordsworth chose to focus on people from "humble and rustic life"?




They were closer to nature


Classical versus Romantic: The Odes of John Keats 887


Should we go with our gut feelings or plan responsibly for the future?

Prudential: Feeling or Thinking: (In Marshmallows and in Life), 2:55

Prudential placed kids before a marshmellow to see if they would go with their gut and eat, or wait responsibly to get two marshmellows. What would you do?

Comments, questions, reactions?






John Keats (/ˈkiːts/ 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, despite his work having been in publication for only four years before his death.[1]

Although his poems were not generally well received by critics during his lifetime, his reputation grew after his death, and by the end of the 19th century, he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets. He had a significant influence on a diverse range of poets and writers. Jorge Luis Borges stated that his first encounter with Keats's work was the most significant literary experience of his life.[2]

The poetry of Keats is characterised by sensual imagery, most notably in the series of odes. This is typical of romantic poets, as they aimed to accentuate extreme emotion through the emphasis of natural imagery. Today his poems and letters are some of the most popular and most analysed in English literature.

The Short But Brilliant Life of John Keats - Trailer, 1:18

Fictional Trailer for the life of John Keats! The song used in the background is If Die Young - The Band Perry. (C) 2010 Republic Nashville Records, a division of UMG Recordings, Inc. Used for educational purposes, no copyright breaches intended.

https://youtu.be/hJGa8EVPfys



The Romantic Landscape 889

    The Romantic in Germany: Friedrich and Kant 893


Immanuel Kant (/kænt/;[2] German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant]; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.[3] Kant argued that fundamental concepts of the human mind structure human experience, that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of our sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is unknowable. Kant took himself to have effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy, akin to Copernicus' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolved around the earth. His beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political theory, and aesthetics.

Kant in his critical phase sought to 'reverse' the orientation of pre-critical philosophy by showing how the traditional problems of metaphysics can be overcome by supposing that the agreement between reality and the concepts we use to conceive it arises not because our mental concepts have come to passively mirror reality, but because reality must conform to the human mind's active concepts to be conceivable and at all possible for us to experience. Kant thus regarded the basic categories of the human mind as the transcendental "condition of possibility" for any experience.[4]

Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. He believed that this eventually will be the outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned.[5] The exact nature of Kant's religious ideas continue to be the subject of especially heated philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the idea that Kant was an early and radical exponent of atheism who finally exploded the ontological argument for God's existence, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood"[6] and that Kant was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian religious belief, writing that "Kant wanted to prove, in a way that would dumbfound the common man, that the common man was right: that was the secret joke of this soul."[7]

In Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),[8] he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume. Kant regarded himself as ending and showing the way beyond the impasse which modern philosophy had led to between rationalists and empiricists,[9] and is widely held to have synthesized these two early modern traditions in his thought.[10]
Kant argued that our experiences are structured by necessary features of our minds. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience so that, on an abstract level, all human experience shares certain essential structural features. Among other things, Kant believed that the concepts of space and time are integral to all human experience, as are our concepts of cause and effect.[11] One important consequence of this view is that our experience of things is always of the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses: we do not have direct access to things in themselves, the so-called noumenal world. Kant published other important works on ethics, religion, law, aesthetics, astronomy, and history. These included the Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten, 1797), which dealt with ethics, and the Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.

Kant aimed to resolve disputes between empirical and rationalist approaches. The former asserted that all knowledge comes through experience; the latter maintained that reason and innate ideas were prior. Kant argued that experience is purely subjective without first being processed by pure reason. He also said that using reason without applying it to experience only leads to theoretical illusions. The free and proper exercise of reason by the individual was a theme both of the Age of Enlightenment, and of Kant's approaches to the various problems of philosophy. His ideas influenced many thinkers in Germany during his lifetime, and he moved philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists.

Three Minute Philosophy - Immanuel Kant, 3:31

https://youtu.be/xwOCmJevigw



The categorical imperative (German: kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Introduced in Kant's 1785 Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, it may be defined as a way of evaluating motivations for action.

According to Kant, human beings occupy a special place in creation, and morality can be summed up in an imperative, or ultimate commandment of reason, from which all duties and obligations derive. He defined an imperative as any proposition declaring a certain action (or inaction) to be necessary.

Hypothetical imperatives apply to someone who wishes to attain certain ends. For example:
if I wish to quench my thirst, I must drink something; if I wish to acquire knowledge, I must learn.
A categorical imperative, on the other hand, denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that must be obeyed in all circumstances and is justified as an end in itself. It is best known in its first formulation:
Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.[1]

Kant expressed extreme dissatisfaction with the popular moral philosophy of his day, believing that it could never surpass the level of hypothetical imperatives: a utilitarian says that murder is wrong because it does not maximize good for those involved, but this is irrelevant to people who are concerned only with maximizing the positive outcome for themselves. Consequently, Kant argued, hypothetical moral systems cannot persuade moral action or be regarded as bases for moral judgments against others, because the imperatives on which they are based rely too heavily on subjective considerations. He presented a deontological moral system, based on the demands of the categorical imperative, as an alternative.

Deontological

Immanuel Kant's theory of ethics is considered deontological for several different reasons.[9][10] First, Kant argues that to act in the morally right way, people must act from duty (deon).[11] Second, Kant argued that it was not the consequences of actions that make them right or wrong but the motives of the person who carries out the action.

Kant's argument that to act in the morally right way one must act purely from duty begins with an argument that the highest good must be both good in itself and good without qualification.[12] Something is "good in itself" when it is intrinsically good, and "good without qualification", when the addition of that thing never makes a situation ethically worse. Kant then argues that those things that are usually thought to be good, such as intelligence, perseverance and pleasure, fail to be either intrinsically good or good without qualification. Pleasure, for example, appears not to be good without qualification, because when people take pleasure in watching someone suffering, this seems to make the situation ethically worse. He concludes that there is only one thing that is truly good:

Nothing in the world—indeed nothing even beyond the world—can possibly be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will.[12]

Kant then argues that the consequences of an act of willing cannot be used to determine that the person has a good will; good consequences could arise by accident from an action that was motivated by a desire to cause harm to an innocent person, and bad consequences could arise from an action that was well-motivated. Instead, he claims, a person has a good will when he 'acts out of respect for the moral law'.[12] People 'act out of respect for the moral law' when they act in some way because they have a duty to do so. So, the only thing that is truly good in itself is a good will, and a good will is only good when the willer chooses to do something because it is that person's duty, i.e. out of "respect" for the law. He defines respect as "the concept of a worth which thwarts my self-love."[13]

Kant's three significant formulations of the categorical imperative are:
Act only according to that maxim by which you can also will that it would become a universal law. Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end. Every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in a universal kingdom of ends.

507. What Is The Categorical Imperative?, 2:11

https://youtu.be/eKgIwfl4MBk



Romanticism’s Darker Realities 897

Dark romanticism is a literary subgenre that emerged from the Transcendental philosophical movement popular in nineteenth-century America. Transcendentalism began as a protest against the general state of culture and society at the time, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard and the doctrine of the Unitarian church, which was taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among Transcendentalists' core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state which "transcends" the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions. Prominent Transcendentalists included Sophia Peabody, the wife of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the leading dark romanticists. For a time, Peabody and Hawthorne lived at the Brook Farm Transcendentalist utopian commune.
Works in the dark romantic spirit were influenced by Transcendentalism, but did not entirely embrace the ideas of Transcendentalism. Such works are notably less optimistic than Transcendental texts about mankind, nature, and divinity.

Gothic fiction
Edgar Allan Poe
Herman Melville
Nathaniel Hawthorne


Prominent examples

Elements contained within the following literary works by Dark Romantic authors make each representative of the subgenre:


  • "Tell-Tale Heart" (1843) by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The Birth-Mark" (1843) by Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • "The Minister's Black Veil" (1843) by Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • Moby-Dick (1851) by Herman Melville
  • "Bartleby the Scrivener" (1856) by Herman Melville
  • "Ligeia" (1838) by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839) by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "Dream-Land" (1844) by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The Raven" (1845) by Edgar Allan Poe
  • "Ulalume" (1847) by Edgar Allan Poe

    The Romantic Hero 898


The Romantic Hero

Indiana Jones: The American Romantic Hero

This video considers Indiana Jones, and how he is portrayed as a true American Romantic Hero throughout, 7:29.

In-class assignment: in a word cloud, summarize the important characteristics of Indiana Jones as a Romantic hero.


A sample word cloud is suggestive of what you should understand at this point.



Romantic writers created a new kind of hero—a mysterious, melancholy figure who felt out of step with society. “My joys, my grief, my passions, and my powers, / Made me a stranger,” wrote Britain’s George Gordon, Lord Byron. He himself was a larger-than-life figure equal to those he created. After a rebellious, wandering life, he joined Greek forces battling for freedom. When he died of a fever there, his legend bloomed. In fact, public interest in his poetry and adventures was so great that moody, isolated romantic heroes came to be described as “Byronic.”


From Romanticism to pop culture, we have had numerous, mysterious, and melancholy figures who are out of step with society. These are Romantic, Byronic, figures.

One of the first rebels in American post-war pop culture was Marlon Brando in "The Wild One."
The Wild One is a 1953 outlaw biker film. It is remembered for Marlon Brando's portrayal of the gang leader Johnny Stabler as a juvenile delinquent, dressed in a leather jacket and driving a 1950 Triumph Thunderbird 6T. Acting opposite of Brando was Lee Marvin as a rival gang leader. This low-budget production had Brando playing a rebel without a cause two years before James Dean.

The film version was based on a January, 1951 short story in Harper's Magazine "The Cyclists' Raid" by Frank Rooney that was published in book form as part of "The Best American Short Stories 1952." The story took a cue from an actual biker street party on the Fourth of July weekend in 1947 in Hollister, California that was elaborately trumped up in Life Magazine (dubbed the Hollister riot) with staged photographs of wild motorcycle outlaw revellers. The Hollister event is now celebrated annually. In the film, the town is located somewhere in California.

Deemed scandalous and dangerous, the film was banned by the British Board of Film Censors from showing in the United Kingdom for fourteen years. Its first UK public showing, to a mostly Rocker audience at the then famous 59 Club of Paddington in London.

In a famous exchange from the movie Brando's character is asked: "What are you rebelling against?"

Brando's character slyly responds: "What have you got?"



The rebellious pop image was thereafter popularized by James Dean:



Arguably the most famous Romantic, Byronic rebel was Elvis.


In a well-known scene from one of his first movies, 'Jailhouse Rock', 1957, Elvis' character, a former penitentiary inmate (also starring Judy Tyler), has a chance to meet the parents.

Elvis Presley - Scene from "Jailhouse Rock" (MGM 1957), 3:24

In this scene Vince joins his manager/girl-friend Peggy who's visiting a party at her parent's house. The people there obviously don't know what to think of Elvis and what he's doing. They're trying to get him involved into a conversation about music but on both sides there's a lack of understanding for each other's position. The only change in music they can imagine is actually a setback to Dixieland. They're instead discussing jazz music and things like atonality, something to which Vince only can reply: "Lady, I don't know that the hell you're talkin' about..." making the generation gap obvious.

When accused of insulting her family and friends by Peggy the only thing Vince can possibly answer is a quote that has become famous over the years: "Honey, that's just the beast in me..." Something untamed, different from what was possible until now. Youth was starting to go its own way. A new age was about to dawn.



The Byronic figure in pop culture can be seen in diverse figures from Jim Morrison, to Michael Jackson, and many others such as Tupac Shakur.
The romantic hero often hid a guilty secret and faced a grim destiny. German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (gur tuh) wrote the dramatic poem Faust. The aging scholar Faust makes a pact with the devil, exchanging his soul for youth. After much agony, Faust wins salvation by accepting his duty to help others. In Jane Eyre, British novelist Charlotte Brontë weaves a tale about a quiet governess and her brooding, Byronic employer, whose large mansion conceals a terrifying secret.

Music Stirs Emotions


Goya’s Tragic Vision 904

Why did Francisco Goya paint The Third of May, 1808, with such graphic reality?


To show the horrors of war


    Goya before Napoleon: Social Satire 904

    The Third of May, 1808 : Napoleon’s Spanish Legacy 905

    The Black Paintings 906

Beethoven and the Rise of Romantic Music 907

    Early Years in Vienna: From Classicism to Romanticism 908

    The Heroic Decade: 1802–12 909

    The Late Period: The Romantic in Music 910

    Romantic Music after Beethoven 911

READINGS

    27.1 from Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Reveries of the Solitary Walker (1782) 884

    27.2 from William Wordsworth, “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour, July 13, 1798” (1798) 916

    27.3 from William Wordsworth, “Preface” to Lyrical Ballads (1800) 886

    27.4 William Wordsworth, “The Rainbow” (1802) 886

    27.5 from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” Part 1 (1798) 917

In Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," what does the Mariner's killing of the albatross represent?


An attack on nature


    27.5a–c from Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” Part II, IV (1797) 887

    27.6 from John Keats, “Ode to a Nightingale” (1819) 887

    27.7 John Keats, “Ode on a Grecian Urn” (1819) 888

Why does the vase in "Ode on a Grecian Urn" fascinate John Keats?


The eternal beauty of its art


    27.8 from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Philosophy of History (1805–06) 898

    27.9 from George Gordon, Lord Byron, “Prometheus” (1816) 899

    27.10 from George Gordon, Lord Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto III, stanzas 37, 42 (1812) 899

    27.11 from Percy Bysshe Shelley, Prometheus Unbound (1820) 900

    27.12 from Percy Bysshe Shelley, “Ode to the West Wind” (1819) 900

    27.13 from Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, Chapter 5 (1818) 919

    27.14 from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774) 901

    27.15a–b from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust, Part 1 (1808) 902–903

    27.15c from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust, Part 2 (1832) 903

    27.16 from Ludwig van Beethoven, Heiligenstadt Testament (1802) 909

FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK The Sublime, the Beautiful, and the Picturesque 894

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE From Romanticism to Realism 914

As discussed in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what might Théodore Géricault have aimed to capture in his series of portraits of the insane?


The downtrodden and forgotten


28 Industry and the Working Class

Who Wants to Be a Cotton Millionaire?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/launch_gms_cotton_millionaire.shtml

A NEW REALISM 921

    The Industrial City: Conditions in London 923

        Water and Housing 924

        Labor and Family Life 925

    Reformists Respond: Utopian Socialism, Medievalism, and Christian Reform 925

        Utopian Socialism 925

        A.W.N. Pugin, Architecture, and the Medieval Model 925

    Literary Realism 926

Culture: Romanticism and Realism

Note Taking:

Identify Supporting Details
In-class assignment:

As you read and we cover the material fill in a table with details about the artistic movements in the 1800s.


Main Ideas

At the end of the eighteenth century, Romanticism emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was seen as overly rational and head oriented whereas romanticism emphasized gut feelings, and the heart.
Intro to section:

Nineteenth-century Romanticism—with its escape from an increasingly complex and industrialized world to the simplicity and purity of nature—is experienced through the literature of Hugo, Brontë, Shelley and Byron. In Les Miserables for instance, Victor Hugo views society as the force that makes men evil. Attitudes toward passions are typified in scenes from Wuthering Heights. Ideals of life and death are brought home in the reenactment of Shelley's funeral pyre on the beach, as his friend and fellow poet, Lord Byron, swims out to sea for a better view.
The Industrial Revolution created a new interest in science and helped produce the gritty, Realist movement.
Video intro: a commentary on Realism (sometimes called Naturalism).
Literary Realism and Naturalism, 2:53

In-class assignment: copy the formula to understand Realism.

Fate = C (chance) + E (environment) + H (heredity).






        Charles Dickens’s Hard Times 928

        French Literary Realism 929

    French Painting: The Dialogue between Idealism and Realism 930

        Théodore Géricault: Rejecting Classicism 931

        The Aesthetic Expression of Politics: Delacroix versus Ingres 933

        Caricature and Illustration: Honoré Daumier 938

        Realist Painting: The Worker as Subject 939

        Gustave Courbet: Against Idealism 942

Photography: Realism’s Pencil of Light 942

READINGS

    28.1 from Charles Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop (1840) 922

    28.2 from Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz (1836) 923

    28.3 from Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present (1843) 924

    28.4 from Charles Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846–48) 927

    28.5 from Charles Dickens, Hard Times (1854) 929

Why could Charles Dickens describe the suffering of London's poor so vividly and accurately?

He had grown up in those conditions

Why did Dickens write Hard Times?


To satirize the Utilitarian industrialists


    28.6 from Honoré de Balzac, Father Goriot (1835) 949

    28.6a from Honoré de Balzac, Father Goriot (1835) 930

    28.7 from Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary (1856) 930

FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK Orientalism and Ingres’s The Turkish Bath 936

    MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Lithography 940

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE Documenting War 947


REVIEW
1. In-class assignment, what is the difference between a democracy and a republic?
2. How are we to understand the political spectrum?
3. What is the role of the government in the U.S.?
4. What are the five forms of government?
5. What is the most common form of government?
6. What does the word democracy mean?
7. What is the flaw in democracy?
8. What does the word Republic mean?
9. What can a lynch mob teach us about the difference between a democracy and a republic?
10. Does the word democracy appear in American founding documents, Constitution, or state constitutions?
11. Why did the Founders look upon democracy with contempt?
12. What did Solon and the Romans suggest to the Founders?
13. What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?
14. What are our two choices?

https://youtu.be/FmzldNFgD40

The Bill of Rights

In-class assignment:

Bill of Rights Rap - Smart Songs, 3:38

What did the states advise stating before approving the Constitution? Summarize the ten Bill of Rights.

https://youtu.be/tlt6R1KD4E0



WEBSITE: http://smartsongs.org DOWNLOAD: http://itunes.apple.com/us/artist/smart-songs/id448968411 LIKE US ON FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/#!/smartsongsmusic Beat by Drizzle & Swizzle. Lyrics by Shoeless Jeff and Scott Free. From the Album: Trip to DC

Goya's Tragic Vision: The Dark Side of Romanticism, 2:52

Industrialization: Sometimes Progress Hurts, 2:10

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/112/1146/Week4/Lecture/lecture.html
Pre-Built Course Content








Key Terms

romanticism
Romanticism
Albert Bierstadt, Hetch Hetchy Canyon, 1875


realism

Objectives, at the end of the section the student should:

*Understand what themes shaped romantic art, literature, and music.
*Explain how realists responded to the industrialized, urban world.
*Describe how the visual arts changed.

People to Identify
Some initial examples will be identified.

Ludwig van Beethoven

William Wordsworth

Lord Byron
impressionism

Claude Monet
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. In 1872, Monet is credited with beginning the style known as Impressionism, with his painting, "Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant)," for which the Impressionist movement was named. In the 1800s, “The Salon,” an annual exhibition that accepted only traditional paintings, dominated the Parisian art scene. In 1874, a group of artists held their own exhibition at a local photographer’s studio. Claude Monet’s Impression: Sunrise was one of the works displayed. Monet’s painting demonstrates several characteristics of impressionist work, including short, visible brush strokes and an idealized depiction of a landscape.

Impressionism was one of the most important art movements of the 1800s. It marked a departure from tradition, both in subject matter and painting technique. Artists sought to depict the human eye’s first perception of a scene. Characterized by the use of unmixed primary colors and small, visible brush strokes, impressionism attempted to show the effects of direct or reflected light. Impressionist artists often painted outdoors for maximum effect.
In-class assignment:
Thinking Critically
1. Summarize
How did impressionism depart from tradition?
In-class assignment: paraphrase Wordsworth, in your own words, how is this a Romantic understanding of nature?
As I am suggesting, Romanticism does not refer to romance in the sense of an affectionate relationship, but rather to an artistic style emphasizing nature, imagination, freedom, and emotion. Romanticism was a reaction to the neoclassical writers of the Enlightenment, who had turned to classical Greek and Roman literature and ideals that stressed order, harmony, reason, and emotional restraint. In contrast to Enlightenment literature, the works of romantic writers included simple, direct language, intense feelings, and a glorification of nature. Artists, composers, and architects were also followers of the movement.

Romanticism in Art
Painters, too, broke free from the discipline and strict rules of the Enlightenment. Landscape painters like J.M.W. Turner sought to capture the beauty and power of nature. Using bold brush strokes and colors, Turner often showed tiny human figures struggling against sea and storm.

Joseph Mallord William Turner RA (1775-1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style is said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. [Cf. Wikipedia]

Romantics painted many subjects, from simple peasant life to medieval knights to current events. Bright colors conveyed violent energy and emotion. The French painter Eugène Delacroix (deh luh krwah) filled his canvases with dramatic action. In Liberty Leading the People, the Goddess of Liberty carries the revolutionary tricolor as French citizens rally to the cause.
The focus here is "Liberty Leading the People," reimagined as a fictional Nintendo game. :)

Artwork: ‘Viva La Vida’
Here is a little background about this amazing work of art. It’s by Eugène Delacroix (French Romantic Painter) and was painted in 1830 titled “Liberty Leading The People”. Eugene Delacroix is numbered among the greatest and most influential of French painters. He is most often classified as an artist of the Romantic school. His remarkable use of colour was later to influence impressionist painters and even modern artists such as Pablo Picasso.

Liberty Leading The People; Painted on 28 July 1830, to commemorate the July Revolution that had just brought Louis-Philippe to the French throne; Louvre.

This painting, which is a sort of political poster, is meant to celebrate the day of 28 July 1830, when the people rose and dethroned the Bourbon king. Alexandre Dumas tells us that Delacroix’s participation in the rebellious movements of July was mainly of a sentimental nature. Despite this, the painter, who had been a member of the National Guard, took pleasure in portraying himself in the figure on the left wearing the top-hat. Although the painting is filled with rhetoric, Delacroix’s spirit is fully involved in its execution: in the outstretched figure of Liberty, in the bold attitudes of the people following him contrasted with the lifeless figures of the dead heaped up in the foreground, in the heroic poses of the people fighting for liberty, there is without a doubt a sense of full participation on the part of the artist, which led Argan to define this canvas as the first political work of modern painting.

Liberty Leading the People caused a disturbance. It shows the allegorical figure of Liberty as a half-draped woman wearing the traditional Phrygian cap of liberty and holding a gun in one hand and the tricolour in the other. It is strikingly realistic; Delacroix, the young man in the painting wearing the opera hat, was present on the barricades in July 1830. Allegory helps achieve universality in the painting: Liberty is not a woman; she is an abstract force.
Resources and HW:
Beethoven 5th Symphony 5 (7:38, graphical score animation):

Information on the composer Beethoven is instructive.



Chuck Berry - "Roll over Beethoven," 3:32, 1972 live on the Beat Club (German TV):

Lyrics:
I'm gonna write a little letter,
Gonna mail it to my local dj.
Its a rockin' rhythm record
I want my jockey to play.
Roll over Beethoven, I gotta hear it again today.

You know, my temperatures risin
And the jukebox blows a fuse.
You know, my hearts beatin rhythm
And my soul keeps on singin the blues.
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Well if you reel and rock it,
Go get your lover, reel and rock it
Roll it over and move on up just
A trifle further and reel and rock it,
one another
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

(Instrumental)

Well, well,Well, early in the mornin Im a-givin you a warnin
Dont you step on my blue suede shoes.
Hey diddle diddle, I am playin my fiddle,
Aint got nothin to lose.
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.

Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven,
Roll over Beethoven and tell Tschaikowsky the news.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ykCYwhfdMs


Electric Light Orchestra - "Roll Over Beethoven," 4:37
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLNR4xfh1Qc

ELO performing on the Midnight Special in 1973.



The Romantics - "What I Like About You"
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rqnw5IfbZOU
William Wordsworth updated in hip-hop style, 2:02.



MUSIC FOLDER
Pre-Built Course Content
This week's eight music selections all relate to chapter 27, pp. 907-913.
  1. Ludwig van Beethoven's Eroica: In this week's readings (chaps. 27-28), we encounter a number of musical pieces, all of them covered in chapter 27, pp. 907-913. On pp. 907 and 909, there is a brief discussion of Beethoven's Eroica (Italian for "Heroic"), formally called Symphony No. 3 in E-Flat. This was first performed in 1804 and was composed in the 2 or 3 years leading up to that, a time when he was wrestling with increasing deafness and depression (pp. 908-909). Beethoven personally embraced the ideals of the French Revolution and at some point seemed to admire Napoleon greatly. So much so that at some point Napoleon's name was in the title of this work and the work's dedication was to him. But, Beethoven changed this and renamed it Eroica and removed the dedication to Napoleon. One account says this was because of his disenchantment with Napoleon's autocratic drift, as especially revealed when Napoleon finally proclaimed himself "Emperor", a move Beethoven despised. See http://www.beethovenseroica.com/Pg1_why/whyeroica.htm and http://www.beethovenseroica.com/Pg2_hist/history.html . Perhaps Beethoven's reasons for the change were more pragmatic. In any case, the result was this masterpiece, which changed the direction of music forever. This work is considered transitional from the CLASSICAL style of music perfected by Haydn and Mozart in the late 1700s to the ROMANTIC style of music that would prevail for most of the 1800s.
The first clip below is a 10-minute clip of the first movement. The second is a clip of the second movement which shows short clips of it in three different versions. Note: Beethoven composed this for a bigger symphony orchestra and made it a much longer work than anything done by Haydn and Mozart. His work is also much more charged with emotion and drama and change. Enjoy the following links
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica"), 1st Movement
Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica"), 2nd Movement
---------------------------
  1. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony: On pp. 909-910 (chap. 27), we encounter a discussion of Beethoven's famous Fifth Symphony, first performed in 1808. Read the description carefully and give this a listen:
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5, 1st Movement
--------------------------
  1. Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 30, E major, Op. 109 : Read about this beautiful piano composition on p. 910. Then, give this a listen:
Beethoven: Sonata No. 30, E Major, Op. 109, 1st Movement
----------------------------
  1. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, Ode to Joy: On pp. 910-911 (in chap. 27), there is a fine discussion of Beethoven's crowning work, his Ninth Symphony, first performed in 1824. (Beethoven died in 1827). Note his innovation of combining a vocal chorus as part of this symphonic work.
In the YouTube below, Leonard Bernstein introduces Beethoven and this particular work. If you wish to get right to the music, fast forward (click and drag) to the 3:37 mark. Bernstein is conducting the Vienna Philharmonic. Give this a listen:
Beethoven: Symphony No. 9, in D Minor, Ode to Joy
--------------------------
  1. Hector Berlioz, Symphony Fantastique: This is discussed on pp. 911-912 (in chap. 27). This grand work is often presented as the great example of the ROMANTIC style of music in the 1800s, a style that is emotional and given to drama. It was composed in 1830. Berlioz did this in a grandiose manner. Read carefully pp. 911-912 about "program music" and the idée fixe ("fixed idea") as they relate to this work. You realize that a dramatic story is being told, not just a change of mood. Listen to the following clips.
Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 1st Movement
Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 4th Movement (March to the Scaffold; artist hallucinates)
Berlioz: Symphony Fantastique, 5th Movement (Dream of a Witches Sabbath)
-------------------------
  1. Felix Mendelssohn, Concerto in E Minor for Violin: This work was composed in 1844. Read carefully p. 912 (in chap. 27) and note the skill required on the part of a violinist to play this. Sarah Chang will do this in the YouTube below. Then, give this a listen:
Mendelssohn: Concerto in E minor for Violin
---------------------------------
  1. Robert Schumann, Widmung (=Dedication): This is an example of a lied (plural= lieder ) of the Romantic style in the mid-1800s, which were normally songs for a solo voice with a piano. Read carefully pp. 912-913 (in chap. 27). Schumann composed the music for this in 1840 to celebrate his wedding. His wife, Clara Schumann, not only inspired some great compositions, she became a well known piano virtuoso. One of the links below has the German lyric and translation. Watch and listen to the great Jessye Norman sing this in German:
Robert Schumann: Widmung (Dedication) sung by Jessye Norman
-------------------------
  1. Frederic Chopin, Fantasie Impromptu: Chopin (pronounce SHOH-pan) composed this Romantic style work for the piano. Read carefully p. 913 (in chap. 27) about this work and how it exemplifies Romantic style musicianship. Note the tempo changes. Then, give this a listen:
Chopin: Fantasie Impromtu
DISCUSSION
"Beethoven; Art and Protest in the 1800s" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Listen to one (1) composition (i.e., for a symphony) by Beethoven, a transitional figure between classical and romantic music. Identify the composition that you listened to, and determine whether you would characterize the chosen composition as either the Classical or Romantic style of music. Explain the key features that lead you to your conclusion. Identify one (1) modern musician who you believe was great at one type of music yet pioneered another.
  • Select one (1) example of a literary work or a work of visual art from the 1800s—either Romantic or Realist in style—that responds in some way to the Industrial Revolution. Identify the work and the artist or writer, describe its features and style, and explain the manner in which it responds to the Industrial Revolution. Identify one (1) specific literary or artistic work of our day that effectively protests a social injustice.
Explore:
Beethoven

Art Reacting to the Industrial Revolution
Industrialization
The Industrial Age in America: Robber Barons and Captains of Industry
The Industrial Age in America: Sweatshops, Steel Mills, and Factories
19th Century

Imperialism
Mass Society and Democracy 1870-1914
Cultural Revolution
In-class assignment: working with a partner, and in four columns, summarize the ideas of the four thinkers below.
1. Adam Smith
2. Jeremy Bentham
3. John Stuart Mill
4. Karl Marx
http://vozme.com/index.php?lang=en
In-class assignment, with a partner, consider the following chart.
Note Taking

Reading Skill: Categorize
Complete a chart like this one listing the reforms in Britain during the 1800s and early 1900s.
Note Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas As you read this section, complete an outline of the contents.


Industrialization of Europe by 1914

European Population Growth and Relocation, 1820-1900
In-class assignment: in two groups, look over the word list and then we will fill in the crossword.
Crossword Puzzle

Section 1 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

Media Library

The Second Industrial Revolution introduced important new products, such as steel and chemicals, and new sources of power, such as electricity and the internal-combustion engine. These changes led to cheaper transportation and made amenities such as electric lights widely available. Higher wages and lower transportation costs made consumer products more affordable, and industrial production rose sharply. These changes occurred primarily in Northern and Western Europe. Other parts of Europe remained largely agricultural. Industrial workers seeking to improve their working and living conditions formed socialist political parties and trade unions. Socialism was based on the ideas of Karl Marx, a nineteenth-century thinker who blamed capitalism for the horrible conditions of industrial workers. He predicted that capitalism would be overthrown in a violent revolution. However, many Marxists sought change by non-revolutionary means.

Main Ideas
New sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries.
Working-class leaders used Marx's ideas to form socialist parties and unions.
Key Terms
bourgeoisie
proletariat
dictatorship
revisionist
The Second Industrial Revolution

New Products

New Patterns

Toward a World Economy

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did Europe dominate the world economy by the beginning of the twentieth century?

Organizing the Working Classes

Marx's Theory
In-class assignment: individually, consider one of the quotes from Marx and explain it in your own words.
A thought provoking collection of Creative Quotations from Karl Marx (1818-1883); born on May 5. German socialist leader, philosopher; He originated the idea of modern communism (Marxism); wrote "Communist Manifesto," 1848, 1:23.

Marx developed the theories upon which modern communism is based and is considered the founding father of economic history and sociology.

Marx set down his ideas in The Communist Manifesto(1848) and Das Kapital (3 vol., 1861, 1885, 1894) arguing that economic relations determined all other features of a society, including its ideas.

He also outlined the goal of Marxism - the creation of social and economic utopia by the revolution of the proletariat which would "centralise all instruments of production in the hands of the state."

All class boundaries would be destroyed and each individual would find personal fulfillment, having no need for the bourgeois institutions of religion or family. Marx himself was an atheist, coining the phrase, "Religion is the opium of the people"

Marx continued to express views about class struggle and bourgeois oppression throughout his life, despite being exiled from his homeland and coping with both his own illness and the death of his children.

Most modern socialist theories are drawn from his work but Karl Marx has had a wider influence touching on many areas of human thought and life such as politics, economics, philosophy, and literature.
This is a video made for a 12th grade World History class to define Marxism.
In-class assignment: working with a partner, answer the following questions.
What is Marxism?
What did Marx believe?
What were the two main classes?
What is the working-class?
What is the bourgeois class?
What will the proletariat do?
What will occur?
How is socialism defined here?
How is communism different?
Is Marxism a (n) economic philosophy?
How does change occur?

This is a project from a History Day: a documentary. The project made it to the regionals competition for a student, 9:59.

Socialist Parties

Trade Unions

Reading Check

Summarizing

How would you summarize Marx's theory as expressed in The Communist Manifesto?

Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society

Media Library

By the end of the nineteenth century, a mass society emerged in which the concerns of the majority of the population—the lower classes—were central. Many people moved to the cities which grew faster because of improvements in public health and sanitation. Despite crowded urban conditions, most people after 1871 enjoyed an improved standard of living. Europe's elite now included both aristocrats and a wealthy upper middle class. The middle class expanded to include a wide range of professions. The middle class served as a model of family life and proper social etiquette. Many women now found jobs as low-paid white-collar workers. Feminists began to demand equal rights and full citizenship, including the right to vote. Most Western governments began to set up primary schools to train children for jobs in industry. Society became more literate and enjoyed new mass leisure activities.

Main Ideas
A varied middle class in Victorian Britain believed in the principles of hard work and good conduct.
New opportunities for women and the working class improved their lives.
Key Terms
feminism
literacy
The New Urban Environment

Reading Check

Explaining

Why did cities grow so quickly in the nineteenth century?

Social Structure of Mass Society

The New Elite

The Middle Classes

The Working Classes

Reading Check

Identifying

Name the major groups in the social structure of the nineteenth century.

The Experiences of Women

New Job Opportunities

Marriage and the Family

The Movement for Women's Rights

In Britain, as elsewhere, women struggled against strong opposition for the right to vote. Women themselves were divided on the issue. Some women opposed suffrage altogether. Queen Victoria, for example, called the suffrage struggle “mad, wicked folly.” Even women in favor of suffrage disagreed about how best to achieve it.

Suffragists Revolt

By the early 1900s, Emmeline Pankhurst, a leading suffragist, had become convinced that only aggressive tactics would bring victory. Pankhurst and other radical suffragists interrupted speakers in Parliament, shouting, “Votes for women!” until they were carried away. They collected petitions and organized huge public demonstrations. When mass meetings and other peaceful efforts brought no results, some women turned to more drastic, violent protest. They smashed windows or even burned buildings. Pankhurst justified such tactics as necessary to achieve victory. “There is something that governments care far more for than human life,” she declared, “and that is the security of property, so it is through property that we shall strike the enemy.” As you have read, some suffragists went on hunger strikes, risking their lives to achieve their goals.

Vocabulary Builder

drastic—(dras tik) adj. severe, harsh, extreme

Victory at Last

Even middle-class women who disapproved of such radical and violent actions increasingly demanded votes for women. Still, Parliament refused to grant women’s suffrage. Not until 1918 did Parliament finally grant suffrage to women over age 30. Younger women did not win the right to vote for another decade.

Reading Check

Identifying

What was the basic aim of the suffragists?

Universal Education

Reading Check

Why did states make a commitment to provide public education?

New Forms of Leisure

Reading Check

Explaining

How did innovations in transportation change leisure activities during the Second Industrial Revolution?

Section 3 The National State and Democracy

Media Library

By the late nineteenth century, progress had been made toward establishing constitutions, parliaments, and individual liberties in the major European states. In practice, however, the degree of democracy varied. Political democracy expanded in Great Britain and France, while regional conflicts in Italy produced weak and corrupt governments, and an anti-democratic old order remained entrenched in central and eastern Europe. In Russia, working-class unrest led to “Bloody Sunday” and a mass strike of workers in 1905. After the American Civil War, slavery was abolished and African Americans were granted citizenship. American cities grew, and unions campaigned for workers' rights. The United States also gained several offshore possessions. In foreign policy, European powers drifted into two opposing camps. Crises in the Balkans only heightened tensions between the two camps.

Main Ideas

Key Terms

People to Identify

Western Europe and Political Democracy

Great Britain

Audio

A series of political reforms during the 1800s and early 1900s transformed Great Britain from a monarchy and aristocracy into a democracy. While some British politicians opposed the reforms, most sided in favor of reforming Parliament to make it more representative of the nation’s growing industrial population.

“No doubt, at that very early period, the House of Commons did represent the people of England but . . . the House of Commons, as it presently subsists, does not represent the people of England. . . . The people called loudly for reform, saying that whatever good existed in the constitution of this House—whatever confidence was placed in it by the people, was completely gone.”

—Lord John Russell, March 1, 1831

Audio

One day a wealthy Englishman named Charles Egremont boasted to strangers that Victoria, the queen of England, “reigns over the greatest nation that ever existed.”

“Which nation?” asks one of the strangers, “for she reigns over two. . . . Two nations; between whom there is no [communication] and no sympathy; who are as ignorant of each other’s habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were . . . inhabitants of different planets.”

What are these “two nations,” Egremont asks. “The Rich and the Poor ,” the stranger replies.

—Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil

In the 1800s, Benjamin Disraeli and other political leaders slowly worked to bridge Britain’s “two nations” and extend democratic rights. Unlike some of its neighbors in Europe, Britain generally achieved change through reform rather than revolution.

Audio

In 1815, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and two political parties. Still, it was far from democratic. Although members of the House of Commons were elected, less than five percent of the people had the right to vote. Wealthy nobles and squires, or country landowners, dominated politics and heavily influenced voters. In addition, the House of Lords—made up of hereditary nobles and high-ranking clergy—could veto any bill passed by the House of Commons.

Reformers Press for Change

Long-standing laws kept many people from voting. Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants, for example, could not vote or serve in Parliament. In the 1820s, reformers pushed to end religious restrictions. After fierce debate, Parliament finally granted Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants equal political rights.

An even greater battle soon erupted over making Parliament more representative. During the Industrial Revolution, centers of population shifted. Some rural towns lost so many people that they had few or no voters. Yet local landowners in these rotten boroughs still sent members to Parliament. At the same time, populous new industrial cities like Manchester and Birmingham had no seats allocated in Parliament because they had not existed as population centers in earlier times.

Vocabulary Builder

allocate—(al oh kayt) vt. to distribute according to a plan

Reform Act of 1832

By 1830, Whigs and Tories were battling over a bill to reform Parliament. The Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests. The Tory Party spoke for nobles, land-owners, and others whose interests and income were rooted in agriculture. In the streets, supporters of reform chanted, “The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill!” Their shouts seemed to echo the cries of revolutionaries on the continent.

Parliament finally passed the Great Reform Act in 1832. It redistributed seats in the House of Commons, giving representation to large towns and cities and eliminating rotten boroughs. It also enlarged the electorate, the body of people allowed to vote, by granting suffrage to more men. The Act did, however, keep a property requirement for voting.

The Reform Act of 1832 did not bring full democracy, but it did give a greater political voice to middle-class men. Landowning nobles, however, remained a powerful force in the government and in the economy.

The Chartist Movement

The reform bill did not help rural or urban workers. Some of them demanded more radical change. In the 1830s, protesters known as Chartists drew up the People’s Charter. This petition demanded universal male suffrage, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for members of Parliament. Another key demand was for a secret ballot, which would allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.

Twice the Chartists presented petitions with over a million signatures to Parliament. Both petitions were ignored. In 1848, as revolutions swept Europe, the Chartists prepared a third petition and organized a march on Parliament. Fearing violence, the government moved to suppress the march. Soon after, the unsuccessful Chartist movement declined. In time, however, Parliament would pass most of the major reforms proposed by the Chartists.

From 1837 to 1901, the great symbol in British life was Queen Victoria. Her reign was the longest in British history. Although she exercised little real political power, she set the tone for what is now called the Victorian age.

The Victorian Web

Symbol of a Nation’s Values

As queen, Victoria came to embody the values of her age. These Victorian ideals included duty, thrift, honesty, hard work, and above all respectability. Victoria herself embraced a strict code of morals and manners. As a young woman, she married a German prince, Albert, and they raised a large family.

A Confident Age

Under Victoria, the British middle class—and growing numbers of the working class—felt great confidence in the future. That confidence grew as Britain expanded its already huge empire. Victoria, the empress of India and ruler of some 300 million subjects around the world, became a revered symbol of British might.

Infographic

From Monarchy to Democracy in Britain

During her reign, Victoria witnessed growing agitation for social reform. The queen herself commented that the lower classes “earn their bread and riches so deservedly that they cannot and ought not to be kept back.” As the Victorian era went on, reformers continued the push toward greater social and economic justice.

In the 1860s, a new era dawned in British politics. The old political parties regrouped under new leadership. Benjamin Disraeli forged the Tories into the modern Conservative Party. The Whigs, led by William Gladstone, evolved into the Liberal Party. Between 1868 and 1880, as the majority in Parliament swung between the two parties, Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as prime minister. Both fought for important reforms.

Expanding Suffrage

Disraeli and the Conservative Party pushed through the Reform Bill of 1867. By giving the vote to many working-class men, the new law almost doubled the size of the electorate.

In the 1880s, it was the turn of Gladstone and the Liberal Party to extend suffrage. Their reforms gave the vote to farmworkers and most other men. By century’s end, almost-universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, and other Chartist ambitions had been achieved. Britain had truly transformed itself from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy, a form of government in which the executive leaders (usually a prime minister and cabinet) are chosen by and responsible to the legislature (parliament), and are also members of it.
Limiting the Lords

In the early 1900s, many bills passed by the House of Commons met defeat in the House of Lords. In 1911, a Liberal government passed measures to restrict the power of the Lords, including their power to veto tax bills. The Lords resisted. Finally, the government threatened to create enough new lords to approve the law, and the Lords backed down. People hailed the change as a victory for democracy. In time, the House of Lords would become a largely ceremonial body with little power. The elected House of Commons would reign supreme.

France

Audio

The news sent shock waves through Paris. Napoleon III had surrendered to the Prussians and Prussian forces were now about to advance on Paris. Could the city survive? Georges Clemenceau (kleh mahn soh), a young French politician, rallied the people of Paris to defend their homeland:

“Citizens, must France destroy herself and disappear, or shall she resume her old place in the vanguard of nations? . . . Each of us knows his duty. We are children of the Revolution. Let us seek inspiration in the example of our forefathers in 1792, and like them we shall conquer. Vive la France! (Long Live France!)”

Learn

Focus Question

What democratic reforms were made in France during the Third Republic?

For four months, Paris resisted the German onslaught. But finally, in January 1871, the French government at Versailles was forced to accept Prussian surrender terms.

The Franco-Prussian War ended a long period of French domination of Europe that had begun under Louis XIV. Yet a Third Republic rose from the ashes of the Second Empire of Napoleon III. Economic growth, democratic reforms, and the fierce nationalism expressed by Clemenceau all played a part in shaping modern France.

Italy

Reading Check

Summarizing

What is the principle of ministerial responsiblity?

Central and Eastern Europe: The Old Order

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Russia

Reading Check

Identifying

What was the role of the Duma in the Russian government?

The United States and Canada (Is Canada a part of the United States?)

Aftermath of the Civil War

Economic differences, as well as the slavery issue, drove the Northern and Southern regions of the United States apart. The division reached a crisis in 1860 when Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Lincoln opposed extending slavery into new territories. Southerners feared that he would eventually abolish slavery altogether and that the federal government would infringe on their states’ rights.

North Versus South

Soon after Lincoln’s election, most southern states seceded, or withdrew, from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. This action sparked the Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865.

The South had fewer resources, fewer people, and less industry than the North. Still, Southerners fought fiercely to defend their cause. The Confederacy finally surrendered in 1865. The struggle cost more than 600,000 lives—the largest casualty figures of any American war.

Challenges for African Americans

During the war, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, by which enslaved African Americans in the South were declared free. After the war, three amendments to the Constitution banned slavery throughout the country and granted political rights to African Americans. Under the Fifteenth Amendment, African American men won the right to vote.

Still, African Americans faced many restrictions. In the South, state laws imposed segregation, or legal separation of the races, in hospitals, schools, and other public places. Other state laws imposed conditions for voter eligibility that, despite the Fifteenth Amendment, prevented African Americans from voting.

Economy

By 1900, the United States had become the world's richest nation.

Audio

After the Civil War, the United States grew to lead the world in industrial and agricultural production. A special combination of factors made this possible including political stability, private property rights, a free enterprise system and an inexpensive supply of land and labor—supplied mostly by immigrants. Finally, a growing network of transportation and communications technologies aided businesses in transporting resources and finished products.

Business and Labor

By 1900, giant monopolies controlled whole industries. Scottish-born Andrew Carnegie built the nation’s largest steel company, while John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company dominated the world’s petroleum industry. Big business enjoyed tremendous profits.

Vocabulary Builder

dominate—(dahm un nayt) vt. to rule or control by superior power or influence

But the growing prosperity was not shared by all. In factories, wages were low and conditions were often brutal. To defend their interests, American workers organized labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor. Unions sought better wages, hours, and working conditions. Struggles with management sometimes erupted into violent confrontations. Slowly, however, workers made gains.

Populists and Progressives

In the economic hard times of the late 1800s, farmers also organized themselves to defend their interests. In the 1890s, they joined city workers to support the new Populist party. The Populists never became a major party, but their platform of reforms, such as an eight-hour workday, eventually became law.

By 1900, reformers known as Progressives also pressed for change. They sought laws to ban child labor, limit working hours, regulate monopolies, and give voters more power. Another major goal of the Progressives was obtaining voting rights for women. After a long struggle, American suffragists finally won the vote in 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect.

Audio

For many Irish families fleeing hunger, Russian Jews escaping pogroms, or poor Italian farmers seeking economic opportunity, the answer was the same—America! A poem inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty expressed the welcome and promise of freedom that millions of immigrants dreamed of:
“Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.

I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”

—Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus”

Learn

Focus Question

How did the United States develop during the 1800s?

In the 1800s, the United States was a beacon of hope for many people. The American economy was growing rapidly, offering jobs to newcomers. The Constitution and Bill of Rights held out the hope of political and religious freedom. Not everyone shared in the prosperity or the ideals of democracy. Still, by the turn of the nineteenth century, important reforms were being made.
Expansion Abroad

U.S. Expansion, 1783–1898

From the earliest years of its history, the United States followed a policy of expansionism, or extending the nation’s boundaries. At first, the United States stretched only from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana territory from France. In one stroke, the Louisiana Purchase virtually doubled the size of the nation.

By 1846, the United States had expanded to include Florida, Oregon, and the Republic of Texas. The Mexican War (1846–1848) added California and the Southwest. With growing pride and confidence, Americans claimed that their nation was destined to spread across the entire continent, from sea to sea. This idea became known as Manifest Destiny. Some expansionists even hoped to absorb Canada and Mexico. In fact, the United States did go far afield. In 1867, it bought Alaska from Russia and in 1898 annexed the Hawaiian Islands.
REFERENCE DISCUSSION
Week 4 Discussion "Beethoven; Art and Protest in the 1800s" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response: Listen to one (1) composition (i.e., for a symphony) by Beethoven, a transitional figure between classical and romantic music. Identify the composition that you listened to, and determine whether you would characterize the chosen composition as either the Classical or Romantic style of music. Explain the key features that lead you to your conclusion. Identify one (1) modern musician who you believe was great at one type of music yet pioneered another. Select one (1) example of a literary work or a work of visual art from the 1800s—either Romantic or Realist in style—that responds in some way to the Industrial Revolution. Identify the work and the artist or writer, describe its features and style, and explain the manner in which it responds to the Industrial Revolution. Identify one (1) specific literary or artistic work of our day that effectively protests a social injustice. Explore: Beethoven Chapter 27 (pp. 907-914), Beethoven, qualities of the Romantic style in music (classical style was on pp. 826-832); review Week 4 “Music Folder” The Beethoven-Haus Website at http://www.beethoven-haus-bonn.de/sixcms/detail.php?template=portal_en (Note: Click on Digital Archives > Works by Ludwig von Beethoven; then find one [1] of his symphonies and listen to a clip.) Beethoven's Eroica at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XL2ha18i5w and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8RFG5rGVL1s Art Reacting to the Industrial Revolution Chapter 28 ( 920-944), art and literature in Industrial Revolution The Museum of Fine Art in Ghent, Belgium (MSK Gent) – Romantic and Realist Art of the 1800s at http://www.mskgent.be/en/collection/1820-romanticism-and-realism/romanticism-and-realism New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art – French Realist Art of the 1800s at http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rlsm/hd_rlsm.htm
REFERENCES
"Why didn't the Middle East Industrialize in the Nineteenth Century?", by Robert Allen (Oxford University), 50:15 Discussant: Steven Durlauf (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
https://youtu.be/q_14HgrmGFY
How did the coming of the railroads transform inner-city London?
Why did Jean-Antoine Watteau's fêtes galantes become so popular?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Their erotic overtones
Correct Answer:
 
Their erotic overtones


Question 2:   Multiple Choice


  1. Why does Fragonard paint the young lady in The Swing as losing a shoe?


    Correct Answer:
     
    To symbolize virginity loss

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Rousseau praise the Chinese tax system?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    For not taxing food
    Correct Answer:
     
    For not taxing food

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Louis XV twice ban printing of the Encyclopédie?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    For causing irreparable damage to morality and religion
    Correct Answer:
     
    For causing irreparable damage to morality and religion

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    On whose art did Watteau model the dog in The Signboard of Gersaint?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Peter Paul Rubens
    Correct Answer:
     
    Peter Paul Rubens

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did North American slaveholders aim to gather Africans of differing backgrounds and languages?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To reduce the chances of an uprising
    Correct Answer:
     
    To reduce the chances of an uprising

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Jefferson locate Monticello on a hilltop?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Hilltops were traditional sites of Greek or Roman temples
    Correct Answer:
     
    Hilltops were traditional sites of Greek or Roman temples

Question 8:   Multiple Choice


  1. As described in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why does Antoine Jean Gros's painting of Napoleon and his army battling the Russians make odd propaganda?


    Correct Answer:
     
    Most of Napoleon's men died in that campaign

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Napoleon launch a massive rebuilding program in Paris?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To make Paris the new Rome
    Correct Answer:
     
    To make Paris the new Rome

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did Houdon position a plowshare beaten by a sword behind George Washington in his 1788 sculpture?
Given Answer:
Correct 
To signify his role as a warrior who brought peace to his people
Correct Answer:
 
To signify his role as a warrior who brought peace to his people

Warehouses displaced the poor
What type of government did France have after Napoleon fell in 1815?


Monarchy
What did the English Factory Act of 1833 do for factory workers?


Banned employment of children under age nine

According to French philosopher Auguste Comte, society passes through what three stages on its quest for knowledge?


Theological, metaphysical, and positive
What were the Romantic artists reacting against?


Neoclassicism's order, control, and balance
Why did Robert Owen's New Harmony, Indiana, utopian experiment fail?


The people it attracted lacked skills to contribute


Why is the music that arose in reaction to the Rococo called "classical"?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Its symmetry, proportion, unity, and clarity
Correct Answer:
 
Its symmetry, proportion, unity, and clarity


Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    On whose art did Watteau model the dog in The Signboard of Gersaint?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Peter Paul Rubens
    Correct Answer:
     
    Peter Paul Rubens

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why do many of François Boucher's paintings of Madame de Pompadour show her reading or writing?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To validate her role as Louis XV's most trusted advisor
    Correct Answer:
     
    To validate her role as Louis XV's most trusted advisor

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the Hapsburg Emperor Joseph II react negatively to Mozart's Don Giovanni?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It had too many notes
    Correct Answer:
     
    It had too many notes

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Voltaire declare that "Sparta became Athens" when Frederick the Great assumed power in Prussia?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Frederick turned from military to cultural pursuits
    Correct Answer:
     
    Frederick turned from military to cultural pursuits

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    On whose design did Thomas Jefferson model Monticello?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Andrea Palladio
    Correct Answer:
     
    Andrea Palladio

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why in The Wealth of Nations did Adam Smith take a laissez-faire position on slavery?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Slavery was just another commodity
    Correct Answer:
     
    Slavery was just another commodity

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Napoleon reject Canova's statue of him as Mars?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He thought displaying himself as a nude was inappropriate
    Correct Answer:
     
    He thought displaying himself as a nude was inappropriate

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did North American slaveholders aim to gather Africans of differing backgrounds and languages?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To reduce the chances of an uprising
    Correct Answer:
     
    To reduce the chances of an uprising

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why was Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état of the French Directory in 1799 successful?
Given Answer:
Correct 
The Directory was not providing stability for France
Correct Answer:
 
The Directory was not providing stability for France


HUM 112 Week 4 What is Goya’s tragic vision? How does progress hurt? Why do you think Beethoven changed his ideas for the Eroica? What sets it apart from the rest? What is your reaction to the Fifth Symphony? What makes it a classic? What is the theme of the Ode to Joy? How has it been adapted for today? What term did Hector Berlioz give to the leading theme or melody in his symphonies? What is characteristic of Berlioz’ work? What do we know about Mendelssohn? Was Schumann a “happy camper?” What do you find unusual or unfortunate about Chopin? How did artists respond to industrialization? What is the Romantic world view? Are you Romantic or Classical? Should we go with our gut feelings or plan responsibly for the future? Who was Kant? What is the categorical imperative? What is deontological?