Tuesday, February 14, 2017

HIS 105 Week 7 Winter 2017


Assignment 2.1: Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline

Due Week 7 and worth 70 points

By the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations. Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.” This assignment covers the manner in which this shift occurred and the consequences the United States faces as a result of its status as “policemen of the world.” Using the Internet and reputable news sources, research two (2) real-life international incidents from the past five (5) years in which:

  • The U.S. used military action abroad.
  • Controversy existed within the American public regarding U.S. involvement.
  • Controversy existed within the country or countries affected by U.S. involvement.
Part 1
  1. Write a thesis statement that is one to two (1-2) sentences long in which you:
    1. State your thesis on the significance of the current role of the US military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
For the first part of this assignment you will create a thesis statement. A thesis statement is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your main idea to the reader. The body of the essay organizes the material you gather and present in support of your main idea. Keep in mind that a thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. (Note: Please consult the Purdue OWL Website with tips on how to construct a proper thesis; the website can be found at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/545/01/

Part 2

For the next part of this assignment you will create an outline of the main points you want to address in this paper. This will serve as the basis for your Assignment 2.2 Final Draft. (Note: Please use the Purdue Owl Website to assist you with this assignment; this website can be accessed at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/2/55/
  1. Write a one to two (1-2) page outline in which you:
    1. Describe the two (2) international events involving the US military from the past five (5) years you investigated that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.
    2. List three (3) aspects of US history since 1865 that have led to the US’s rise as a world super power policeman.
    3. List three to five (3-5) international incidents since World War II where America has taken on a policing role.
    4. List three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)
    5. Use at least three (3) academic references besides or in addition to the textbook. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
 Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
  • Identify and discuss the different ways that the Civil War, Reconstruction, and Industrialization after the Civil War have shaped America’s history.
  • Summarize and discuss the ways that formal policies of government have influenced the direction of historical and social development in the United States.
  • Recognize the major turning points in American history since the Civil War.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in contemporary U.S. history.
  • Write clearly and concisely about contemporary U.S. history using proper writing mechanics.
Great Society

http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%2012_Cold%20War%20Culture%20and%20Civil%20Rights/Great%20Society%20Lesson%20Plan1.pdf


Malcolm vs. King

"You don't integrate with a sinking ship." This was Malcolm X's curt explanation of why he did not favor integration of blacks with whites in the United States. As the chief spokesman of the Nation of Islam, a Black Muslim organization led by Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X argued that America was too racist in its institutions and people to offer hope to blacks. The solution proposed by the Nation of Islam was a separate nation for blacks to develop themselves apart from what they considered to be a corrupt white nation destined for divine destruction.

In contrast with Malcolm X's black separatism, Martin Luther King, Jr. offered what he considered "the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest" as a means of building an integrated community of blacks and whites in America. He rejected what he called "the hatred and despair of the black nationalist," believing that the fate of black Americans was "tied up with America's destiny." Despite the enslavement and segregation of blacks throughout American history, King had faith that "the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God" could reform white America through the nonviolent Civil Rights Movement.
This lesson will contrast the respective aims and means of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. to evaluate the possibilities for black American progress in the 1960s.
 
A Journalist’s Report: The Better Vision for Black Americans
Student Name _______________________________________________________ Date _________________
From Martin Luther King, Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail,”
April 16, 1963:
http://www.stanford.edu/group/Ki
ng/frequentdocs/birmingham.pdf
MY DEAR FELLOW CLERGYMEN:
While confined here in the Birmingham City Jail,
I came across your recent statement calling our
present activities “unw
ise and untimely.” . . . But since I feel that you are men of genuine goodwill and
your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would lik
e to answer your statement in what I hope will be
patient and reasonable terms.
I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the
argument of “outsiders coming in.”
I have the honor of serving as pr
esident of the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference, an organizat
ion operating in every Southern stat
e, with headquarters in Atlanta,
Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliate organi
zations all across the South--one being the Alabama
Christian Movement for Human Righ
ts. Whenever necessary and possible we share staff, educational
and financial resources with our a
ffiliates. Several months ago our lo
cal affiliate here
in Birmingham
invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent di
rect action program if such were deemed necessary.
We readily consented and when the hour came we liv
ed up to our promises. So I am here, along with
several members of my staff, because I have basic organizational ties here.
Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the eighth cen
tury prophets left their
little villages and carried their “t
hus saith the Lord” far beyond the bound
aries of their home towns; and
just as the Apostle Paul left his
little village of Tarsus
and carried the gospel
of Jesus Christ to
practically every hamlet and city of the Graeco-Roman world, I too am compelled to carry the gospel of
freedom beyond my particular home town. Like Paul, I must constant
ly respond to the Macedonian call
for aid.
Moreover, I am cognizant of the interr
elatedness of all communities and
states. I cannot sit idly by in
Atlanta and not be concerned about
what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to
justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of
destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. Never agai
n can we afford to live with the
narrow, provincial “outside agitator” idea. Anyone
who lives inside the Unite
d States can never be
considered an outsider anywhe
re in this country. . . .
In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps:
1) Collection of the facts to determine whether
injustices are alive. 2) Negotiati
on. 3) Self-purification and 4) Dire
ct action. We have gone through all
of these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying of the fact that racial injustice engulfs this
community.
Birmingham is probably the most t
horoughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of
police brutality is known in every section of this country. Its unjust trea
tment of Negroes in the courts is
a notorious reality. There have been more unsolved bombings of
Negro homes and churches in
Birmingham than any city in this nation. These are th
e hard, brutal and unbelieva
ble facts. On the basis
of these conditions, Negro leaders so
ught to negotiate with the city fathers. But the political leaders
consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. . . .
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
18





. . . So we had no alternative except that of prepar
ing for direct action, whereby we would present our
very bodies as a means of laying our case before
the conscience of the loca
l and national community.
We were not unmindful of the difficulties involve
d. So we decided to go through a process of self-
purification. We started having wo
rkshops on nonviolence and repeatedly asked ourselves the questions:
“Are you able to accept blows withou
t retaliating?” “Are you able to e
ndure the ordeals of jail?” We
decided to set our direct-action pr
ogram around the Easter season, realiz
ing that with th
e exception of
Christmas, this was the largest shopping period of th
e year. Knowing that a strong economic withdrawal
program would be the by-product of direct action, we felt that this was the best
time to bring pressure on
the merchants for the needed changes. . . .
You may well ask: “Why direct action? Why sit-ins,
marches, etc.? Isn’t nego
tiation a better path?” You
are exactly right in your call for
negotiation. Indeed, this
is the purpose of di
rect action. Nonviolent
direct action seeks to create such a crisis and esta
blish such creative tension that a community that has
constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it
can no longer be ignored. I just referre
d to the creation of tension as a part of the work of the nonviolent
resister. This may sound rather shoc
king. But I must confess that I am
not afraid of the word tension. I
have earnestly worked and preached against violen
t tension, but there is
a type of constructive
nonviolent tension that is necessary for growth. . . .
So the purpose of the direct
action is to create a
situation so crisis-packed that it wi
ll inevitably open the door to negot
iation. We, therefore, concur with
you in your call for negotiation. Too
long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in the tragic
attempt to live in monologue rather than dialogue.
One of the basic points in your statement is that
our acts are untimely. Some have asked, “Why didn’t
you give the new administration time to act?” The only answ
er that I can give to th
is inquiry is that the
new Birmingham administration must be
prodded about as much as the outgoing one before it acts. . . .
We know through painful experience th
at freedom is never voluntarily
given by the oppressor; it must
be demanded by the oppressed. . . .
You express a great deal of anxiet
y over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate
concern. Since we so diligently urge people to
obey the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 outlawing
segregation in the public schools, it is rather st
range and paradoxical to fi
nd us consciously breaking
laws. One may well ask: “How can you advocate break
ing some laws and obeyi
ng others?” The answer
is found in the fact that there are two types of laws: There are
just
and there are
unjust
laws. I would
agree with Saint Augustine that “An unjust law is no law at all.”
Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine when a law is just or unjust? A
just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the la
w of God. An unjust law is a code
that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it
in the terms of Saint Thom
as Aquinas, an unjust law
is a human law that is not rooted in eternal and na
tural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is
just. Any law that degrades human
personality is unjust. All segrega
tion statutes are unjust because
segregation distorts the s
oul and damages the personality. . . . So I can urge men to disobey segregation
ordinances because they are morally wrong.
. . . Let me give another explanation. An unjust
law is a code inflicted upon a minority which that
minority had no part in enacting or
creating because they did not ha
ve the unhampered right to vote.
Who can say that the legislature
of Alabama which set up the segregation laws was democratically
elected? Throughout the state of Al
abama all types of conniving methods
are used to prevent Negroes
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
19
from becoming registered voters an
d there are some counties without
a single Negro registered to vote
despite the fact that the Negro cons
titutes a majority of the population.
Can any law set up in such a state
be considered democratically structured?
These are just a few examples of unj
ust and just laws. There are some instances when a law is just on its
face and unjust in its application. For instance, I was
arrested Friday on a charge of parading without a
permit. Now there is nothing wrong with an ordinan
ce which requires a permit for a parade, but when
the ordinance is used to preserve segregation an
d to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of
peaceful assembly and peaceful protest, then it becomes unjust.
I hope you can see the distinction I am
trying to point out. In no sense
do I advocate evading or defying
the law as the rabid segregationist
would do. This would lead to an
archy. One who breaks an unjust law
must do it
openly, lovingly,
(not hatefully as the white mothers di
d in New Orleans when they were seen
on television screaming “nigger, nigger, nigger”)
and with a willingness to
accept the penalty. I submit
that an individual who breaks a law that conscience te
lls him is unjust, and willingly accepts the penalty
by staying in jail to arouse the cons
cience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the
very highest respect for law. . . .
We can never forget that everything Hitler did in
Germany was “legal” and everything the Hungarian
freedom fighters did in Hungary was
“illegal.” It was “illegal” to
aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s
Germany. But I am sure that if I had lived in
Germany during that time I would have aided and
comforted my Jewish brothers even though it was illegal. . . .
. . . Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct act
ion are not the creators of
tension. We merely bring
to the surface the hidden
tension that is already alive. We bri
ng it out in the open where it can be seen
and dealt with. Like a boil that can
never be cured as long as it is cove
red up but must be opened with all
its pus-flowing ugliness to the natura
l medicines of air and light, in
justice must likewise be exposed,
with all of the tension its exposi
ng creates, to the light of human c
onscience and the air of national
opinion before it can be cured.
In your statement you asserted that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they
precipitate violence. But can this
assertion be logically made? Isn’t
this like condemning the robbed man
because his possession of money precipitated the
evil act of robbery? Isn’t this like condemning
Socrates because his unswerving commitment to trut
h and his philosophical delvings precipitated the
misguided popular mind to make him drink the hemloc
k? Isn’t this like condemning Jesus because His
unique God-Consciousness and never-ceasing devoti
on to His will precipitated the evil act of
crucifixion? We must come to see, as the federal cour
ts have consistently affirmed, that it is immoral to
urge an individual to withdraw his efforts to ga
in his basic constitutional rights because the quest
precipitates violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber.
I had also hoped that the white modera
te would reject the myth
of time. . . . All that is said here grows
out of a tragic misconception of time.
It is the strangely irrational noti
on that there is something in the
very flow of time that will inevitab
ly cure all ills. Actually time is neutral. It can be used either
destructively or constructively. . . . We must come to
see that human progress never rolls in on wheels of
inevitability. It comes through the tireless efforts a
nd persistent work of men
willing to be co-workers
with God, and without this hard work time itself become
s an ally of the forces
of social stagnation. We
must use time creatively, and forever realize th
at the time is always ripe to do right. . . .
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
20
You spoke of our activity in Birmingham as extreme.
At first I was rather
disappointed that fellow
clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of
the extremist. I started thinking about the fact
that I stand in the middle of
two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of
complacency made up of Negroes who, as a result of
long years of oppression, have been so completely
drained of self-respect and a sense of “somebodiness”
that they have adjusted to segregation, and, of a
few Negroes in the middle class who, because of
a degree of academic and economic security, and
because at points they profit by segregation, have unc
onsciously become insensitive to the problems of
the masses. The other force is one of bitterness,
and hatred comes perilous
ly close to advocating
violence. It is expressed in the
various black nationalist
groups that are springing
up over the nation, the
largest and best-known being Elij
ah Muhammad’s Muslim movement
. This movement is nourished by
the contemporary frustration over the continued exis
tence of racial discrimi
nation. It is made up of
people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have
concluded that the white man is an incurable “devil.
” I have tried to stand between these two forces
saying that we need not follow the
“do-nothingism” of the complacent
or the hatred and despair of the
black nationalist. There is the more excellent way of
love and nonviolent protes
t. I’m grateful to God
that, through the Negro church, th
e dimension of nonviolence entered
our struggle. If this philosophy
had not emerged, I am convinced that by now many stre
ets of the South would be flowing with floods of
blood. And I am further convinced that
if our white brothers dismiss as
“rabble rousers” and “outside
agitators” those of us who are working through the channels of nonviol
ent direct action and refuse to
support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes, out
of frustration and despair,
will seek solace and
security in black-nationalist ideologies, a developmen
t that will lead inevitably to a frightening racial
nightmare. . . .
There was a time when the church was very power
ful. It was during that period when the early
Christians rejoiced when they were deemed worthy
to suffer for what they believed. In those days the
church was not merely a thermometer that recorded
the ideas and principles of
popular opinion; it was a
thermostat that transformed the mores of society.
Whenever the early Christians entered a town the
power structure got disturbed and
immediately sought to convict them
for being “disturbers of the
peace” and “outside agitators.” But they went on w
ith the conviction that they were “a colony of
heaven,” and had to obey God rather than man. Th
ey were small in number but big in commitment.
They were too God-intoxicated to be “astronomically
intimidated.” They brought an end to such ancient
evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contest.
Things are different now. The contemporary church is
often a weak, ineffectual
voice with an uncertain
sound. It is so often the arch supporter of the status
quo. Far from being disturbe
d by the presence of the
church, the power structure of the
average community is consoled by th
e church’s silent and often vocal
sanction of things as they are. . . .
I hope the church as a whole will me
et the challenge of this decisive
hour. But even if the church does
not come to the aid of justice, I ha
ve no despair about the future. I have
no fear about the outcome of our
struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are
presently misunderstood. We will reach the goal of
freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, becau
se the goal of America is freedom. Abused and
scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up w
ith the destiny of America. Before the pilgrims
landed at Plymouth we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched across the pages of history the
majestic words of the Declaration of Independence, we
were here. For more than two centuries our fore-
parents labored in this country w
ithout wages; they made cotton king
; and they built the homes of their
masters in the midst of brutal injustice and shamef
ul humiliation--and yet out
of a bottomless vitality
they continued to thrive and deve
lop. If the inexpressible cruelties
of slavery could not stop us, the
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
21
opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win
our freedom because the sa
cred heritage of our
nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands.
I must close now. But before closing I am impelled
to mention one other point in your statement that
troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Bi
rmingham police force for keeping “order” and
“preventing violence.” I don’t be
lieve you would have so warmly commended the police force if you
had seen its angry violent dogs li
terally biting six unarmed, nonviolen
t Negroes. I don’t believe you
would so quickly commend the policemen if you woul
d observe their ugly and inhuman treatment of
Negroes here in the city jail; if you would wa
tch them push and curse old Negro women and young
Negro girls; if you would see them slap and ki
ck old Negro men and young boys; if you will observe
them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us
food because we wanted to sing our grace together.
I’m sorry that I can’t join you in your
praise for the police department. . . .
I wish you had commended the Negr
o sit-inners and demonstrators
of Birmingham for their sublime
courage, their willingness to suffer and their amaz
ing discipline in the midst of the most inhuman
provocation. . . . One day the South will know that wh
en these disinherited child
ren of God sat down at
lunch counters they were in reality standing up for th
e best in the American dream and the most sacred
values in our Judaeo-Christian he
ritage, and thusly, carry
ing our whole nation back to those great wells
of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fa
thers in the formulation of the Constitution and
the Declaration of Independence. . . .
Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood,
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
22
A Journalist’s Report: The Better Vision for Black Americans
Student Name _______________________________________________________ Date _________________
Directions
: As you work your way through King’s “Let
ter from Birmingham Jail,” answer the
following questions in the space provided.
Questions
Answers
Does King consider himself an
“outsider” by staging a civil rights
protest in Birmingham? List three
reasons he gives in response to this
criticism.
Explain the four-step process King
outlines for their nonviolent campaign.
Does King recognize the danger of
breaking laws in order to change
them? How does he connect the
means of civil disobedience with its aim
in order to justify this form of nonviolent
resistance?
Does King think the tension stirred up
by his protest movement helps or
hinders social and political reform?
Permission is granted to educators to reproduce this worksheet for classroom use
23
How does King respond to the charge
that he is an extremist? Whom does he
identify as the real extremists?
Why is King hopeful about the
prospects for equal rights for black
Americans? Give specific examples
and reasons he mentions to support
your answer.

“A Summing Up: Louis Loma
x Interviews Malcolm X
,” November 1963:
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.
org/library/index.asp?document=539

Trump Surprise

https://youtu.be/eYPx5I8JSco



Wanda Sykes Trump a RACIST (VIDEO), 5:31

https://youtu.be/EMUiFQwZlDQ





Chicago Trump Voter

https://youtu.be/djx3T9IEc1A



SHOCKING VIDEO: California High School Student BRUTALLY BEATEN For Supporting DONALD TRUMP!! 3:42

https://youtu.be/GfJenokrmb4



Chapters 24 and 25

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HIS/105/1138/Week7/Lecture1/story.html

Cold War America

The decade-and-a-half after the Second World War witnessed a dramatic expansion of America's car culture, highlighted by the creation of the Interstate Highway System that is still in existence today. This ad also demonstrates American hopes for a technologically advanced future, another hallmark of Cold War America.

Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following.

24-1 Explain the causes of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, and discuss some of the more serious incidents between the two superpowers.

24-2 Describe American life as it developed during the 1950s, including social, economic, and political issues, and evaluate the significance of the Cold War in these changes.

24-3 Explain the rise and effects of McCarthyism in American life.

24-4 Describe the breakthroughs forged by African Americans in the 1950s and the retaliatory movement that came to be called “massive resistance.”

“Affluence and consumerism promoted a new style of life in America, as people moved to the suburbs, drove automobiles in massive numbers, and stayed home to watch television.”

Two impulses ran through the America that emerged from the Second World War. The first was the distrust, suspicion, and hostility engendered by the Cold War. The Cold War began when the United States, without question the most powerful country in the world following World War II, tried to use its power to proclaim a new global order based on democracy and capitalism. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union, which undeniably bore the brunt of the fighting during the war, with an astounding 23 million dead, rejected the American world order, favoring instead communism and a world revolution in the name of the worker. It also more simply wanted to create a buffer of countries friendly to its communist system. After all, Germany had invaded the Soviet Union twice in thirty years, and used Poland and other countries of eastern Europe to do so. But where the Soviets saw a protective barrier of friendly states, the United States saw communism on a revolutionary march to dethrone capitalism. The result was an ideological, economic, and military contest known as the Cold War that shaped American politics, economic life, and even its cultural and social developments throughout the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s.

24-1 The Cold War

24-1a Background

The Cold War was decades in the making. American politicians had long been suspicious of a communist ideology that called for the destruction of international capitalism via worldwide revolution. They rued and feared the work of the primary theorist of communism, the German intellectual Karl Marx (1818-1883), who not only diagnosed many of the inherent problems of capitalism but also predicted that workers would not put up with economic inequalities forever; they would revolt, taking power from the wealthy and the powerful and putting themselves in charge. And once the revolution started, so Marx’s prediction went, it would spread to other nations, taking down one capitalist country after the next. The workers of the world would unite.

Most Americans feared this development, and the American commitment to capitalism makes some sense. The United States had, after all, emerged in the early twentieth century as the wealthiest nation in the world because of its commitment to industrialized capitalism. So throughout the twentieth century the United States pushed back against the growth of communism not only within its own borders but abroad as well. In 1918, in the notable Polar Bear Expedition, the United States even landed 5,000 troops in Russia in an unsuccessful bid to aid anticommunist forces during the Russian Revolution that first led the communists to power. Throughout the twentieth century, then, many Americans were perpetually leery that Karl Marx’s prediction might come true. After World War II, two issues mushroomed this long-standing distrust into a hostile Cold War: (1) atomic power and (2) the Soviet Union’s attempt to create buffer states between it and western Europe (see “The reasons why …” box below).

24-1b The Policy of Containment

Was communism advancing or was the Soviet premier Joseph Stalin just trying to protect his nation from European invasion? Despite Stalin’s declarations, the United States saw communism on the march. In a “long telegram” drafted in 1946 by George F. Kennan, the senior American diplomat stationed in Moscow, the Americans developed a response to communist expansion that came to be called containment. As the policy of containment went into effect, it was clear the United States was not only in an ideological war with communism and the Soviet Union, but was also willing to back it up with military might and economic support.

Is the Islamic state contained?

Friday, 13 November 2015, just moments after Barack Obama told Good Morning America that “ISIS has been contained,” the worst attack occurred on French soil since German Panzers rolled through the Ardennes in 1940. 

Dr. Gorka shares warning about the global strategy of ISIS, 3:31

The United States has seen ISIS-related arrests across 13 states in 2016.

https://youtu.be/1O5VJbUqK08



The Policy

In his “long telegram,” Kennan suggested that communism was on a collision course with capitalism and that the Soviets would do four things in order to win: (1) perpetually seek to expand their territory unless checked by economic, political, and military pressure; (2) undermine Western colonial development in Africa and the Middle East; (3) develop their own economic bloc closed off to the rest of the world; and (4) attempt to penetrate Western civil society to promote Soviet interests.

Kennan proposed that Western governments fight back. They should educate their public about the Soviet threat, promote democracy abroad, and work to solve their own social problems in order to prevent exploitation by communists. What the West needed to do was contain communism and not let it advance any farther than it already had. Many understood the policy of containment in terms of the Domino Theory, which held that the United States was obligated to prevent the communist “dominoes” from falling for fear that they would tip off the next dominoes and begin a process of communist world domination. The idea of containing the dominoes propelled American foreign policy for the next five decades.

24-1c Hardened Lines


Shortly after the Marshall Plan was unveiled, Moscow declared that Soviet-occupied countries would not be permitted to take American funds. Stalin was afraid that capitalism and democracy might stimulate antiSoviet governments to form along its border, threatening Soviet security. In 1948, Stalin consolidated his control of eastern Europe by ousting the last eastern European government not dominated by communists in Czechoslovakia. In 1955, the members of this union formalized their organization with the Warsaw Pact. The sides were beginning to harden (see Map 24.1). Disagreement and suspicion were turning into an armed standoff.

Announcement of the Truman Doctrine, March 1947, 2:08
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=truman_doctrine

Transcript
Alarmed at the rapid expansion of totalitarian interests in Europe and Asia, President Truman addresses a joint session of Congress on our changing foreign policy. A grave gathering hears his forthright message.
The gravity of the situation, which confronts the world today, necessitates my appearance before a Joint Session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this country are involved. One aspect of the present situation, which I present to you at this time for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey. The very existence of the Greek state is that they threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men lead by communists. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this faithful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East. We must take immediate and resolute action. I therefore ask the Congress to provide authority for assistance to Greece and Turkey in the amount of 400 million dollars for the period ending June 30th, 1948. In addition to funds, I ask the congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to Greece and Turkey at the request of those countries to assist in the task of reconstruction and for the purpose of supervising the youth of such financial and material assistance as maybe furnished. The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world and we shall surely endanger the welfare of this own nation.




















North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Pact that cemented an alliance of Western nations; prompted by the Berlin Crisis

Farage reacts to Trump's proposed NATO agenda, 4:11

Former UK Independence Party leader Nigel Farage weighs in on Donald Trump's proposed foreign policy agenda on NATO.

https://youtu.be/quq8QWPwMPE



24-1d The Berlin Crisis

The first significant confrontation of the Cold War developed in Germany. The Allies from World War II had agreed to divide postwar Germany into four occupation zones (one for the United States, one for the Soviet Union, one for Great Britain, and one for France). The capital city of Berlin (which sat directly in the center of the Soviet zone) was similarly divided into four zones, one for each member. In February 1948, the Americans, British, and French met in London to plan the economic reconstruction of their zones, and, on June 23,1948, they announced the extension of the West German currency, the Deutschmark, into West Berlin in an effort to sew together the nation in the name of Western democracy and capitalism. Fearing too much Western influence, Stalin was not prepared to allow this currency into the heart of the Soviet zone, so on June 24, the Soviets blockaded West Berlin, preventing food and supplies from entering the non-Soviet sections of the city. This was the first “battle” of the Cold War.


The Marshall Plan, 1:40

This short video has footage of George Marshall testifying before Congress in January, 1948 about the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe after World War II.

https://youtu.be/lUd2W6aMng4



24-le Conflicts in Asia

Despite the continued debate, by 1949, the two sides had consolidated their positions on either side of the iron curtain. But after the Berlin Crisis, the Cold War stalled in Europe; the iron curtain was largely in place. Instead, the focus of the Cold War was shifted elsewhere. Asia was the first stop. Britain and France had huge colonial possessions in Asia and Africa, but after World War II they no longer had the money to maintain those empires. Moreover, the Atlantic Charter had plotted the Allied Powers at least rhetorically against colonialism. This fact allowed an opening for Soviet-backed revolutionary movements. Would these colonial holdings in Asia become communist? Would the United States allow them to?

“Losing” China

As nationalist battles in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia threatened Western colonial power (and would later lead to the Vietnam War), more immediate issues loomed in China. Although China had been on the winning side in World War II, the war had damaged its stability, and immediately after the war the country fell into civil war between Chinese Communists (under Mao Zedong) and Chinese Nationalists (under Chiang Kai-shek). The United States funneled billions of dollars to the Nationalists even though America’s diplomats warned that a communist takeover was inevitable. In October 1949, Mao completed his conquest; China was now controlled by a communist ruler. Mao soon signed a treaty with Stalin, while the Chinese Nationalists were forced to withdraw to the island of Taiwan.

The situation in China sent shock waves through the United States. Truman was accused of having “lost” China to communism, and some people even hinted that there were communist agents within the State Department. Mao s victory raised the stakes of containment. Not only was communism potentially on the march, but it had taken over the largest Asian nation in the world. It looked like the United States was losing the Cold War.

24-1f American Rearmament

American leaders were determined to prevent other states from “falling.” In a classified paper known as NSC-68, American diplomats portrayed an uncontrollably aggressive Soviet Union whose program for “world domination” required the “ultimate elimination” of any opposition. NSC-68’s sweeping recommendations to stop the threat included a massive military buildup, the creation of hydrogen bombs, and the rooting out of all communists on American soil.

Read excerpts from NSC-68.

To critics, NSC-68 seemed out of proportion to the threat. But on June 25, 1950, communist powers in North Korea invaded South Korea, thus beginning the Korean War. Afraid of what this meant for the march of communism, the National Security Council adopted NSC-68 as official policy. To prepare to impede communist progress, it embarked on a vast rearmament plan, increasing the 1951 defense budget from $13.5 billion to $48.2 billion. The Korean invasion had made the incredible—a worldwide communist takeover—suddenly seem plausible.

24-1g The Korean War

Korea seemed an unlikely place for World War III to break out. It was remote, and it did not possess vital natural resources. But “losing” China had taken its psychological toll on American leaders. Plus, just as with Berlin, Korea, which had been controlled by Japan during the war, was divided between the Allies after the war, with the Soviets controlling the northern half and the United States controlling the southern half. The country was to be reunified in 1948, but the deadline passed without the nation coming together. Tensions between the north and the south simmered, and when North Korean forces (aided by Soviet planners) attacked and easily took the South Korean capital of Seoul, Americans felt the need to respond (see Map 24.2).

President Truman Explains Military Action in Korea, 1:43
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=korea_truman

The Coming of the Korean War, 3:46
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=coming_of_the_korean_war

UN Air Strikes against Enemy Targets in Korea, 1:43
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=korea_un_planes

24-11 A Cold War, Not a Hot One

In the wake of the Korean War, many Americans concluded that the United States could not afford another land war against the Soviet Union and its allies. While still committed to containment, starting in the mid-1950s the United States relied less on open warfare and instead emphasized (1) covert operations, (2) formal alliances, and (3) the presence of nuclear weapons.

Newsman Edward R. Murrow on the Polaris and Advancing Missile Technology, 1:43
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=murrow_polaris_launch

Covert Operations

In this environment, one approach that maximized the effectiveness of American foreign policy was overthrowing uncooperative foreign governments through agencies like the CIA. The pattern was set in 1953, in Iran, and in 1954, in Guatemala. In both countries, the CIA and its functionaries acted on the U.S. federal government’s belief that left-wing governments might be susceptible to communist influence, even if these governments had been democratically elected. The governments of Iran and Guatemala were both overturned covertly, and the United States repeatedly resisted getting involved in situations that would have to be made public. There was a negative side to these covert operations, however. For instance, the political instability that the CIA forced on these countries led to a forty-year civil war in Guatemala and a twenty-five-year dictatorship in Iran that was so authoritarian during the period of American sponsorship that it generated the conditions of its own downfall. In 1979 these conditions would lead to a civil war that empowered the Islamic revolutionary Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

24-2 The Cold War Home Front

The Cold War shaped American domestic life in many ways. For one thing, it helped keep the economy hot despite the demobilization after World War II. Fear of nuclear war also inspired both a second Red Scare (usually called McCarthyism, as explained later in this chapter) and a religious revival. The Cold War contributed to a tide of conservatism, as many politicians warned that communists had gained a foothold in American political and cultural life and any left-leaning initiative might be the secret work of covert communists. This conservatism diminished some of the momentum of postwar liberals, who believed the rhetoric of World War II had given them leverage to pass their pro-union, antidiscrimination agenda. (Despite this, the fight against fascism remained a point of rhetoric for most civil rights liberals.)

Operation Alert: (1956) Mock H-Bomb Attack, 1:11
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=hydrogen_bomb_hysteria

24-2a Truman and the Postwar Economy

The Fair Deal

At the end of World War II, Truman saw all the returning soldiers and feared that job shortages were imminent. With this in mind, in late 1945 he submitted a twenty-one-point plan, later called the Fair Deal, that sought to expand the welfare state initiated during the New Deal. The Fair Deal included increases to the minimum wage, federal assistance in building homes, federal support for education and health care, and an attempt to reach full employment through public works. Showing Truman’s commitment to civil rights, the Fair Deal also renewed the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC), which Roosevelt had established to end racial job discrimination in federal jobs.

24-2b Economic Growth

After these initial flurries of uncertainty, however, the postwar economy picked up. Indeed, it grew red hot. From 1947 to 1960, the gross national product doubled. Wages went up, inflation stayed low, and leisure activities became accessible to more and more Americans. So did comforts like electricity, air conditioning, and indoor plumbing. Well more than half of all Americans were now considered “middle class.” Fears about a distressed economic picture melted away as the American nation successfully converted to a peacetime economy.

24-2c Suburban Nation

The new interest in cars combined with a quirk in the GI Bill led to another change in American life: the dramatic growth of the suburbs. The GI Bill made loans available for new homes, but it did not finance the renovation of old homes. For this and other reasons, more and more Americans moved out of the cities to the green ring around them.

Eisenhower and cold war influence on highway construction. Nice color clips of visitors driving to National Parks--and the service stations, hotels and fast foods places that popped up.

1950s Car Culture
4:03

https://youtu.be/W7-m3FEm5VA



24-2d Postwar Domestic Politics

As American social life changed in the 1950s, so did national politics, drifting toward conservatism and propelled by persistent fears of Soviet influence in the United States.

Truman’s Decline

Viewing Truman as a spent force after his labor troubles in 1947, the Republicans eagerly anticipated the presidential election of 1948. Their chances seemed dramatically improved by internal dissension among Democrats. First, Truman’s support for civil rights (for example, his 1948 order to end segregation in the armed forces) antagonized southerners, who had been vital members of Roosevelt’s New Deal coalition and loyal Democrats for nearly eighty years. Truman also put a civil rights plank in the 1948 party platform. In protest, southern delegates literally walked out of the Democratic National Convention and formed their own party, the States’ Rights Democratic Party, then selected their own candidate for president. These so-called “Dixiecrats” threatened to disrupt the Democratic hold on the South that dated back to Reconstruction.

Second, Truman had alienated many liberals when he fired Henry Wallace from his cabinet. Former vice president Wallace had openly criticized Truman’s Cold War policies and advocated greater cooperation with the Soviets. Wallace’s followers formed the Progressive Party and nominated Wallace as their candidate. Truman was under assault from the right and the left, and this was just within his own party.

Truman’s Resurgence

For their part, Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey, indicating that they had made peace with some elements of the New Deal legacy. Dewey advocated several liberal policies, hoping to appeal to the middle of the political spectrum. In July 1948, however, Truman cleverly called Congress back into session and demanded that the Republicans pass an agenda based on their own party platform. When congressional Republicans refused to act, Truman attacked the “do-nothing Republican Congress.” This made it appear as if they were making election-year promises that they did not intend to keep. Many union workers also returned to the Democratic fold, encouraged by Truman’s veto of Taft-Hartley and by his calls for the nation to strengthen the New Deal (although he still lost union-heavy Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania). Farmers came out particularly strong for Truman as well, giving him all but six states west of the Mississippi. In November 1948, Truman pulled off a stunning upset, defeating Dewey and helping recapture both houses of Congress for the Democratic Party.

24-3 The Second Red Scare

All this politicking took place with dramatic background music: the second Red Scare. For those caught in its sweep, it was more than just background music. The Red Scare was a crusade against communist influence within the United States. Its scope was wide and deep, curtailing civil liberties and quelling political dissent from the top levels of national politics to lowest neighborhood school board meeting.

24-3a Loyalty Oaths

The second Red Scare began almost as soon as World War II ended; its prominence paralleled the progress of the Cold War. Fearful of allegations that there were communists working in his government, in 1947 Truman established the Federal Loyalty-Security Program, which investigated the backgrounds of all federal employees and barred hiring anyone who was deemed a security risk. Meanwhile, Truman’s attorney general, Tom C. Clark, compiled a list of hundreds of organizations that were considered potentially subversive. The organizations were then subjected to investigations. Many state and city governments and private companies emulated the loyalty program and required employees to sign loyalty oaths. Between 1947 and 1965, roughly 20 percent of all working people in the United States were required to take an oath.

Read Truman’s 1947 loyalty oath.

24-3b Nixon, Hoover, and McCarthy

With fingers pointing everywhere, leading Americans grew worried about an insidious conspiracy to overthrow the government. Congressman Richard Nixon, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, and Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin were at the center of this storm. For his part, Nixon propelled himself to fame in 1948 by charging former State Department official Alger Hiss with espionage. Although the evidence of his association with communists at first appeared shaky, Hiss was convicted of lying about his Soviet contacts in 1950. Decades later, his guilt is still debated by historians, although most now conclude that Hiss was in fact a spy. Meanwhile, Hoover insisted that communists were everywhere, “even at your front door,” and he instructed the FBI to keep tabs on people who might be associated with communism. In general, his investigations extended to any group that challenged conformity, including liberals, labor activists, civil rights workers, and especially homosexuals.

1950s Red Scare and Arrests of Alleged Communists, :59
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=convicted_communists

Senator Joseph McCarthy Interrogates Reed Harris, 4:56
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/media/player.html?video=reedharris_mccarthy_interrogation


1956 U.S Elections - I like IKE For President, 1:00

The United States presidential election of 1956 was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956. The popular incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of 1952, as Eisenhower's opponent in 1956 was Adlai Stevenson, a former Illinois governor, whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier.
Eisenhower was popular, although his health had become a quiet issue.[2] Stevenson remained popular with a core of liberal Democrats, but held no office and had no real base. He (and Eisenhower) largely ignored the subject of civil rights[citation needed]. As the country enjoyed peace - Eisenhower had ended the Korean War - and economic growth, few doubted a successful re-election for the charismatic Eisenhower.
Compared to the 1952 election, Eisenhower gained Kentucky, Louisiana, and West Virginia from Stevenson, while losing Missouri.

This was the last presidential election before the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii, which would participate for the first time as states in the 1960 presidential election. It was also the last election in which any of the major candidates was born in the 19th century, or were both renominated for a rematch of the previous presidential election.

https://youtu.be/6AfdqVowwNI



24-4 Civil Rights Breakthroughs

Despite the tendency toward McCarthy-inspired conservatism during these years, minorities achieved significant breakthroughs. Indeed, many minorities used the language of freedom inspired by the Cold War to push for their own increased rights. European immigrant groups, which had faced discrimination before the war, were generally assimilated into American culture during the war. They became accepted in social groups and the workplace in ways that would have been unthinkable just two decades prior. And African American groups began to mobilize their forces for what would become the civil rights movement.

President Eisenhower and the Republicans pioneered civil rights breakthroughs.

[TRAILER] Little Rock, 1957 - The Civil Rights Battleground, 1:25

How can a bold decision change the course of American Civil Rights history? See how President Dwight D. Eisenhower ensured that all students could receive an equal education at Little Rock Central High School. “Little Rock, 1957 – The Civil Rights Battleground” featuring an interview with President Bill Clinton, premieres on the Eisenhower E-Memorial www.EisenhowerMemorial.gov on December 9.

https://youtu.be/5x8Z7i7aeSg



Hollywood Ten

Group of screenwriters and directors accused of being members of the Communist Party blacklist

Collection of names of hundreds of people deemed “subversive” whom Hollywood executives agreed not to hire

24-4a Desegregation in the Military

President Truman displayed an early example of this new consideration for minorities. Truman was the first president to address the NAACP at its national convention. More importantly, in 1946, Truman formed the first Committee on Civil Rights to assess the state of citizenship rights across the country. The committee issued a report, To Secure These Rights, that recommended “the elimination of segregation, based on race, color, creed, or national origin, from American life.” Based on these recommendations, Truman ordered the desegregation of the U.S. armed forces in 1948. The process was slow and laborious, and not complete until 1954. But it was a monumental accomplishment that brought black and white Americans together in the close confines of the U.S. military.

Desegregating the armed forces also sent a clear signal that the federal government was willing to challenge segregation in its own ranks. The armed forces became a model example that interracial desegregation could work, something that was not generally accepted before the 1940s (and, for many Americans, not until much later than that). That same year, Truman endorsed a plank in his party’s platform at the Democratic National Convention that supported civil rights for all Americans, regardless of race, creed, or color. Though many Democrats expressed outrage, civil rights had entered the national dialogue.

24-4b Desegregation in Sports

Professional baseball featured another popular example of civil rights liberalism. In April 1947, Jackie Robinson, a World War II veteran, made his major league baseball debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Aware that his presence would generate hostility, Robinson vowed not to retaliate against racist taunts. As expected, fans threw debris at him, rival players attacked him, and he was often barred from eating with his teammates on the road. Despite these stressful hardships, Robinson flourished. He won the National League Rookie of the Year award in 1947 and the league’s Most Valuable Player award in 1949, and later he became the first African American inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Within a few years, a number of other stars of the Negro Leagues entered the historically white major leagues, successfully integrating “America’s pastime,” a highly visible aspect of the nation’s cultural life.

24-4c Massive Resistance and the Black Response

Faubus was not alone. In the South, black advances were almost always met by massive resistance from the dominant white population. Certainly some white southerners supported racial integration, but the loudest and most agitated did not. African American activists and their white sympathizers were beaten, picketed, and generally maltreated, sometimes even killed. The Brown decision itself had led to the creation of several White Citizens’ Councils, which were organized to defend segregation. The Ku Klux Klan also experienced a revival in the middle 1950s, especially in the South. And parts of the South, such as Prince Edward County, Virginia, chose to close their public school system and their public pools rather than be forced to integrate.

Emmett Till


Bob Dylan, Death of Emmett Till - song and slideshow, 4:39

Why is a young, white, Jewish man singing about Emmett Till?

https://youtu.be/AjYD5PJVYkU



Looking Ahead…

The conflicts over race in 1950s America would turn out to be dress rehearsals for the massive social changes that would come in the 1960s. But more than just civil rights were affected by the changes in postwar America. The political spectrum was colored by the Cold War for the next half-century. Americans were to have access to greater luxuries than in any other society in the history of the world. Jobs were mostly plentiful, and churches were generally full. But these changes came with some costs. The fear of unpredictable nuclear holocaust loomed over everything. Women were socially prescribed to remain in the home if the family could afford it. Racial disparities were made worse by restrictions in suburban housing. And the consumerist impulse of American life led many Americans to critique their society as hollow and bland. Whatever else it might be, the coming decade, when these complaints would have ramifications, would not be described as bland, conformist, or dull. It is to that subject, “the sixties,” that we now must turn.

What else was happening …
1947     AT&T invents the cellular phone, which becomes commercially available only in 1983.
1950     Danish doctor Christian Hamburger performs the first sex change operation on New Yorker George Jorgensen, who becomes Christine Jorgensen.
1954     Ray Kroc buys the small-scale franchise McDonald’s Restaurant and begins to turn it into the most successful fast-food chain in the world.
1959     The Beatles form.


Dwight D. Eisenhower exit speech on Jan.17,1961: warning of the military industrial complex.

Eisenhower Farewell Address -- Military Industrial Complex, 1:32

https://youtu.be/nUXtyIQjubU

BBC coverage of President Dwight Eisenhower's Farewell Address, in ehich he warns the United States of America against the rise of the Military Industrial Complex.



Eisenhower Rolls In His Grave - MIC Has Completely Taken Over US-Foreign Policy, 3:51

The US plans to spend 725 billion dollars on its military activity this year. It is the worlds largest-ever defense budget and it comes amid a flagging economy and burgeoning national debts. When it comes to the Afghan war, well over half of Americans oppose it. And, after a year of record casualties and having ploughed in over $366 billion, why is the US committed to staying the course?


https://youtu.be/ioa2hVjqryM



What values are expressed in these defining TV shows? What members of the family are depicted? What type of relationship do they enjoy?

Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1950s Likewise, in the 60s, answer the same questions as above. However, what has changed during the 60s? What is different than the 50s shows?

Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1960s

1950s, 12:30

https://youtu.be/4wKlth2yTF8



1960s, 12:30

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZkkgwaBceog&feature=youtu.be



Chapter 25

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HIS/105/1138/Week7/Lecture2/story.html

The Sixties

A psychedelic image of the musician Jimi Hendrix, who symbolized the topsy-turvy nature of the latter half of the 1960s with his songs about being enveloped in a Purple Haze of confusion. More explicitly, Hendrix, an African American, led two white backup musicians in challenging American social and cultural norms.

Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following.

25-1 Describe the experiences John F. Kennedy had while president that led some to label him the “ultimate cold warrior.”

25-2 Discuss attempts made both by African Americans and by the legal system to provide voting and other rights to black citizens.

25-3 Discuss Lyndon Johnson’s desire to build a "Great Society" and evaluate the relative success of his programs.

25-4 Explain the situation in Vietnam that President Johnson inherited from his predecessors, and evaluate the decisions he made over the next few years concerning the Vietnam War.

25-5 Discuss the growth of the "counterculture" in American society during the 1960s, and describe the various movements that began to gather strength as Americans with an agenda sought to have their voices heard.

“The transition to the excitement and disenchantments that we associate with the sixties took place slowly, beginning about 1963 or 1964.”

From today’s perspective, the years 1960, 1961, and 1962 look a lot more like the fifties than what we have come to think of as “the sixties.”

The economy remained strong, those advocating for dramatic social change remained largely on the margins, and the child-focused world of the postwar years retained its grip in the ever-expanding suburbs.
The transition to the excitement and disenchantments that we associate with the sixties took place slowly, beginning about 1963 or 1964.

It culminated in 1968, as liberalism—America’s dominant political system at the time, which stressed individual rights, democratic capitalism, and a generous system of social entitlements—seemed under attack from all sides.

Some felt it was too generous, creating a class of entitled loafers unwilling to do their fair share.

Others felt postwar liberalism wasn’t generous enough, sacrificing equality for the sake of freedom, and placing a priority on appearances and consumerism rather than authenticity and generosity.

Nonviolent political stances—against racial discrimination and the Vietnam War—so infuriated resisters that they sometimes turned to violence, which was sometimes met in return by further violence.

By the late 1960s, this violence included even the assassinations of leaders like John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert Kennedy.

Furthermore, sexual and social mores seemed to be changing and loosening, as a widespread drug culture emerged and as women pushed against society’s long-held restrictions.

African Americans and other repressed minorities also began to demand greater recognition and access to power.
In the end, the agents for change provoked a conservative reaction that began mounting in 1968 and persisted for the next several decades.

Change was not against political conservatives but those in Democratic Party who maintained the status quo. In 1964 and again in 1968 the Democratic Party was convulsed by change elements, increasingly radical and sometimes violent, that resisted.


25-1 Kennedy and the Cold War

The sixties started conventionally enough. After eight years in the White House, Eisenhower was still beloved by much of America. But the Twenty-second Amendment, ratified in 1951 in reaction to FDR’s four terms as president, did not permit Eisenhower, or anyone else, to run for more than two terms in office. Eisenhower tepidly endorsed his vice president, Richard Nixon, who had risen to fame through the anticommunist witch hunts of the 1950s Red Scare.

For their part, the Democrats nominated a young (forty-three-year-old) Massachusetts senator named John F. Kennedy. The scion of a prosperous Boston Irish family, Kennedy seemed to have been bred for the job. He was a World War II hero with an easy demeanor and a good sense of humor. He had been a middle-of-the-road congressman and senator, removing himself from debates about the tactics of the McCarthy supporters, although both he and Nixon promised to execute the Cold War more aggressively than had Eisenhower. Kennedy was also Catholic, and at a time when Catholics and Jews were just beginning to feel part of the national mainstream, many Americans still believed he would be unable to lead the country without consulting the pope.

In a masterful performance in front of a group of Protestant ministers in Houston, Kennedy claimed that he felt it was inappropriate for any church to demand specific actions from a government leader. He hoped that both Catholics and Protestants would not vote for a candidate based on the candidate’s religion alone. His Catholicism may have helped develop his character, but it did not dictate his moral life. Masterfully given, this speech helped transform the political landscape for religious minorities. In one stroke he made the anti-Catholic diatribes of his detractors irrelevant. More importantly, Kennedy rightly viewed his election as a generational transition and surrounded himself with young advisors, few of whom were older than fifty. In the first-ever televised presidential debate, Kennedy came off as cool and demure, while Nixon appeared clammy and untrustworthy. In the end, Kennedy won an extremely narrow victory over Nixon, and though his Catholicism may have cost him some votes, he prevailed to become the first Catholic president in American history (see Map 25.1).

John F. Kennedy On The Separation Of Church And State, 1:22

John F. Kennedy speaking before the Greater Houston Ministerial Association at the Rice Hotel in Houston, Texas on September 12, 1960.

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At this time Senator Kennedy was running for the Presidency and getting a lot of heat from people, because he was Catholic and the U.S. had never had a Catholic President before.

JFK stresses the importance of separation of church and state and condemns nations without religious liberty and tolerance. This speech angered the Pope and the Vatican.

(c) Kennedy Library Foundation http://www.youtube.com/JFKLF .

https://youtu.be/zP2C0dCUD3A



Obama's pro-Islamic, anti-American Strategy, 4:16

The American people and the world are finally getting it. What seem like Obama's delusional mindset and dangerous unilateral insanity are easily explained by Obama's loyalties.

Obama does not have a strategy to "degrade and ultimately destroy" the radical Islamic terrorists because he does not want to degrade and destroy the radical Islamic terrorists. What Obama means by that oft-repeated, equivocal phrase, "degrade and ultimately destroy”– (pay special attention to the word “ultimately”) – is only containment. Worse, not containment of our radical Islamic terrorists enemies – containment, rather, of Obama’s American critics.

Obama's strategy is one of head fakes and false promises as he strengthens Radical Islam's position and weakens America's.

If we are to save our country from this false leader, we must call Obama's strategy what it is: Treason.
“Their strategy by now should be clear to all thinking Americans. It is embedded in the Barack Obama-Valerie Jarrett strategy to “transform America.” It is an anti-American and anti-Western, but a pro-Islam, pro-Iran and pro-Muslim Brotherhood strategy….The latest move by the Obama administration — hosting a group of leaders aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood at the State Department, whose objective is to obtain support for the overthrow of Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi — was unconscionable. …. The character of the Obama administration is very clear — never more so than with the continued release of hardened terrorists from Guantanamo Bay. The limited air strikes against the barbaric Islamic State should be seen as further evidence as to where White House sympathies lie. With the administration’s disastrous immigration policies and the resettlement of an unknown number of Muslims throughout the country, Congress must act now to preserve our Constitution and the American way of life. As a first order of business, both the House and the Senate should start censure proceedings against Mr. Obama for his unconstitutional acts.”

• James A. Lyons, a U.S. Navy retired admiral, was commander-in-chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet and senior U.S. military representative to the United Nations http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2...

https://youtu.be/4LxrGgZ5PLM



 Hillary Clinton Hacked Emails "Obama Is A Muslim Drug Dealer", 5:47

https://youtu.be/snyv-9HVmO0



 John F. Kennedy

Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You: the inaugural address of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 5:37

This is the side of Kennedy that is most often presented in presidential hagiography but JFK is more complex than any one simple approach. The preeminent historian Robert Dallek writes: "Learning, for example, a great deal more than any biographer has previously known about Kennedy's medical history allowed me to see not only the extent to which he hid his infirmities from public view but also the man's exceptional strength of character. In addition, I have tried to understand his indisputable womanizing, including previously unknown instances of his compulsive philandering" (p. x, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917 - 1963, Robert Dallek).

Cf. http://www.librarything.com/work/2330/34479783

https://youtu.be/wyME671Hi4M

Read the Transcript: http://to.pbs.org/hzoQ00

On the 50th anniversary of his inauguration, watch an excerpt of John F. Kennedy's famous speech on the steps of the Capitol that began his presidency on Jan. 20, 1961.

LIFE.com, released a series of never-before-seen photos for the 50th anniversary of the Kennedy inauguration. See them here: http://to.pbs.org/fG4zee



25-1a President Kennedy

During the 1960 campaign, Kennedy often spoke of a “new frontier,” although once he was in office, his agenda rarely diverged from that of standard-issue Democrats like Truman. Like Truman, he lacked a congressional majority to enact major new programs. As a result, Kennedy’s calls for increased federal aid for education, medical care, mass transit, the unemployed, and a cabinet-level urban affairs department generally went nowhere.

25-1b Kennedy the Cold Warrior

But Kennedy did become an avid Cold Warrior. During the election, he vowed to take a more aggressive approach to the Cold War than Eisenhower had, by challenging communism all over the world.


JFK invokes the biblical figure of Isiah to promote his ideas. "Ask not . . . Cold War Montage, JFK, 4:31

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=8EdPuF2vPFk

https://youtu.be/8EdPuF2vPFk



Kennedy addresses the nation on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 3:05

https://youtu.be/W50RNAbmy3M




1957 - First Satellite in Space (Sputnik), 3:24

Sputnik 1 launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by many amateur radio operators and the Jodrell Bank Observatory. Sputnik's R-7 booster had previously proven itself more than one month earlier as the world's first ICBM in the successful long-range test flight of August 21 (with the accomplishment published in Aviation Week). Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.

https://youtu.be/Xw57VErRjA8



John F. Kennedy's Moon Speech to Congress - May 25, 1961, America on the Moon, July 20, 1969, 1:36


https://youtu.be/Kza-iTe2100




25-2 The Freedom Movement

As Kennedy navigated the difficult terrain of a multifaceted worldwide Cold War, a movement at home was emerging just as dramatically. After the civil rights victories of the 1950s, African Americans stepped up their activism in the early 1960s, using Cold War rhetoric to demonstrate that America itself was not living up to its claim of being a beacon of freedom.
25-2a Expanded Nonviolence

Civil rights protests had been ongoing since the Second World War, but they increased in intensity and number in the early 1960s, beginning with the actions of a collection of university students.

25-2b National Successes

While SNCC and CORE were orchestrating the Freedom Rides, other groups were attempting to dismantle social aspects of segregation.

James Meredith, Project “C," and the Children’s Crusade

In 1962, James Meredith sought to enroll as the first African American student in the history of the University of Mississippi. His attempt was met with strong segregationist resistance, prompting Kennedy to go on live television arguing against the inhumanity of persistent segregation. Kennedy also sent in federal troops to quell riots and ensure that Meredith be allowed to attend the university.

Building on the successes of nonviolent protest, in 1963 the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) under Martin Luther King, Jr., launched a campaign in what was called “the most segregated city in America,” Birmingham, Alabama. They called their campaign Project C, which stood for “confrontation.” King and others organized marches—often bringing along children dressed in their Sunday best—protesting segregation even after Birmingham’s mayor outlawed such protests. They marched anyway, and more than 20,000 black people were arrested, including thousands of children. The notoriously brutal Bull Connor directed his men to attack the protesters with police dogs, electric cattle prods, and high-powered water hoses. National media captured the action, sending images across the globe of children being arrested and women being beaten.

The campaign ended in bitter victory for the civil rights protesters, but only after white supremacists bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham during a church service, injuring several African Americans and killing four African American girls. Millions of Americans were outraged by the violence and demanded federal action. As pressure mounted, the Kennedy administration implored local white leaders to end the violence. Birmingham’s white leaders agreed to meet with black leadership and adopted a desegregation plan. As a result, not only were parks and various public spaces desegregated, but black people also had access to city jobs previously denied them.

March on Washington

In 1963, in an effort to push for federal civil rights laws, SCLC cosponsored the historic March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. At the August 28 gathering, leaders from every major civil rights organization spoke. No other orator was as powerful as Martin Luther King, Jr., who delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. King’s ability to tap into both Christian and American symbolism was tremendously effective. He extolled the belief “that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” The simple, forceful demand for America to live up to its national creed was difficult to reject or dismiss.

The civil rights movement, at the beginning of the '60s was led by Christians and patriotic Americans; however, by the end of the decade the radical "New Left" student movement picked up the banner and found inspiration in socialist and international ideals.

25-2c Laws and Rifts

In the atmosphere of the popular March on Washington, activists pushed the federal government for new civil rights laws (indeed, support of these kinds of laws was one purpose of the march). Kennedy agreed, announcing his intention in the summer of 1963 to put forward a bill. The anticipation ended when the president was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, in one of the iconic moments of the twentieth century (discussed below).

The Twenty-fourth Amendment and the Civil Rights Act

Within days after being sworn in, Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon Baines Johnson, a tall Texan with a southern drawl, surprised everyone when he insisted that he would fight on behalf of Kennedy’s legislative plan for civil rights. Johnson worked with several civil rights organizations and appealed to the public in press conferences. Johnson was driven and focused about passing several laws. With his shepherding, in January 1964 the states ratified the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed the use of the poll tax in federal elections (it was extended to cover state elections in 1966).

Then, a major civil rights bill passed the House on February 10, 1964. After a failed filibuster by South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond, it won Senate approval late in June. On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act outlawed all discrimination in public facilities based on color, religion, sex, and national origin and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate violations of the law in employment—something that had never been done before. Discrimination remained permissible in some aspects of the private sphere, but the Civil Rights Act was of paramount importance in outlawing discrimination within the mechanisms of the state.

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)

The challenge of 1964 was against the Democratic Party and those who had opposed civil rights such as Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia and LBJ when he was a Senator from Texas.

Fannie Lou Hamer MFDP clip, 3:40

Clip about Fannie Lou Hamer's speech at the 1964 Democratic National Convention from the Stanley Nelson film "Freedom Summer."

https://youtu.be/aSKjPKZASa4



25-3 The Great Society

While John Kennedy came into office promising a “new frontier” of liberal policies, his day-to-day agenda was made up largely of issues related to the Cold War and the civil rights movement. Tragedy struck before he could move beyond those objectives.
25-3a The Kennedy Assassination

On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was gunned down while riding in an open limousine in Dallas. The assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, left few reasons for his murder, and Oswald himself was gunned down two days later while being transported from police headquarters to jail, an event that aired on live television. For four days, the nation collectively mourned its fallen leader. In death, the image of the brash Cold Warrior and the tepid civil rights supporter underwent a transformation to that of a liberal legend, the king of Camelot.

JFK assassination: Cronkite informs a shocked nation, 1:50

"As The World Turns" was airing on CBS the afternoon of November 22, 1963, when Walter Cronkite broke in to tell the nation that President Kennedy had been shot. Coverage then went back to the soap opera, but not for long. Charles Osgood reports on how America learned of the shooting of a president.

https://youtu.be/6PXORQE5-CY



The Great Society programs were never carried out by JFK since he was assassinated; LBJ though took up JFK's agenda and promoted his "War on Poverty" and the Great Society. This development has been described as the plantation mentality.

25-3b Lyndon Johnson

Kennedy’s replacement was a big Texan named Lyndon Johnson, who did not have Kennedy’s charisma. What he did possess was political skill, and it was through him that the nation made its most significant attempt to expand the American welfare state.

Having grown up in poverty in Texas, and having cut his political teeth as a fervent New Dealer, President Johnson viewed poverty as more divisive than race, and he thus sought to transform American liberalism through a series of programs intended to end poverty and expand education. In 1964, Johnson called for America to become a “Great Society,” where “no child will go unfed and no youngster will go unschooled; where every child has a good teacher and every teacher has good pay, and both have good classrooms; where every human being has dignity and every worker has a job.” Running on this platform, Johnson won a mandate for change in a resounding landslide election victory over Barry Goldwater in November 1964.

25-3c Johnson’s Great Society

Johnson took office with a degree of public support and sympathy that his two Democratic predecessors had lacked. Just five days after taking office in November 1963, Johnson asked Congress to honor the memory of President Kennedy by passing his civil rights bill. It did. After that, Johnson became interested more in addressing issues of poverty and education than in addressing issues of race.


Star Parker: Welfare dependency destroys black families, 3:43

After the war on poverty in the 60s, we began to see the unraveling of the entire black community because the family collapsed. During the 60s, the black family was pretty healthy. Seventy-eight percent of husbands were in their homes with their wives raising their children. But after this lure to government that said "you don't have to work, you don't have to save, you don't have to get married," over time marriage stopped occurring to where now 7 out of 10 black children are born outside of marriage and what happens when you don't have that intact family is your values change. So your culture changes. So your community changes.

https://youtu.be/eqtE-f0yZoA



25-4 Johnson’s Vietnam

Johnson inherited the same Cold War problems that Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy had faced. But over time, Vietnam was the Cold War flashpoint that flared most persistently. By 1964, U.S. troops stationed in South Vietnam had become mired in a complex civil war that would keep them there for nearly a decade.


Tonkin Gulf Incident


Gulf of Tonkin Controversy from 60 Minutes -- LBJ, Fulbright, Morse, 3:29

Excerpts from a program on the Gulf of Tonkin incident and controversy. Includes interviews with LBJ, Senator William Fulbright, Senator Wayne Morse. Back when there was real journalism on television.

https://youtu.be/NOEH-xAMHRk



The Johnson Administration

A first-rank account exists of the crucial period between November 1963 and July 1965 when Democratic President, LBJ, and Robert McNamara, the Secretary of Defense, lied to the American public and escalated the war in Vietnam.

"As American involvement in Vietnam deepened, the gap between the true nature of that commitment and the president's depiction of it to the American people, the Congress, and members of his own administration widened" (Cf. Dereliction of Duty: Johnson, McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam, H. R. McMaster, p. 322).

Cf. http://www.librarything.com/work/13326/summary/42305403


Escalation - A Film by Ward Kimball, 2:31

1968 film by Ward Kimball protesting LBJ's escalation of the war in Viet Nam. Look familiar?

https://youtu.be/_PZBtWNxlQs



McGovern Warns Obama of LBJ Legacy, 3:40

In 1964, President Johnson said of Vietnam that I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think that we can get out. Its just the biggest damn mess I ever saw.'' Yet Johnson escalated the conflict and America became bogged down in Southeast Asia for more than a decade. Former Senator George McGovern recently sat down with ANP and said that Obama runs the risk, like Johnson's Great Society, of hobbling his ambitious domestic goals if he continues to send troops into Afghanistan.

https://youtu.be/de320qKblKc



25-4a Initial Decisions

When Johnson took office in November 1963, he agonized over whether the United States should make a significant commitment to prevent South Vietnam from becoming a communist nation. He knew America might become embroiled in a lengthy war that would drain resources from his envisioned Great Society. But he also knew the United States had to retain credibility as a fighter of communism. Johnson’s policy advisors were equally conflicted, offering a variety of recommendations about what to do, ranging from air strikes against the communist Viet Cong to complete withdrawal because victory seemed so unlikely. (Most, however, favored escalating the amount of American involvement in order to ensure communist defeat.) In the end, Johnson decided that fighting communism outweighed the risks involved. He sent more troops.

25-4b Battle

The Vietnam War was an attempt to fight both a counterinsurgency within South Vietnam and a civil war between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Thus there were no clear boundaries or military victories.


Domino Theory, Eisenhower to Nixon, 1:11

https://youtu.be/QP9QDRDLw6c



25-4c Domestic Criticism


The Tet Offensive, dispiriting reports from the front, and reports from questioning journalists all prompted many Americans to criticize the war. The media initially had been generally supportive of the war effort, but as the army got bogged down, as the sunny reports from the administration were countered by gloomier reports from the front, the media became some of the war’s harshest critics.

Television coverage grew increasingly negative, and most reporters said the war could not be won on terms acceptable to the United States.


With domestic criticism of the war increasing and the U.S. government spending enormous amounts of money to manage the conflict, President Johnson reached his breaking point.

On March 31, 1968, the president addressed the nation with a call for peace negotiations—which began in Paris later that year—and a dramatic reduction in bombing runs over North Vietnam.

Johnson also astonishingly withdrew from the presidential campaign to punctuate his desire to conclude the war.

Despite Johnson’s dramatic reversal, however, years of fighting in Southeast Asia lay ahead before U.S. leaders fully accepted defeat.

25-5 Liberalism Adrift

By the middle of the 1960s, significant changes had taken place in American life. The civil rights movement had questioned America’s commitment to equality and brought the issue of social justice more forthrightly to the table of public consideration.

The Great Society had expanded the welfare state and redefined the role of government in American life.
The Vietnam War provoked large-scale protests about what critics saw as a meaningless war.
These protests swirled together, sometimes in concert, sometimes in conflict.

The result was to make the late 1960s a contentious time, one in which most forms of authority were brought under scrutiny.


Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

Organization founded in 1959 declaring that young people were tired of older political movements, even older radical ones; formed the core of a selfconscious "New Left" movement, which rejected the Old Left’s ideologies of economic justice in favor of an ideology of social justice.

25-5a Protests on Campus

Besides the civil rights movement, the first large-scale protests emerged from the youth culture of the 1950s.

The New Left

Inspired by the civil rights movement, radical student activism began to spread across America’s college campuses in the early 1960s. The seminal group was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), founded in 1959. SDS garnered public notice for declaring that young people were tired of older political movements, even older radical ones. The members of SDS formed the core of a self-conscious “New Left” movement, which rejected the Old Left’s ideologies of economic justice in favor of an ideology of social justice.


Mario Savio: Sproul Hall Steps, December 2, 1964, 1:26

"We asked the following: if President Kerr actually tried to get something more liberal out of the Regents in his telephone conversation, why didn't he make some public statement to that effect? And the answer we received -- from a well-meaning liberal -- was the following: He said, "Would you ever imagine the manager of a firm making a statement publicly in opposition to his board of directors?" That's the answer! Now, I ask you to consider: if this is a firm, and if the Board of Regents are the board of directors, and if President Kerr in fact is the manager, then I'll tell you something: the faculty are a bunch of employees, and we're the raw material! But we're a bunch of raw material[s] that don't mean to have any process upon us, don't mean to be made into any product, don't mean to end up being bought by some clients of the University, be they the government, be they industry, be they organized labor, be they anyone! We're human beings!

There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; you can't even passively take part, and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop. And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!"

https://youtu.be/PhFvZRT7Ds0




In 1965, Hillary Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science. During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans; with this Rockefel
ler Republican-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderates Mayor John Lindsay and Senator Edward Brooke. She later stepped down from this position, as her views changed regarding the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. In a letter to her youth minister at this time, she described herself as "a mind conservative and a heart liberal". In contrast to the 1960s current that advocated radical actions against the political system, she sought to work for change within it. In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.

Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty. In early 1968, she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969; she was instrumental in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges. A number of her fellow students thought she might some day become the first female President of the United States. To help her better understand her changing political views, Professor Alan Schechter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference, and she attended the "Wellesley in Washington" summer program. Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican Representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller's late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination. Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami. However, she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed Rockefeller and by what she perceived as the convention's "veiled" racist messages, and left the Republican Party for good.

Rodham wrote her senior thesis, in praise of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky, under Professor Schechter. (Years later, while she was First Lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.)

Dedication page of Alinsky's, Rules for Radicals:

"Lest we forget at least an over-the-shoulder acknowledgment to the very first radical: from all our legends, mythology, and history (and who is to know where mythology leaves off and history begins — or which is which), the first radical known to man who rebelled against the establishment and did it so effectively that he at least won his own kingdom — Lucifer." — SAUL ALINSKY

In 1969, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts,[29] with departmental honors in political science.[28] Following pressure from some fellow students, she became the first student in Wellesley College history to deliver its commencement address. Her speech received a standing ovation lasting seven minutes. She was featured in an article published in Life magazine, due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Brooke, who had spoken before her at the commencement. She also appeared on Irv Kupcinet's nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers. That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).[35]

Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. "Mobilizing the Poor," Saul Alinksky, 5:10

Saul David Alinsky was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1909 to Russian Jewish
parents, the only surviving son of Benjamin Alinsky's marriage to his second wife, Sarah Tannenbaum Alinsky.

What follows is for those who want to change the world from what it is to what they believe it should be. The Prince was written by Machiavelli for the Haves on how to hold power. Rules for Radicals is written for the Have-Nots on how to take it away."[10]

Alinsky died at the age of 63 of a sudden, massive heart attack in 1972, on a street corner in Carmel, California. Two months previously, he had discussed life after death in his interview with Playboy:[4]


ALINSKY: ... if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
PLAYBOY: Why?
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I've been with the have-nots. Over here, if you're a have-not, you're short of dough. If you're a have-not in hell, you're short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I'll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They're my kind of people.
Taped on Dec 11, 1967 (New York City, NY)

Saul Alinsky - From The Documentary Hillary's America, 4:46


Segment from the documentary Hillary's America. Included is Alinsky's famous TV interview with Playboy Magazine shortly before his death where he openly talks about doing his college dissertation on the Al Capone mob and admits that he learned most of his criminal skill from Frank Nitty.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lvclj-AWock

In 2010, Hillary praised her "mentor," Ku Klux Klan member, and fellow Democrat, Robert Byrd; indeed she uploaded her praise for the Klan leader on the U.S. Department of State web site. 1:53

https://youtu.be/7YMJI0A0978



Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta was invited to a “spirit cooking dinner” by performance artist Marina Abramovic, to take part in an occult ritual founded by Satanist Aleister Crowley.

In an email dated June 28, 2015, Abramovic wrote, “I am so looking forward to the Spirit Cooking dinner at my place. Do you think you will be able to let me know if your brother is joining? All my love, Marina.”

What is “spirit cooking”? 9:54

Spirit cooking refers to “a sacrament in the religion of Thelema which was founded by Aleister Crowley” (a Satanist) and involves an occult performance during which menstrual blood, breast milk, urine and sperm are used to create a “painting”.

https://youtu.be/3EsJLNGVJ7E




Campus Unrest in late 1960s & early 1970s at UCLA, Inauguration, Communist professor teaching, Angela Davis, 6:31

Cf. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AI4U-q2o2cg&feature=PlayList&p=55D6264643BE92EA&
playnext_from=PL&playnext=1&index=41

These news clips show the inauguration of Chancellor Charles Young in 1969 despite concerns about student demonstrations. Not long after his inauguration, the chancellor was confronted with the Angela Davis controversy, also shown.


https://youtu.be/AI4U-q2o2cg



Countercultural movements, liberalism fractured into "New Left," at time violent, radical politics.

http://prezi.com/44ny06t9bogb/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

Obama bio



Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization (abbreviated WUO), was an American radical left organization. It originated in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) composed for the most part of the national office leadership of SDS and their supporters. Their goal was to create a clandestine revolutionary party for the violent overthrow of the US government.

With revolutionary positions characterized by Black separatist rhetoric, the group conducted a campaign of bombings through the mid-1970s, including aiding the jailbreak and escape of Timothy Leary. The "Days of Rage", their first public demonstration on October 8, 1969, was a riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO). The bombing attacks mostly targeted government buildings, along with several banks. Most were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with communiqués identifying the particular matter that the attack was intended to protest. For the bombing of the United States Capitol on March 1, 1971, they issued a communiqué saying it was "in protest of the US invasion of Laos." For the bombing of the Pentagon on May 19, 1972, they stated it was "in retaliation for the US bombing raid in Hanoi." For the January 29, 1975 bombing of the United States Department of State Building, they stated it was "in response to escalation in Vietnam."

The Weathermen grew out of the Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM) faction of SDS. It took its name from the lyric "You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows", from the Bob Dylan song "Subterranean Homesick Blues". You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows was the title of a position paper they distributed at an SDS convention in Chicago on June 18, 1969. This founding document called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of US imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism."

1st
Obama Ayers Association, 1:06

Exclusive: Obama Lived 1/2 Mile From Bill Ayers’ College, May Have Shared Apartment, 4:44
Bill Ayers: IED Maker & Obama, 6:47

Bill Ayers: unrepentant domestic terrorist & Obama. Clips from the 2004 documentary film "The Weather Underground."

Ayers as depicted in a Chicago Magazine profile.


And finally, did Ayers write one of Obama's books?

Jack Cashill has written Deconstructing Obama: The Life, Loves, and Letters of America's First Postmodern President -- Threshold Editions -- 2011 concerning his theory that Barack Obama's autobiography Dreams From My Father was ghostwritten by former Weather Underground leader Bill Ayers. Separately, Christopher Andersen, an editor for Time magazine, interviewed people who knew Obama at the time Dreams was being written and concluded that he submitted tapes, notes, and a partially written manuscript to Ayers.

During the Civil Rights struggle "Barry" was in Indonesia.

In 1965, Obama's mother, Ann Dunham, remarried Lolo Soetoro from Indonesia. In 1967, Ann took young Barry with her to Indonesia to reunite him with his stepfather. In 1971, Obama returned to Hawaii to be raised by his grandparents.

Once, long ago, transgender nanny, Evie, looked after "Barry" Soetoro, the kid who would grow up, 1:36

https://youtu.be/mFNrs5yni-g



During Obama's formative years in college it was time for the radicals to change tactics, and follow Alinsky's advice. Alinsky told the radical of the 1960s to infiltrate the system. They were to fit in. They remained convinced of their destiny to be the ones to bring the U.S.A. into the fold of the international socialist collective. They began to organize, go to law school, run for public office, whittle away at traditional American institutions, and in all ways prepare for "The One" who was to come.

Obama was raised on the mother's milk of socialism. Both his parents were fellow travelers, who met at the height of the Cold War in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii. Obama's grandfather was a close friend of Communist Party member Frank Marshall Davis, sending young Barry Soetoro (as he was then known) to him for mentoring, despite (or in ignorance of ) Davis being a pedophile. From the time he returned from 4 years in Indonesia and rejoined his grandparents in Hawaii at the age of 10, he was taken often to be with Frank Marshall Davis.

Barack Obama describes his time at Occidental College (1979 to 1981) in California (pp. 100-101):
"To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully.The more politically active black students. The foreign students.The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and the structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets. We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets. At night,in the dorms, we discussed neocolonialism, Franz Fanon, Eurocentrism,and patriarchy. When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints. We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. We were alienated."

Thomas Sowell Hammers 'Despicable' Derrick Bell; Compares To Hitler, 4:09

https://youtu.be/Zd_euAR6zE8



Obama Protesting at Harvard in the early 1990s, 1:16

Barack Obama in a 1990 video at Harvard protests in favor of the cause of radical black agitator Professor Derek Bell and the hiring of more minority faculty members.

https://youtu.be/tz3qShugQ9I



25-5b Black Power, Chicano Power

Angela Davis, UCLA 1969 to 1970, 6:30

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=AI4U-q2o2cg

Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam

Urban Riots, SNCC, and Black Power

What part did young, white, Socialists play in the rise of Black Power?

Bernie Sanders went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago. There, he joined the Young People's Socialist League, the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America.[27]




Sanders speaks to students participating in Chicago's first civil rights sit-in in protest of University of Chicago's segregated campus housing policy, January 1962.

While at the University of Chicago, Sanders was active in the Civil Rights Movement and a student organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In January 1962, Sanders led a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. “We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university owned apartments,” Sanders said at the protest. Sanders and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president’s office, performing the first civil rights sit-in in Chicago history. After weeks of sit-ins, Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. Sanders also participated in the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. That summer, he was charged with resisting arrest during a demonstration against segregation in Chicago's public schools, and fined $25. In 1964, Sanders graduated from the University of Chicago with a bachelor of arts degree in political science.

Watter's World Mizzou

Mizzou

Dartmouth Black Lives Matter

Dartmouth Apologizes




At about the same time—the middle years of the 1960s—a new militancy was brewing in the African American community.



As the civil rights movement fought its major battles in the South during the early 1960s, a new Black Nationalist movement was rising in the North. The Nation of Islam and its charismatic spokesman, Malcolm X, attained prominence for criticizing the timidity of mainstream civil rights protesters. The Nation of Islam’s leaders rejected the integrationist perspective of these leaders, calling instead for an independent black nation-state. They demanded that black Americans patronize only black-owned stores. They declared that nonviolence was fruitless. As some white people ratcheted up their rejection of the civil rights movement, the Nation of Islam seemed for many black people to be a more realistic solution than nonviolent resistance.

Hear Malcolm X speak on Black Nationalist demands

Urban Riots, SNCC, and Black Power

Despite the political gains of the 1960s, Black Nationalist militancy continued to gather strength, mainly because social and economic discrimination persisted. Beginning in the summer of 1965, following riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles, urban unrest became endemic to many northern black communities. The Watts riot exploded when a seemingly routine traffic stop erupted into violence. The riot lasted six days and left thirty-four dead and more than one thousand injured. Persistent racism was certainly one cause of the riots, but so was the civil rights movement’s strategic decision not to address urban poverty.

SNCC hoped to tap into the urban rage by establishing chapters in the North and developing programs to channel energy into constructive activities. Yet the increasing anger soon changed SNCC itself. In 1966, after being attacked by police during a peaceful march in Mississippi, SNCC chairman Stokely Carmichael rallied a crowd by calling for “black power,” and the crowd began chanting the phrase. White people were purged from SNCC and instructed to go fight racism in white communities. This development alarmed many of both races: Roy Wilkins, the head of the NAACP, called it “a reverse Ku Klux Klan.”

By the late 1960s, Black Power emerged as a movement bridging the gap between Black Nationalism and the civil rights struggle. Leaders in the Black Power movement argued that black people should have control over the social, educational, and religious institutions in their communities. Black Power advocated black pride at a time when blackness was stigmatized.

Black Panther Party

Perhaps no Black Power organization captured the attention of America more than the Black Panther Party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California. The Black Panthers believed that providing goods and services to the most downtrodden people of the black community would be essential to a black revolution, and they developed free clothing and medical programs, as well as a free breakfast program that fed thousands of poor children each week. They began patrolling the streets in armed groups in an attempt to end police brutality. The Black Panthers were also frequently associated with the urban unrest that swept through many black communities in the late 1960s, particularly the riots in more than one hundred cities following the shocking assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968. But Stokely Carmichael argued that the “white power structure” was the ultimate cause of such spontaneous upheavals.


Cop who fought violent black extremists in 1960s sees Black Lives Matter, 1:12

This interview was shot for my documentary The Bloody Road to Philadelphia about the rise and real history of the Black Lives Matter movement. Does an LAPD officer who was at the Watts riots, the Black Panther raid and SLA shootout see parallels to #BlackLivesMatter?

https://youtu.be/EQPq47kisNk



25-5c The Women’s Movement

As before, a movement to increase the voice of women in American life grew alongside activism for African Americans. The inception of the revived women’s movement is usually identified as Betty Friedan’s 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique. Friedan described “the problem that has no name,” which she defined as the pervasive dissatisfaction of middle- and upper-class women who had confined their lives to raising children and keeping a home. Friedan’s book sparked a long consideration of the social norms that defined a woman’s role in American society.

25-5d The Vietnam War at Home

These contentious issues—the frustration of youth searching for a more authentic status quo, the rise of Black Power, women seeking to change American society’s perceptions of gender roles—fused together with protests against the war in Vietnam to create a swirling, acrimonious time filled with change, hope, and frustration. From 1965 to 1970, opposition to the war increased in proportion to the American military commitment, and by 1968 there were more than half a million American troops in Vietnam. Opposition grew from a small-scale protest movement in the middle 1960s to a mainstream force by 1967 and 1968. By the early 1970s, it had had a major impact on American society.

25-5e Social Divisions and Popular Unrest

The Anti-Antiwar Movement

A considerable number of Americans were shocked by the antiwar protests and by the rise of the counterculture. Although one poll in 1967 showed that 46 percent of the public thought the war was a “mistake,” most Americans believed that the United States should attempt to win now that it was involved. As the antiwar movement spread, it provoked anger from conservatives, who saw it as treasonous. In 1970, construction workers (known as “hard hats”) violently attacked antiwar demonstrators in New York City. The hard hats viewed their attacks as their patriotic duty against treasonous kids. It was true, however, that many of the war’s protesters were students who had deferrals from the military, while most of the soldiers were from working-class families who did not have the money to go to college and thus had no way to avoid the draft.

1968

In 1968, such tensions began to split the Democratic Party, which had succeeded in the past as a coalition of union workers, racial and religious minorities, and New Leftists. In the aftermath of the Tet Offensive, an increasing number of Americans came to believe that the war could not be won. Discredited, President Johnson suffered a humiliating near-defeat in the New Hampshire Democratic primary in March against a peace candidate. Johnson subsequently withdrew from the race and backed his vice president, Hubert Humphrey. Robert Kennedy, the brother of John F. Kennedy and also a peace candidate, entered the race and attracted substantial public support. But, like his brother, he too was killed by an assassin. With strong support among “establishment” Democrats, Humphrey won the party nomination, committing the Democrats to a continuation of Johnson’s Vietnam policies.

Chicago Convention The Whole World is Watching 1968 ElectionWallDotOrg.flv, 3:52

https://youtu.be/7_9OJnRnZjU



25-5f Nixon and Vietnam

After Richard Nixon took office in 1969, he began to withdraw American troops from Vietnam. This decreased the strength of antiwar protests. Nixon’s solution (known as Vietnamization) attempted to replace U.S. troops with South Vietnamese forces and keep Vietnam from falling to the communists. While Vietnamization proceeded, Nixon continued bombing raids on Vietnam’s neighbors, Cambodia and Laos, in an attempt to destroy communist posts. And in April 1970, American forces invaded Cambodia to wipe out North Vietnamese staging areas. Nixon was trying to have it both ways: remain in the war, yet look as if he was pulling out.


Kent State Massacre, 6:46

https://youtu.be/vyzoNCJvy4c

In 1970, in response to Nixon's widening of the Vietnam War into Cambodia, students throughout the US protested. Nixon sent the National Guard to restore order to the Kent State campus. The resulting consequences changed the course of the war.

The Kent State shootings (also known as the May 4 massacre or the Kent State massacre) occurred at Kent State University in the US city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.


Some of the students who were shot had been protesting the Cambodian Campaign, which President Richard Nixon announced during a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance.


There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students, and the event further affected public opinion—at an already socially contentious time—over the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.





Looking Ahead…

In January 1973, the United States signed a treaty with North Vietnam to end the war. In 1975, the Viet Cong unified Vietnam under communist control. Yet the announcement did little to heal the wounds raised by years of internal argument over the war’s merits. The war had led to the death of more than 58,000 American soldiers and some 3 million Vietnamese. But it also exposed deep rifts in American society. Perhaps the second tragedy of Vietnam, beyond the death toll, was that it drained resources from programs that attempted to rectify social wrongs, such as poverty, hunger, and unequal education. It was the Vietnam War as much as anything else that derailed Johnson’s Great Society.

Read a denunciation of antiwar protesters by Vice President Spiro Agnew.

The Vietnam War also provoked a shift in American culture, both to the left, in the form of expanded women’s rights and multicultural education, and to the right, in prompting a resurgence of social conservatism in the political sphere and a white ethnic revival that often scorned the advances African Americans had won. It is to these transitions that we will turn next.
What else was happening …
1960     Two hackers from MIT create the first computer video game, Spacewar.
1963     Harvey Ball, a Worcester, Massachusetts, commercial artist, devises the yellow smiley face for an insurance firm that wants to improve employee morale after a bitter corporate takeover.
1964     The G.I. Joe doll—dubbed “America’s movable fighting man” by Hasbro—makes his debut.
1965     Biggest power failure in history causes nine-hour blackout in eastern Canada and the United States, leading to a surge in the national birthrate nine months later.




Post-war America
Chapter 24 Cold War America
24-1 The Cold War
The Arms Race
24-1a Background
The reasons why
Atomic fears
Communism "on the March"
Churchill's "iron curtain" speech
24-1b The Policy of Containment
Is the Islamic state contained?
Friday, 13 November 2015, just moments after Barack Obama told Good Morning America that “ISIS has been contained,” the worst attack occurred on French soil since German Panzers rolled through the Ardennes in 1940. 
The Policy
Kennan
Domino Theory
Vietnam and the Domino Theory
Domino Theory, Eisenhower to Nixon, 1:11

https://youtu.be/QP9QDRDLw6c
Institutions of Containment
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Cold War and Postwar Changes 1945-1970
Confrontation of the Superpowers
p. 632, The Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine, 2:31

p. 632, The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan, 1:40

https://youtu.be/lUd2W6aMng4
Dwight D. Eisenhower exit speech on Jan.17,1961: warning of the military industrial complex.

Eisenhower Farewell Address -- Military Industrial Complex, 1:32
https://youtu.be/nUXtyIQjubU
24-1c Hardened Lines
24-1d The Berlin Crisis
Breaking the Blockade
NATO
24-1e Conflicts in Asia
"Losing China"
24-1f American Rearmament
24-1g The Korean War
The American Response
China Intervenes
Stalemate
Armistice
24-2b Economic Growth
Television and the Automobile, 4:04
What happened as a result of American car culture?
Clip of Groucho Marx Plymouth Desoto commercial...info on sales, interstates, styles---clip of Richfield Boron gas station.

Eisenhower and cold war influence on highway construction. Nice color clips of visitors driving to National Parks--and the service stations, hotels and fast foods places that popped up.
1950s Car Culture
TV Westerns
Top 25 Westerns of All Time, 7:12
http://www.ew.com/gallery/best-westerns?xid=IFT-Trending
24-4c Massive Resistance and the Black Response
Emmett Till
Bob Dylan, Death of Emmett Till - song and slideshow, 4:39
Why is a young, white, Jewish man singing about Emmett Till?
https://youtu.be/AjYD5PJVYkU
What values are expressed in these defining TV shows? What members of the family are depicted? What type of relationship do they enjoy?
Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1950s Likewise, in the 60s, answer the same questions as above. However, what has changed during the 60s? What is different than the 50s shows?
Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1960s
1950s, 12:30
1960s, 12:30
Chapter 25 The Sixties
The United States in the 1960s
John F. Kennedy
Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You: the inaugural address of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 5:37

This is the side of Kennedy that is most often presented in presidential hagiography but JFK is more complex than any one simple approach. The preeminent historian Robert Dallek writes: "Learning, for example, a great deal more than any biographer has previously known about Kennedy's medical history allowed me to see not only the extent to which he hid his infirmities from public view but also the man's exceptional strength of character. In addition, I have tried to understand his indisputable womanizing, including previously unknown instances of his compulsive philandering" (p. x, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917 - 1963, Robert Dallek).
Cf. http://www.librarything.com/work/2330/34479783
https://youtu.be/wyME671Hi4M
25-1b Kennedy the Cold Warrior
JFK invokes the biblical figure of Isiah to promote his ideas.
"Ask not . . .
Cold War Montage, JFK, 4:31
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=8EdPuF2vPFk
https://youtu.be/8EdPuF2vPFk
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy addresses the nation on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 3:05

Picturing History, Sputnik
Sputnik beeps overhead, Americans in awe, including a young John Glenn, 3:23

John F. Kennedy's Moon Speech to Congress - May 25, 1961, America on the Moon, July 20, 1969, 1:36

25-3 The Great Society
25-3a The Kennedy Assassination
Johnson's Great Society
25-4 Johnson's Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Incident
The Johnson Administration
A first-rank account exists of the crucial period between November 1963 and July 1965 when LBJ and Robert McNamara, the Secretary of Defense, lied to the American public and escalated the war in Vietnam.

"As American involvement in Vietnam deepened, the gap between the true nature of that commitment and the president's depiction of it to the American people, the Congress, and members of his own administration widened" (Cf. Dereliction of Duty: Johnson, McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam, H. R. McMaster, p. 322).
Cf. http://www.librarything.com/work/13326/summary/42305403
McGovern Warns Obama of LBJ Legacy, 3:40
In 1964, President Johnson said of Vietnam that I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think that we can get out. Its just the biggest damn mess I ever saw.'' Yet Johnson escalated the conflict and America became bogged down in Southeast Asia for more than a decade. Former Senator George McGovern recently sat down with ANP and said that Obama runs the risk, like Johnson's Great Society, of hobbling his ambitious domestic goals if he continues to send troops into Afghanistan.

https://youtu.be/de320qKblKc
25-5 Liberalism Adrift
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream"
I have a Dream Speech, 1:18
2:18

James Brown, Say It Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud, 5:57
https://youtu.be/2VRSAVDlpDI
Black Identity: I'm Black and I'm Proud, 2:20
"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" is a funk song performed by James Brown and written with his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis in 1968. It was released as a two-part single which held the number-one spot on the R&B singles chart for six weeks, and peaked at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100. Both parts of the single were later included on James Brown's 1968 album A Soulful Christmas and on his 1969 album sharing the title of the song. The song became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement.
Nonetheless, 1968 marks the split in the Black Power movement and the split among liberals between mainstream politics and radicalism. "Soul brother Number 1" remained in the mainstream of American politics, which offended the radicals who advocated pluralism, or, anything goes.
Pluralism: Anything Goes! 2:42

Click the image below to learn more about Black Identity and Pluralism.







I'm Here, We're Here: A journey from Civil Rights achievements to postmodern pluralism.
MUSIC FOLDER
Click the words "Music Folder" above to view materials relevant to the readings for this week.
Music Folder
James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer and dancer. One of the founding fathers of funk music and a major figure of 20th-century popular music and dance, he is often referred to as "The Godfather of Soul". In a career that spanned six decades, Brown influenced the development of several music genres.
Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Toccoa, Georgia. Joining an R&B vocal group called the Avons that later evolved to become The Famous Flames, Brown served as the group's lead singer. First coming to national public attention in the late 1950s as a member of The Famous Flames with the hit ballads "Please, Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the singing group The Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra. Brown's success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You (I Feel Good)" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World". During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making that influenced the development of funk music. By the early 1970s, Brown had fully established the funk sound after the formation of The J.B.'s with records such as "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine" and "The Payback". Brown also became notable for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud". Brown continued to perform and record for the duration of his life until his death in 2006 from congestive heart failure.
Brown recorded 16 number-one singles on the Billboard R&B charts. Brown also holds the record as the artist to have charted the most singles on the Billboard Hot 100 which did not reach number one on that chart. Brown was honored by many institutions including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Hot R&B Songs, James Brown is ranked as number one in The Top 500 Artists. Brown is ranked seventh on the music magazine Rolling Stone's list of its 100 greatest artists of all time.
James Brown. Views on Martin Luther King, Jr., Vietnam and Promised Land speech, April 3, 1968, 1:11
James Brown. A clip from the documentary, "The Night James Brown Saved Boston", features his views on Dr. King speaking out on Vietnam. James Brown believed as a religious leader Dr. King should not have spoken out about the Vietnam War. The clip also includes an excerpt of the Promised Land speech by Martin Luther King. Jr. given on April 3, 1968. Video transcript:Those were the most difficult days for Martin because he was being pulled apart by two movements. The Civil Rights movement and the war in Vietnam. When Dr. King spoke out against the Vietnam war, Mr. Brown thought he was wrong because Mr. Brown thought that he is a religious leader. He is not a politician. He is getting out of his bag, as we would say, he is getting out of what he stands for and he can create a problem for himself. Because the powers that be are not going to stand for this.Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: I just want to do God's will, and he has allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land.
The split in the black power movement came over Vietnam. Shortly before his assassination King spoke out against the Vietnam war.
https://youtu.be/qhpP6DC-H5Y

Politics
During the 1968 presidential campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies. Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January 1969. Brown's endorsement of Nixon during the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his career during that period with several national Black organizations boycotting his records and protesting at his concert shows. Brown stated he was neither Democratic nor Republican despite his support of Republican presidents such as Nixon and Ronald Reagan. In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century, Brown mentioned John F. Kennedy and 96-year-old, former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' And that's great for our country. He's like a grandfather to me." In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard."
This week's music clips relate to chapters 39 and 40. Actually, only chapter 39 applies, as chapter 40 covers no music.
Preliminary clips:
1963 March on Washington: Mahalia Jackson sings her "How I Got Over":https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TALcOreZi0A (lyrics at http://www.songlyrics.com/mahalia-jackson/how-i-got-over-lyrics/ ) Jackson also did a show-stopper before the famous speech, an old Arican American spiritual called "I've been 'buked" (lyrics at http://www.lyricsmania.com/buked_and_scorned_lyrics_harry_belafonte.html).
The 1963 March on Washington and the brief performance by a white folk trio called Peter, Paul and Mary, singing"Blowin' in the Wind" (written by Bob Dylan); They also sang"If I Had a Hammer" (written by Pete Seeger and Lee Hays). Here are the clips: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q9mdxSM19d4and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nxtPurMRAYY.
This link goes to an interesting article on music at that major event in 1963: http://www.usatoday.com/story/life/music/2013/08/27/songs-tied-to-the-1963-great-march-on-washington/2703773/.
----------------------------
25-5a Protests on Campus
The New Left, SDS, Port Huron Statement, "participatory democracy"
Free Speech Movement, Mario Savio
Youth Protest in the 1960s, "The Times They Are A-Changin'"
Mario Savio: Sproul Hall Steps, December 2, 1964, 1:26
"We asked the following: if President Kerr actually tried to get something more liberal out of the Regents in his telephone conversation, why didn't he make some public statement to that effect? And the answer we received -- from a well-meaning liberal -- was the following: He said, "Would you ever imagine the manager of a firm making a statement publicly in opposition to his board of directors?" That's the answer! Now, I ask you to consider: if this is a firm, and if the Board of Regents are the board of directors, and if President Kerr in fact is the manager, then I'll tell you something: the faculty are a bunch of employees, and we're the raw material! But we're a bunch of raw material[s] that don't mean to have any process upon us, don't mean to be made into any product, don't mean to end up being bought by some clients of the University, be they the government, be they industry, be they organized labor, be they anyone! We're human beings!

There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; you can't even passively take part, and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop. And you've got to indicate to the people who run it, to the people who own it, that unless you're free, the machine will be prevented from working at all!"
https://youtu.be/PhFvZRT7Ds0


In 1965, Hillary Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science. During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans; with this Rockefeller Republican-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderates Mayor John Lindsay and Senator Edward Brooke. She later stepped down from this position, as her views changed regarding the American Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War. In a letter to her youth minister at this time, she described herself as "a mind conservative and a heart liberal". In contrast to the 1960s current that advocated radical actions against the political system, she sought to work for change within it. In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy. Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty. In early 1968, she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association and served through early 1969; she was instrumental in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges. A number of her fellow students thought she might some day become the first female President of the United States. To help her better understand her changing political views, Professor Alan Schechter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference, and she attended the "Wellesley in Washington" summer program. Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican Representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller's late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination. Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami. However, she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed Rockefeller and by what she perceived as the convention's "veiled" racist messages, and left the Republican Party for good.
Rodham wrote her senior thesis, in praise of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky, under Professor Schechter. (Years later, while she was First Lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.) In 1969, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts,[29] with departmental honors in political science.[28] Following pressure from some fellow students, she became the first student in Wellesley College history to deliver its commencement address. Her speech received a standing ovation lasting seven minutes. She was featured in an article published in Life magazine, due to the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Brooke, who had spoken before her at the commencement. She also appeared on Irv Kupcinet's nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers. That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).[35]
Hillary's inspiration was Saul Alinksky who dedicated his key work, Rules For Radicals, to Lucifer.
"Lest we forget at least an over-the-shoulder acknowledgment to the very first radical: from all our legends, mythology, and history (and who is to know where mythology leaves off and history begins — or which is which), the first radical known to man who rebelled against the establishment and did it so effectively that he at least won his own kingdom — Lucifer." — SAUL ALINSKY
Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. "Mobilizing the Poor," Saul Alinksky, 5:10
Saul David Alinsky was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1909 to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, the only surviving son of Benjamin Alinsky's marriage to his second wife, Sarah Tannenbaum Alinsky.
What follows is for those who want to change the world from what it is to what they believe it should be. The Prince was written by Machiavelli for the Haves on how to hold power. Rules for Radicals is written for the Have-Nots on how to take it away."[10]

Alinsky died at the age of 63 of a sudden, massive heart attack in 1972, on a street corner in Carmel, California. Two months previously, he had discussed life after death in his interview with Playboy:[4]

ALINSKY: ... if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
PLAYBOY: Why?
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I've been with the have-nots. Over here, if you're a have-not, you're short of dough. If you're a have-not in hell, you're short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I'll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They're my kind of people.
Taped on Dec 11, 1967 (New York City, NY)
https://youtu.be/hwml9RkeIsY
In 2010, Hillary praised her "mentor," Ku Klux Klan member, and fellow Democrat, Robert Byrd; indeed she uploaded her praise for the Klan leader on the U.S. Department of State web site. 1:53
https://youtu.be/7YMJI0A0978
Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta was invited to a “spirit cooking dinner” by performance artist Marina Abramovic, to take part in an occult ritual founded by Satanist Aleister Crowley.
In an email dated June 28, 2015, Abramovic wrote, “I am so looking forward to the Spirit Cooking dinner at my place. Do you think you will be able to let me know if your brother is joining? All my love, Marina.”
What is “spirit cooking”? 9:54
Spirit cooking refers to “a sacrament in the religion of Thelema which was founded by Aleister Crowley” (a Satanist) and involves an occult performance during which menstrual blood, breast milk, urine and sperm are used to create a “painting”.
https://youtu.be/3EsJLNGVJ7E
Campus Unrest in late 1960s & early 1970s at UCLA, Inauguration, Communist professor teaching, Angela Davis, 6:31
Cf.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AI4U-q2o2cg&feature=PlayList&p=55D6264643BE92EA&playnext_from=PL&playnext=1&index=41
These news clips show the inauguration of Chancellor Charles Young in 1969 despite concerns about student demonstrations. Not long after his inauguration, the chancellor was confronted with the Angela Davis controversy, also shown.
Countercultural movements, liberalism fractured into "New Left," radical politics.
http://prezi.com/44ny06t9bogb/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
Obama bio

Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization (abbreviated WUO), was an American radical left organization. It originated in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) composed for the most part of the national office leadership of SDS and their supporters. Their goal was to create a clandestine revolutionary party for the violent overthrow of the US government.

With revolutionary positions characterized by Black separatist rhetoric, the group conducted a campaign of bombings through the mid-1970s, including aiding the jailbreak and escape of Timothy Leary. The "Days of Rage", their first public demonstration on October 8, 1969, was a riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO). The bombing attacks mostly targeted government buildings, along with several banks. Most were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with communiqués identifying the particular matter that the attack was intended to protest. For the bombing of the United States Capitol on March 1, 1971, they issued a communiqué saying it was "in protest of the US invasion of Laos." For the bombing of the Pentagon on May 19, 1972, they stated it was "in retaliation for the US bombing raid in Hanoi." For the January 29, 1975 bombing of the United States Department of State Building, they stated it was "in response to escalation in Vietnam."

The Weathermen grew out of the Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM) faction of SDS. It took its name from the lyric "You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows", from the Bob Dylan song "Subterranean Homesick Blues". You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows was the title of a position paper they distributed at an SDS convention in Chicago on June 18, 1969. This founding document called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of US imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism."
1st
Obama Ayers Association, 1:06
Exclusive: Obama Lived 1/2 Mile From Bill Ayers’ College, May Have Shared Apartment, 4:44
Bill Ayers: IED Maker & Obama, 6:47
Bill Ayers: unrepentant domestic terrorist & Obama. Clips from the 2004 documentary film "The Weather Underground."
Ayers as depicted in a Chicago Magazine profile.
And finally, did Ayers write one of Obama's books?

Jack Cashill has written Deconstructing Obama: The Life, Loves, and Letters of America's First Postmodern President -- Threshold Editions -- 2011 concerning his theory that Barack Obama's autobiography Dreams From My Father was ghostwritten by former Weather Underground leader Bill Ayers. Separately, Christopher Andersen, an editor for Time magazine, interviewed people who knew Obama at the time Dreams was being written and concluded that he submitted tapes, notes, and a partially written manuscript to Ayers.
25-5b Black Power, Chicano Power
Angela Davis, UCLA 1969 to 1970, 6:30
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=AI4U-q2o2cg
Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam
Urban Riots, SNCC, and Black Power
What part did young, white, Socialists play in the rise of Black Power?
Bernie Sanders went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago. There, he joined the Young People's Socialist League, the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America.[27]

Sanders speaks to students participating in Chicago's first civil rights sit-in in protest of University of Chicago's segregated campus housing policy, January 1962.
While at the University of Chicago, Sanders was active in the Civil Rights Movement and a student organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In January 1962, Sanders led a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. “We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university owned apartments,” Sanders said at the protest. Sanders and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president’s office, performing the first civil rights sit-in in Chicago history. After weeks of sit-ins, Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination. Sanders also participated in the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. That summer, he was charged with resisting arrest during a demonstration against segregation in Chicago's public schools, and fined $25. In 1964, Sanders graduated from the University of Chicago with a bachelor of arts degree in political science.
Watter's World Mizzou
Mizzou
Dartmouth Black Lives Matter
Dartmouth Apologizes
Black Panther Party
25-5d The Vietnam War at Home
Counterculture, hippies, Dylan, Beatles, Woodstock
Popular Culture
Elvis, Beatles
"Imperfectly Perfect !!"---- Sam Phillips and Sun Records
Sun Studio was opened by rock pioneer Sam Phillips at 706 Union Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 3, 1950. It was originally called Memphis Recording Service, sharing the same building with the Sun Records label business. Reputedly the first rock-and-roll single, Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats' "Rocket 88" was recorded there in 1951 with song composer Ike Turner on keyboards, leading the studio to claim status as the birthplace of rock & roll. Blues and R&B artists like Howlin' Wolf, Junior Parker, Little Milton, B.B. King, James Cotton, Rufus Thomas, and Rosco Gordon recorded there in the early 1950s.

Rock-and-roll, country music, and rockabilly artists, including unknowns recording demos and others like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Charlie Feathers, Ray Harris, Warren Smith, Charlie Rich, and Jerry Lee Lewis, signed to the Sun Records label recorded there throughout the latter 1950s until the studio outgrew its Union Avenue location. Sam Phillips opened the larger Sam C. Phillips Recording Studio, better known as Phillips Recording, in 1959 to take the place of the older facility. Since Sam had invested in the Holiday Inn Hotel chain earlier, he also recorded artist starting in 1963 on the label Holiday Inn Records for Kemmons Wilson.

In 1969, Sam Phillips sold the label to Shelby Singleton, and there was no recording-related or label-related activity again in the building until the September 1985 Class of '55 recording sessions with Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, produced by Chips Moman.
Sam Philips Talks About Elvis Presley, 3:22
Tour The Stax Museum, 5:00






The 30 Greatest Psychedelic Rock Songs (1966-1968), 12:00

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=JwVUq6EZEiE
I Had Too Much to Dream (Last Night) Electric Prunes 1966
Good Vibrations The Beach Boys 1966
Tomorrow Never Knows The Beatles 1966
Eight Miles High The Byrds 1966
Ballad Of You, Me And Pooneil Jefferson Airplane 1967
White Rabbit Jefferson Airplane 1967
Are You Experienced Jimi Hendrix 1967
Purple Haze Jimi Hendrix 1967
See Emily Play Pink Floyd 1967
Itchycoo Park Small Faces 1967
Pictures of Matchstick Men Status Quo 1967
Incense & Peppermints Strawberry Alarm Clock 1967
A Day in the Life The Beatles 1967
Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds The Beatles 1967
Penny Lane The Beatles 1967
Strawberry Fields Forever The Beatles 1967
Light My Fire The Doors 1967
Strange Days The Doors 1967
The End The Doors 1967
2000 Light Years From Home The Rolling Stones 1967
Dear Mr. Fantasy Traffic 1967
You Keep Me Hanging On Vanilla Fudge 1967
Journey to the Center of Your Mind Amboy Dukes 1968
Ball and Chain Big Brother And The Holding Company 1968
Time Has Come Today Chambers Brothers 1968
In A Gadda-Da-Vida Iron Butterfly 1968
All Along the Watchtower Jimi Hendrix 1968
Voodoo Child (Slight Return) Jimi Hendrix 1968
Magic Carpet Ride Steppenwolf 1968
Crimson & Clover Tommy James & the Shondells 1968
Creedence Clearwater Revival, Who'll Stop the Rain, 2:31
"five-year plans and new deals wrapped in golden chains and still I wonder still I wonder who will stop the rain?"
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=JNrsJNtd_bc
Country Joe & the Fish, 2:32
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=-7Y0ekr-3So
25-5f Nixon and Vietnam, Kent State
RESOURCES
TV Westerns
Cold War
https://m.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8hNHC9nbLlzb4miGp5pZPYCk9Zw0dGke Stop the Rain? 2:31
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=JNrsJNtd_bc
25-5f Nixon and Vietnam, Kent State
May 4, 1970 Kent State Shootings, 5:43
RESOURCES
TV Westerns
Cold War
https://m.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8hNHC9nbLlzb4miGp5pZPYCk9Zw0dGke
Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1950s
Top 10 Decade Defining Television Shows: 1960s
Films
1950s Car Culture
Classic Baby Boomer Toys
The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit
WABC Soundcheck 1964-1967

TV Westerns
Top 25 Westerns of All Time, 7:12
http://www.ew.com/gallery/best-westerns?xid=IFT-Trending




"Fortunate Son," Creedence Clearwater Revival

In January 1969, America’s recently elected conservative President Richard Nixon took office, young Americans were engaged in a radical and vivacious counterculture, and a devastating war in Vietnam continued amongst a diminishing degree of popular support. While President Lyndon Johnson had largely inherited the Vietnam crisis, his Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 allowed for his complete control as the Commander in Chief over Congress. While Johnson relied on his advisors for support and success in Vietnam, his original hopes for a brief conflict ending in 1966 with a divided and contained Vietnam ended in his further escalation of troops between 1965 and 1969. Upon Nixon's arrival in office, the new President announced his formerly “secret plan” of Vietnamization, which promised American troop withdrawal from Vietnam to be replaced by South Vietnamese troops and an increase in American monetary funds. Moreover, Nixon's paranoid persona prevented him from fully accepting a major military loss on his watch, and he therefore ordered the bombing of supply routes in Cambodia in March 1969. One year prior, in 1968, Nixon's younger daughter, Julie married the grandson of former president Dwight D. Eisenhower, David. This union inspired John Fogerty of Creedence Clearwater Revival to write the song, “Fortunate Son,” for release in 1969 as a commentary on the increasing dichotomy between the “haves and have-nots” in American society, particularly in reference to the Vietnam conflict. At the time, approximately 500,000 American troops fought the war in an extremely foreign land. While the average age of troops overseas was 19, the majority came from working class families, those who could not find amnesty in a college education or medical condition. This growing divide between the classes, with politicians enforcing strategies largely executed by working class young men, makes the song 'Fortunate Son' an important commentary to be viewed in historical perspective.



HIS 105 Week 7


After playing "Fortunate Son" we will address the following questions:
  1. Throughout the song, what type of person, or American, is Fogerty referring to?
  2. What is meant by the phrase, “some folks are born silver spoon in hand”?
  3. What group of people would have most closely identified with this song in 1969? Why?
  4. “Fortunate Son” was originally written about the grandson, David Eisenhower, of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Regardless of party affiliation, do you find it right for the children of politicians to receive exemption in a military draft? Why or why not?

Consider the lyrics of "Fortunate Son" and answer the following questions:
  1. When reading these lyrics, do you see parallels between the socioeconomic divisions of the 1960s and socioeconomic divisions of today? In what ways?
  2. What does a “fortunate son” look like today? Who do you imagine might write a song like this today?
  3. Why is music such a powerful form of propaganda or protest?
  Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Which of these events did not happen at Potsdam? Given Answer: Correct Poland was given an outlet to the sea and had its prewar territorial integrity and political independence fully restored and protected. Correct Answer: Poland was given an outlet to the sea and had its prewar territorial integrity and political independence fully restored and protected. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Which of the following was not one of Roosevelt's Four Freedoms? Given Answer: Correct Freedom of Assembly Correct Answer: Freedom of Assembly out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Women participated in the U.S. World War II effort by Given Answer: Correct All of these choices Correct Answer: All of these choices out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Incorrect In 1940, the United States experienced its first Given Answer: Incorrect attempted attack from another country on American soil, in the state of Oregon. Correct Answer: peacetime draft. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Roughly 90 percent of all Americans favored isolationism despite the situation in Europe for all of the following reasons EXCEPT Given Answer: Correct They feared a repeat of the US territorial losses in the Spanish American War. Correct Answer: They feared a repeat of the US territorial losses in the Spanish American War. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Historians regard the Great Depression as probably the greatest factor in causing World War II because Given Answer: Correct It led American businesses to reduce investments in Germany, which decreased that nation's production and its ability to repay its World War I reparations. Correct Answer: It led American businesses to reduce investments in Germany, which decreased that nation's production and its ability to repay its World War I reparations. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct In June 1942, American forces halted Japan's advance at the Battle of Given Answer: Correct Midway. Correct Answer: Midway. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (the GI Bill) provided Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct The "Double V" campaign refers to Given Answer: Correct African American efforts to win the war overseas and end discrimination at home. Correct Answer: African American efforts to win the war overseas and end discrimination at home. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Japan's first major action in the Pacific took place when its military invaded Given Answer: Correct Manchuria in China. Correct Answer: Manchuria in China.



Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Critics thought NSC-68 was a gross overreaction by U.S. officials to communism until
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    North Korea's invasion of South Korea.
    Correct Answer:
     
    North Korea's invasion of South Korea.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Stalin initiated the blockade of the city of West Berlin in order to
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    keep western influence and West German currency out of the Soviet zone.
    Correct Answer:
     
    keep western influence and West German currency out of the Soviet zone.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Marshall Plan
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    provided $13 billion to governments that promised to become or remain democracies.
    Correct Answer:
     
    provided $13 billion to governments that promised to become or remain democracies.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Emmett Till was murdered because
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    he supposedly whistled at a white woman working in a grocery store.
    Correct Answer:
     
    he supposedly whistled at a white woman working in a grocery store.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Women who held jobs during the 1950s
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    were segregated into female-specific occupations, mostly in the service sector.
    Correct Answer:
     
    were segregated into female-specific occupations, mostly in the service sector.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    John F. Kennedy's greatest disaster as president was
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave President Johnson specific permission to
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    assist the South Vietnamese people in overthrowing their government and installing a new leader.
    Correct Answer:
     
    do whatever was necessary to take care of the situation in South Vietnam.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Free Speech Movement, begun on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley is significant because
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    All of these choices.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The main goal of those who participated in Freedom Summer was to
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    register blacks to vote in the South.
    Correct Answer:
     
    register blacks to vote in the South.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
The Chicano Movement led by Caesar Chavez
Given Answer:
Correct 
called for a national boycott of grapes, which resulted in higher wages and better living conditions for workers.
Correct Answer:
 
called for a national boycott of grapes, which resulted in higher wages and better living conditions for workers.