Tuesday, February 07, 2017

HUM 112 Week 6 Winter 2017

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 9:45 pm--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.


Local "plein air" 11:58



  • Complete and submit Week 6 Quiz 5 covering Chapters 29 and 30 - 40 Points
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 31: Promise of Renewal: Hope and Possibility in Late 19th Century Europe
    • Chapter 32: The Course of Empire: Expansion and Conflict in America
  • Lecture

    Pre-Built Course Content

  • Explore the Week 6 Music Folder
  • View the Week 6 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 6 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 6 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points 

Week 6 Discussion

"Tchaikovsky and Women in Art" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Select one (1) composition by Tchaikovsky that you enjoy. Describe the music and subject matter of that work, and explain why you enjoy it. Explain the key reasons why you believe that compositions by Tchaikovsky continue to be popular with contemporary orchestras and audiences. Passionate nationalism, like Tchaikovsky's for Russia, could be a feature of Romantic art and music and in the arts of the late 1800s. Give primary examples of music today (besides national anthems) that is characterized by nationalism.
  • Select two (2) paintings depicting females by both a male artist and female artist named within the Explore section. Compare and contrast these two (2) depictions of women, and comment on any general tendencies that you detect among artists of that era in this respect. Compare this situation in the late 1800s to the way females are depicted in our own modern times, using at least one (1) specific modern example.
Explore:
Tchaikovsky
  • Chapter 31 (pp.1039-1040), famous overture and ballet music compositions; review the Week 6 “Music Folder”

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Tchaikovsky : Overture 1812 (Full, Choral) (Sure, best version ever) - Ashkenazy* 16:10

Famous and very realistic. The choral contributions are very spectacular and effective. And the cannons are as they should be: not blazing out the music ! This is not cannons with behind them overture 1812.This is 1812 with realistic Cannons! In this transcription by American conductor Igor Buketoff the following changes and additions were made: The opening segment, God Preserve Thy People is sung a cappella by a choir. A children's or women's choir is added to the flute and cor anglais duet rendition of At the Gate, at my Gate. The orchestra and chorus unite in the climax with a triumphant version of God Preserve Thy People and God

Save the Tsar. See Also: Slavonic March with cannons: :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWuEH...

https://youtu.be/ZrsYD46W1U0



Artists’ Depictions of Women


    To succeed as professional artists in 18th- and 19th-century Europe and the United States, women still had to navigate gender-specific artistic and social hierarchies.


    For most of the period, art education and professional recognition for women remained separate and unequal to that of their male peers. In late 18th-century France, the prestigious Académie des Beaux Arts limited female membership to four; the Royal Academy of Arts in England had only two female founding members. Nonetheless, many well-trained and sought-after women artists flourished in this period.

    Not until the second half of the 19th century did women artists make significant progress, especially in France. More art schools opened their doors to women, prominent dealers represented them, and public institutions acquired their work.

    In the United States, women gradually became a force on the American art scene, winning prestigious commissions and awards. They participated in notable exhibitions, taught in art schools, and wrote as art critics. Many traveled abroad, and their works served as conduits for new styles in painting, printmaking, and the newest artistic medium, photography.


  • National Gallery of Art (search by artist name) at http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/artists.html?pageNumber=1










  

 

HUM112 Music Clips for Week 6

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This week's two music clips relate to chapters 31 and 32. 
0:02 / 4:17 Tchaikovsky's Biography with Charles Greenwell

Charles Greenwell gives a complete Tchaikovsky biography in under 5 minutes!

https://youtu.be/x3EwvTmY894



What did you find out about Tchaikovsky’s biography?
 



  1. Tchaikovsky, 1812 Overture (chap. 31, p. 1039)  
   
Read carefully pp. 1039-1040 (in chap. 31) about the very interesting background of this composition, written in 1880 to commemorate Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812. Most people have heard this as background music to television shows or cartoons, or sometimes in movies.  It is one of the most dramatic orchestral pieces ever composed.  It is hard to find a bad version of this, thus the four links above. Your choice.  Which is best? Why?


"Obertura 1812". Obertura opus 6. 15:29

https://youtu.be/oUkqC-i0G8s



1812 Overture Tchaikovsky Full with Cannons, Chorus and OP.49 Free Download Link, 15:46 14:00 Cannons, etc.

https://youtu.be/n82l3rEQSWk


                       --------------------- 
  1. Scott Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag (chap. 32, p. 1070)  
Read carefully p. 1070 (in chap. 32) about "Ragtime music" as one of the earliest forms of JAZZ.   Scott Joplin (lived ca. 1867-1917) was an African American born just after the Civil War.  Read his biography  at  http://www.8notes.com/biographies/joplin.asp (or at http://shs.umsystem.edu/historicmissourians/name/j/joplin/), and you will notice how his musicianship embraced many other forms of music as well, but his legacy would be in Ragtime.

Joplin was born near Linden, Texas to Florence Givins and Giles (sometimes listed as 'Jiles') Joplin. He was the second of six children. While for many years his date of birth was thought to be November 24, 1868, new research by ragtime historian Ed Berlin has revealed that this is inaccurate.

After 1871 the Joplin family moved to Texarkana, Texas and Scott's mother cleaned homes so Scott could have a place to practice his music. By 1882 his mother had purchased a piano. Showing musical ability at an early age, the young Joplin received piano lessons for free from a German music teacher, who gave him a well-rounded knowledge of classical music form. This is something that would serve him well in later years, and fuel his ambition to create a 'classical' form of ragtime. He would later further his musical education by attending the George Smith College in Sedalia, studying composition.

By the late 1880s Joplin had left home to start a life of his own. He may have joined or formed various quartets and other musical groups and travelled around the midwest to sing. What is known is that he was part of a minstel troupe in Texarkana around 1891. In 1895, Joplin was in Syracuse, New York, selling two songs, Please Say You Will and A Picture of Her Face.

But despite all this travelling, his home base was in Sedalia, Missouri where he moved in 1894, working as a pianist in the Maple Leaf and Black 400 clubs, both social black clubs for respectable gentlemen.
By 1898 Joplin had sold six pieces for the piano, most very advanced tunes that were fine musically, but not anything special. Of the six, only Original Rags is a ragtime piece. The other five were two songs (mentioned previously), two marches, and a waltz.

In 1899, Joplin sold his most famous piece, Maple Leaf Rag to John Stark & Son, a Sedalia, Missouri, music publisher. Joplin received a one-cent royalty for each copy and ten free copies for his own use. It has been estimated that Joplin made $360 per year on this piece in his lifetime.

Maple Leaf Rag boosted Joplin to the top of the list of ragtime performers and moved ragtime into prominence as a musical form.

Joplin had several marriages. Perhaps his dearest love, Freddie Alexander, died at age twenty just two months after they married, of complications resulting from a cold. The first work copyrighted after Freddie's death, Bethena (1905), is a very sad, musically complex ragtime waltz.

After some months of faltering, Joplin continued writing and publishing, and in those days before recorded music was a best-selling composer based on sales of sheet music. Joplin continued to experiment with other musical forms as well; after moving to New York City, Joplin attempted an ambitious ragtime opera, Treemonisha, which he produced himself at great personal expense. It was performed only once during his lifetime, in 1915. The score to an earlier ragtime opera by Joplin, A Guest of Honor, is lost.

Joplin wanted to experiment further with compositions like Treemonisha, but by 1916 he was suffering from the effects of terminal syphilis. He suffered later from dementia, paranoia, paralysis and other symptoms. Despite this, he recorded six piano rolls that year — Maple Leaf Rag (for Connorized and Uni-Record labels), Something Doing, Magnetic Rag, Ole Miss Rag, and Pleasant Moments (all for Connorized). These are the only records of his playing we have, and are interesting for the embellishments added by Joplin to his performances. A surviving copy of the 'Pleasant Moments' roll has not yet been discovered. It has been claimed that the uneven nature of some of Joplin's piano rolls, such as one of the recordings of the Maple Leaf Rag mentioned above, documented the extent of Joplin's physical deterioration due to syphilis.

However, the irregularities are just as likely due to the primitive technology used to record the rolls.
In mid-January 1917 Joplin was hospitalized at Manhattan State Hospital in New York City, and friends recounted that he would have bursts of lucidity in which he would jot down lines of music hurriedly before relapsing. Joplin died there on April 1, 1917. His death did not make the headlines for two reasons: ragtime was quickly losing ground to jazz and the United States would enter World War I within days. He was buried in St. Michael's Cemetery in the Astoria section of Queens.

Joplin's musical papers, including unpublished manuscripts, were willed to Joplin's friend and the executor of his will, musician and composer Wilber Sweatman. Sweatman took care of these papers and generously shared access to them to those who enquired. However these were unfortunately few, since Joplin's music had come to be considered passé. After Sweatman's death in 1961 the papers were last known to go into storage during a legal battle among Sweatman's heirs; their current location is not known, nor even if they still exist.

There was, however, an important find in 1971 — a piano-roll copy of the lost 'Silver Swan Rag,' cut sometime around 1914. It had not been published in sheet-music form in Joplin's lifetime. Before this, his only posthumously published piece had been 'Reflection Rag', put together by Stark in 1917 from fragments of Joplin melodies in Stark's archives.

After Joplin's death ragtime music experienced two bursts of popularity. The first was in the early 1950s when ragtime was regarded as a happy nostalgic music of a more innocent time. The second ragtime revival was prompted by the release of the movie The Sting in 1973, which despite being set in the 1930s still anachronistically featured a Joplin soundtrack and introduced new generations to his music. Marvin Hamlisch's adaptation of the Joplin song 'The Entertainer' reached number 3 on the Billboard magazine Hot 100 music chart in 1974, and a much wider and deeper interest in ragtime in general and Joplin in particular was created. In 1974 Kenneth MacMillan created a ballet for the Royal Ballet, Elite Syncopations, based on tunes by Joplin, Max Morath and others. It is still performed occasionally.

Maple leaf rag - Scott Joplin, 2:51

https://youtu.be/reI43yUCaUI



Scott Joplin Movie Dueling Pianos Competition Scene - 1977, 6:52

Edit: As of 2014 the Scott Joplin Movie is available on Amazon Instant Video in HD!!! This is the best clip in the movie Scott Joplin (1977) by Universal Studios. It depicts a competition between "professors" (brothel pianists) to win $100 from John Stark in Sedalia, Missouri. Louis Chauvin, who is a better pianist but can't read/write music, teams up with Joplin and unleashes Maple Leaf Rag upon the public for the first time (this did not actually occur.) You cannot buy this movie anywhere except terrible VHS non-original copies on Amazon and searching Google for the same terrible copies. Dick Hyman is playing the soundtrack and Billy Dee Williams is portraying Scott Joplin. Please contact Universal and encourage them to release a high quality DVD and/or streaming versions of this good, but historically inaccurate, movie! I have done my best to try to clean the sound up using Audacity, but it's still a bit crackly.

https://youtu.be/NOi9K7yZ6QA



Chapter 31: Promise of Renewal: Hope and Possibility in Late 19th Century Europe

Chapter 32: The Course of Empire: Expansion and Conflict in America




HOPE AND POSSIBILITY IN LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 1019

    French Impressionism 1022

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.

French Impressionism, 3:36

What is your impression, of Impressionism?


A brief introduction to the Salon Jury and the features of French Impressionist paintings.

https://youtu.be/WXxnWLs5jww



Monet’s Escape to Giverny 1025

Claude Monet. Brief biography and artwork. Great for kids and esl. 3:43

https://youtu.be/BwUZdefiTV4



Haystacks is a title of a series of impressionist paintings by Claude Monet. The primary subjects of all of the paintings in the series are stacks of hay in the field after the harvest season. The title refers primarily to a twenty-five canvas series (Wildenstein Index Number 1266-1290) begun in the end of summer of 1890 and continued through the following spring, using that year's harvest. Some use a broader definition of the title to refer to other paintings by Monet with this same theme. The series is known for its thematic use of repetition to show differences in perception of light across various times of day, seasons, and types of weather. The subjects were painted in fields near Monet's home in Giverny, France.

The series is among Monet's most notable works. Although the largest collections of Monet's work is held in Paris at the Musée d'Orsay and Musée Marmottan Monet, other notable Monet collections are in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,[1][2] the Metropolitan Museum and Museum of Modern Art in New York, and at the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo.[3] Six of the twenty-five haystacks pieces in this series are currently housed at the Art Institute of Chicago.[4][5][6][7] Other museums that hold parts of this series in their collection include: the Getty Center in Los Angeles,[8] the Hill-Stead Museum in Farmington, Connecticut (which also has one of five from the earlier 1888-9 harvest),[9] the National Gallery of Scotland,[10] the Minneapolis Institute of Arts,[11] Kunsthaus Zürich, and the Shelburne Museum, Vermont.[12] Several private collections also hold Haystack paintings.


What is notable about where Monet painted?

claude monet - painting at giverny, 1:36


https://youtu.be/POpWaz9-XMs





 Monet's Home and Garden in Giverny - May 2010, 2:36

Claude Monet's home, famous garden and lily pond are located in the village of Giverny about 40 miles northwest of Paris. Monet lived and painted in the home and garden for 43 years. Today they are open to the public. It is absolutely beautiful especially in the spring. It makes a great day trip out of Paris.

https://youtu.be/BMey7gOLEgY



        Morisot and Pissarro: The Effects of Paint 1026

Camille Pissarro (French: [kamij pisaʁo]; 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54.

In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but also "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced, kind, and warmhearted personality".[1] Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was also one of Gauguin's masters. Renoir referred to his work as "revolutionary", through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".

Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.[2]

Morisot

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (French: [mɔʁizo]; January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt.[1]

In 1864, she exhibited for the first time in the highly esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government, and judged by Academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons[2] until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which included Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley. It was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar.

She was married to Eugène Manet, the brother of her friend and colleague Édouard Manet.

Paint

French painters who prepared the way for Impressionism include the Romantic colourist Eugène Delacroix, the leader of the realists Gustave Courbet, and painters of the Barbizon school such as Théodore Rousseau. The Impressionists learned much from the work of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Eugène Boudin, who painted from nature in a direct and spontaneous style that prefigured Impressionism, and who befriended and advised the younger artists.

A number of identifiable techniques and working habits contributed to the innovative style of the Impressionists. Although these methods had been used by previous artists—and are often conspicuous in the work of artists such as Frans Hals, Diego Velázquez, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, and J. M. W. Turner—the Impressionists were the first to use them all together, and with such consistency. These techniques include:

Short, thick strokes of paint quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied impasto.

Colours are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, a technique that exploits the principle of simultaneous contrast to make the colour appear more vivid to the viewer.

Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colours. Pure impressionism avoids the use of black paint.

Wet paint is placed into wet paint without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of colour.

Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes), which earlier artists manipulated carefully to produce effects. The impressionist painting surface is typically opaque.

The paint is applied to a white or light-coloured ground. Previously, painters often used dark grey or strongly coloured grounds.

The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colours from object to object. Painters often worked in the evening to produce effets de soir—the shadowy effects of evening or twilight.

In paintings made en plein air (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness previously not represented in painting. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)

New technology played a role in the development of the style. Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tin tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes), which allowed artists to work more spontaneously, both outdoors and indoors.[20] Previously, painters made their own paints individually, by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, which were then stored in animal bladders.[21]

Many vivid synthetic pigments became commercially available to artists for the first time during the 19th century. These included cobalt blue, viridian, cadmium yellow, and synthetic ultramarine blue, all of which were in use by the 1840s, before Impressionism.[22] The Impressionists' manner of painting made bold use of these pigments, and of even newer colours such as cerulean blue,[3] which became commercially available to artists in the 1860s.[22]

The Impressionists' progress toward a brighter style of painting was gradual. During the 1860s, Monet and Renoir sometimes painted on canvases prepared with the traditional red-brown or grey ground.[23] By the 1870s, Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro usually chose to paint on grounds of a lighter grey or beige colour, which functioned as a middle tone in the finished painting.[23] By the 1880s, some of the Impressionists had come to prefer white or slightly off-white grounds, and no longer allowed the ground colour a significant role in the finished painting.[24]

Impressionism: Technique & Style, 2:50

Learn Impressionism painting techniques today by watching this introductory video. Have you ever wondered how Monet, Renoir, and the other famous Impressionist painters created their beautiful works of art? The tutorial will give a brief insight into some of their painting secrets.

https://youtu.be/RsDpE1UJv7w



        Leisure and Work: Renoir, Degas, and Caillebotte 1027

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (US /rɛnˈwɑːr/ or UK /ˈrɛnwɑːr/; French: [pjɛʁ oɡyst ʁənwaʁ]; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."[1]

He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir (1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–69). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir Biography - Goodbye-Art Academy, 4:45

He would strap the brushes to his hands to continue to paint.

https://youtu.be/hF_nArPfEgs





Degas

Edgar Degas (US /deɪˈɡɑː/ or UK /ˈdeɪɡɑː/; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas, French: [ilɛːʁ ʒɛʁmɛ̃ ɛdɡaʁ də ɡɑ]; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist.[1] He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his renditions of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation.[2]

At the beginning of his career, Degas wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties, he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life.

Degas Biography from Goodbye-Art Academy, 4:44



Degas was someone known for painting what?


He didn't want to be known as someone who painted ballerinas. Whoops!

https://youtu.be/HUuqrLawzjo



Caillebotte
 
Gustave Caillebotte (French: [ɡystav kɑjbɔt]; 19 August 1848 – 21 February 1894) was a French painter, member and patron of the artists known as Impressionists, although he painted in a much more realistic manner than many other artists in the group. Caillebotte was noted for his early interest in photography as an art form.

How do you say "Caillebotte"? (Extended Version), 1:08

https://youtu.be/Lxkk3Lbj-K0





 "Raboteurs de parquet" Caillebotte - d'Art d'Art, 1:29

https://youtu.be/UjKlVS5sNJM



        Manet’s Impressionism 1034

From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts, which held its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris. During the latter part of 1873, Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Alfred Sisley organized the Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs (Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers) to exhibit their artworks independently. At their first exhibition, held in April 1874, Monet exhibited the work that was to give the group its lasting name.

Impression, Sunrise was painted in 1872, depicting a Le Havre port landscape. From the painting's title the art critic Louis Leroy, in his review, "L'Exposition des Impressionnistes," which appeared in Le Charivari, coined the term "Impressionism".[3] It was intended as disparagement but the Impressionists appropriated the term for themselves.[4][5]

Realism to Impressionism
 
Edouard Manet 19th Century French Impressionist Art Paintings Music Video, 2:01

https://youtu.be/WkJ8QtBrigk



    Russian Realism and the Quest for the Russian Soul 1035

Literary Realism and Naturalism, 2:52

This is a commentary on Realism and Naturalism and is intended for educational use only.

What is the difference between the Romantics and Realists (literary Naturalism)?

What is the formula?

https://youtu.be/EcNxjXS5XVA




Fate = C (chance) + E (environment) + H (heredity)


Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Literary realism, in contrast to idealism, attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. Literary critic Ian Watt, however, dates the origins of realism in United Kingdom to the early 18th-century novel. Subsequent related developments in the arts are naturalism, social realism, and in the 1930s, socialist realism.

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (/ˈpʊʃkɪn/;[1] Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, tr. Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr sʲɪˈrɡʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn] ( listen); 6 June [O.S. 26 May] 1799 – 10 February [O.S. 29 January] 1837) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era[2] who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet[3][4][5][6] and the founder of modern Russian literature.[7][8]

Pushkin was born into Russian nobility in Moscow. His matrilineal great-grandfather was Abram Gannibal, who was brought over as a slave from what is now Cameroon.[9] Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum.

While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832.

Pushkin was fatally wounded in a duel with Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment who attempted to seduce the poet's wife, Natalya Pushkina.

Pushkin

Pushkin poem in russian with english subtitles : The Prophet, 2:13

Russian poetry. Russian podcast. Learn russian language.

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin

The Prophet
 
I dragged my flesh through desert gloom, Tormented by the spirit’s yearning, And saw a six-winged Seraph loom Upon the footpath’s barren turning.

And as a dream in slumber lies So light his finger on my eyes,— My wizard eyes grew wide and wary: An eagle’s, startled from her eyrie.

He touched my ears, and lo! a sea Of storming voices burst on me. I heard the whirling heavens’ tremor, The angels’ flight and soaring sweep, The sea-snakes coiling in the deep, The sap the vine’s green tendrils carry.
And to my lips the Seraph clung And tore from me my sinful tongue, My cunning tongue and idle-worded; The subtle serpent’s sting he set Between my lips—his hand was wet, His bloody hand my mouth begirded.
And with a sword he cleft my breast And took the heart with terror turning, And in my gaping bosom pressed A coal that throbbed there, black and burning. Upon the wastes, a lifeless clod, I lay, and heard the voice of God:

“Arise, oh prophet, watch and hearken, And with my Will thy soul engird, Through lands that dim and seas that darken, Burn thou men’s hearts with this, my Word.”

1825

Translated by Avrahm Yarmolinsky (1921) Illustration : Mikhail Vrubel (1905)

Our site: http://www.le-russe.net/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LeRusseFr Twitter: https://twitter.com/RusseFr Google+ : https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/1027891... Russian podcast. Russian poetry reading. РКИ русский язык как иностранный

https://youtu.be/yPXZFXw2h18



        The Writer and Artist under the Tsars 1036

What memorable writers existed under the Tsars?
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', Russian Empire or the Soviet Union. Roots of Russian literature can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old Russian were composed. By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, and from the early 1830s, Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama. Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Prose was flourishing as well. The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky soon became internationally renowned. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist. The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Gumilyov, Osip Mandelstam, Sergei Yesenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Marina Tsvetaeva and Boris Pasternak. This era produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fedor Sologub, Aleksey Remizov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.


What notes can be made about the Underground (Dostoevsky)?

Notes from Underground (Dostoevsky) - Thug Notes Summary and Analysis

https://youtu.be/Rm4lLxNvfAA Socialism in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature, 4:06

https://youtu.be/NQNrH45XMbE



 
        Russian Nationalist Music and Ballet 1039

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (/ˈpjɔːtər iːˈljiːtʃ tʃaɪˈkɒfski/;[1] Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;[a 1] tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),[a 2] often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884, by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or from forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country's national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky's career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother's early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists now downplay its importance. Tchaikovsky's sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky's music as "lacking in elevated thought," according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

Tchaikovsky
 
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Great Composers Part 14), 2:10

http://www.zaneeducation.com - Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky - a Great Music Composers title
Trace the life and musical career of one of the world's greatest composers: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Listen to excerpts from major works by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, and perceive how his childhood and musical training, and the culture in which he lived, influenced his work. Explore the events that shaped Tchaikovsky's expressive ballets. Understand the lasting contributions made to the history of music by the Russian composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Learn about Pyotr Tchaikovsky's major works, and gain an appreciation of classical music.

Zane Education owns the largest library of K-12 curriculum-based subtitled video currently available online. Each video is fully subtitled so as to enable each student to study the topic and improve their reading and literacy skills at the same time.

https://youtu.be/WYFkT9MOnSs



Repression under the Tsars led to socialism yet Britain focused on the design of social reform. Why? Consider William Morris and John Stuart Mill.

    Britain and the Design of Social Reform 1040

Reform means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill’s Association movement which identified “Parliamentary Reform” as its primary aim.

Reform is generally distinguished from revolution. The latter means basic or radical change; whereas reform may be no more than fine tuning, or at most redressing serious wrongs without altering the fundamentals of the system. Reform seeks to improve the system as it stands, never to overthrow it wholesale. Radicals on the other hand, seek to improve the system, but try to overthrow whether it be the government or a group of people themselves.

Rotation in office or term limits would, by contrast, be more revolutionary, in altering basic political connections between incumbents and constituents.

Developing countries may carry out a wide range of reforms to improve their living standards, often with support from international financial institutions and aid agencies. This can include reforms to macroeconomic policy, the civil service, and public financial management.


        Morris, the Guild Movement, and the Pre-Raphaelites 1041

William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist. Associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement, he was a major contributor to the revival of traditional British textile arts and methods of production. His literary contributions helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, while he played a significant role in propagating the early socialist movement in Britain.

Born in Walthamstow, Essex, to a wealthy middle-class family, Morris came under the strong influence of medievalism while studying Classics at Oxford University, there joining the Birmingham Set. After university he trained as an architect, married Jane Burden, and developed close friendships with the Pre-Raphaelite artists Edward Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and with the Neo-Gothic architect Philip Webb. Webb and Morris designed a family home, Red House, then in Kent, where the latter lived from 1859 to 1865, before relocating to Bloomsbury, central London. In 1861, Morris founded a decorative arts firm with Burne-Jones, Rossetti, Webb, and others: the Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. Becoming highly fashionable and much in demand, the firm profoundly influenced interior decoration throughout the Victorian period, with Morris designing tapestries, wallpaper, fabrics, furniture, and stained glass windows. In 1875, Morris assumed total control of the company, which was renamed Morris & Co.

Although retaining a main home in London, from 1871 Morris rented the rural retreat of Kelmscott Manor, Oxfordshire. Greatly influenced by visits to Iceland, with Eiríkr Magnússon he produced a series of English-language translations of Icelandic Sagas. He also achieved success with the publication of his epic poems and novels, namely The Earthly Paradise (1868–1870), A Dream of John Ball (1888), the utopian News from Nowhere (1890), and the fantasy romance The Well at the World's End (1896). In 1877 he founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings to campaign against the damage caused by architectural restoration. Embracing Marxism and influenced by anarchism, in the 1880s Morris became a committed revolutionary socialist activist; after an involvement in the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), he founded the Socialist League in 1884, but broke with that organization in 1890. In 1891 he founded the Kelmscott Press to publish limited-edition, illuminated-style print books, a cause to which he devoted his final years.
Morris is recognised as one of the most significant cultural figures of Victorian Britain; though best known in his lifetime as a poet, he posthumously became better known for his designs. Founded in 1955, the William Morris Society is devoted to his legacy, while multiple biographies and studies of his work have seen publication. Many of the buildings associated with his life are open to visitors, much of his work can be found in art galleries and museums, and his designs are still in production.

POLITICAL THEORY - William Morris, 5:26

William Morris wanted to change the way workers approach their jobs and how consumers decide what they want to buy. Please subscribe here: http://tinyurl.com/o28mut7 If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://www.theschooloflife.com/shop/all/
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https://youtu.be/QiNFoJqOJhs





The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form the seven-member "brotherhood". Their principles were shared by other male and female artists, including Marie Spartali Stillman and Ford Madox Brown.

A later, medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse.

The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called "Sir Sloshua". To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting ... and hence ... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind".[1] The brotherhood sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art. The group associated their work with John Ruskin,[2] an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background.

Through the PRB initials, the brotherhood announced in coded form the arrival of a new movement in British art.[3] The group continued to accept the concepts of history painting and mimesis, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. The Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal.

Pre-Raphaelites, 1:16

Evening in Bloomsbury, London, 1848. Seven young men have gathered to form a secret pact, PRB. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

https://youtu.be/ng2m5elE9NY



        John Stuart Mill: Women’s Rights and the Question of Liberty 1044

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was an English philosopher, feminist, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century."[3] Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control.[4]

Mill expresses his view on freedom by illustrating how an individual's drive to better their station, and for self-improvement, is the sole source of true freedom. Only when an individual is able to attain such improvements, without impeding others in their own efforts to do the same, can true freedom prevail. Mill's linking of freedom and self-improvement has inspired many. By establishing that individual efforts to excel have worth, Mill was able to show how they should achieve self-improvement without harming others, or society at large.

Among his philosophical achievements, he was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham, and he worked on the theory of the scientific method.[5] Mill was also a Member of Parliament belonging to the Liberal Party.

An Introduction to John Stuart Mill's On Liberty- A Macat Politics Analysis, 3:05

Where does liberty begin and end? What limits to personal freedom should people accept in society and why? Watch Macat's short video for a great introduction to John Stuart Mill's On Liberty, one of the most important politics books ever written.

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https://youtu.be/KlLh17YTr8c



READINGS

    31.1 from Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment, Part 3, Chapter 5 (1866) 1047

    31.1a from Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment, Part 1, Chapter 7 (1866) 1036
Crime and Punishment (Russian: Преступлéние и наказáние, tr. Prestupleniye i nakazaniye; IPA: [prʲɪstʊˈplʲenʲɪɪ ɪ nəkɐˈzanʲɪɪ]) is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. It was first published in the literary journal The Russian Messenger in twelve monthly installments during 1866.[1] It was later published in a single volume. It is the second of Dostoyevsky's full-length novels following his return from 10 years of exile in Siberia. Crime and Punishment is considered the first great novel of his "mature" period of writing.[2]

Crime and Punishment focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Rodion Raskolnikov, an impoverished ex-student in St. Petersburg who formulates and executes a plan to kill an unscrupulous pawnbroker for her cash. Raskolnikov, in attempts to defend his actions, argues that with the pawnbroker's money he can perform good deeds to counterbalance the crime, while ridding the world of a vermin. He also commits the murder to test a theory of his that dictates some people are naturally capable of such actions, and even have the right to perform them. Several times throughout the novel, Raskolnikov compares himself with Napoleon Bonaparte and shares his belief that murder is permissible in pursuit of a higher purpose.

Crime and Punishment - Thug Notes Summary and Analysis, 3:51

From plot debriefs to key motifs, Thug Notes’ Crime and Punishment Summary & Analysis has you covered with themes, symbols, important quotes, and more. This week’s episode is Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky.

https://youtu.be/bZWVp_qrD8o



    31.2 from Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, Part 1, Chapter 11 (1869) 1037

War and Peace (Pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform Russian: Война и мир, Voyna i mir) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy. It is regarded as one of the central works of world literature.[1][2][3] War and Peace and Tolstoy's other major prose work, Anna Karenina (1875–77), are considered Tolstoy's finest literary achievements.

The novel charts the history of the French invasion of Russia, and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society, through the stories of five Russian aristocratic families. Portions of an earlier version, titled The Year 1805,[4] were serialized in The Russian Messenger between 1865 and 1867. The novel was first published in its entirety in 1869.[5] Newsweek in 2009 ranked it first in its Top 100 Books.[6] In 2007, Time magazine ranked War and Peace third in its poll of the 10 greatest books of all time while Anna Karenina was ranked first.[7]

Tolstoy himself said that War and Peace was "not a novel, even less is it a poem, and still less a historical chronicle". Large sections, especially in the later chapters, are philosophical discussion rather than narrative.[8] He also said that the best Russian literature does not conform to standards and hence hesitated to call War and Peace a novel. Instead, he regarded Anna Karenina as his first true novel. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "no single English novel attains the universality of Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace."[9]

0:02 / 2:41 War and Peace Cast Discuss Bringing The Epic Novel To Life, 2:41

Actors James Norton, Aneurin Barnard, Adrian Edmondson and Thomas Arnold, and director Tom Harper discuss the making of BBC drama War and Peace. Recorded on 1 February 2016 at an event hosted by BAFTA Cymru and BBC Cymru Wales:

https://youtu.be/CzPPdvz1aY4




    31.3 from John Ruskin, The Stones of Venice, “On the Nature of Gothic” (1851–53) 1041

The Stones of Venice is a three-volume treatise on Venetian art and architecture by English art historian John Ruskin, first published from 1851 to 1853.

The Stones of Venice examines Venetian architecture in detail, describing for example over eighty churches. He discusses architecture of Venice's Byzantine, Gothic and Renaissance periods, and provides a general history of the city. As well as an being an art historian, Ruskin was a social reformer. In the chapter "The Nature of Gothic" (from volume 2), Ruskin gives his views on how society should be organised.

We want one man to be always thinking, and another to be always working, and we call one a gentleman, and the other an operative; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and the thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen, in the best sense. As it is, we make both ungentle, the one envying, the other despising, his brother; and the mass of society is made up of morbid thinkers and miserable workers. Now it is only by labour that thought can be made healthy, and only by thought that labour can be made happy, and the two cannot be separated with impunity.[1]


    31.4 from Algernon Charles Swinburne, “Laus Veneris” (1866) 1043

Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909) was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic. He wrote several novels and collections of poetry such as Poems and Ballads, and contributed to the famous Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. A controversial figure at the time, Swinburne was a sado-masochist and alcoholic and was obsessed with the Middle Ages and lesbianism.[1]

Swinburne wrote about many taboo topics, such as lesbianism, cannibalism, sado-masochism, and anti-theism. His poems have many common motifs, such as the Ocean, Time, and Death. Several historical people are featured in his poems, such as Sappho ("Sapphics"), Anactoria ("Anactoria"), Jesus ("Hymn to Proserpine": Galilaee, La. "Galilean") and Catullus ("To Catullus").[2]


    31.5 from John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859) 1044



    31.6 from John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) 1044

The Subjection of Women is an essay written by John Stuart Mill in 1869,[1] possibly jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, stating an argument in favour of equality between the sexes. At the time it was published in 1869, this essay was an affront to European conventional norms for the status of men and women.
John Stuart Mill credited his wife, Harriet Taylor Mill, with co-writing the essay. While some scholars agreed by 2009 that John Stuart Mill was the sole author,[2] it is also noted that some of the arguments are similar to Harriet Taylor Mill's essay The Enfranchisement of Women which was published in 1851.[2][3] Harriet Taylor Mill's daughter, Helen Taylor, is believed to have contributed to the essay as well.[4]

Mill was convinced that the moral and intellectual advancement of humankind would result in greater happiness for everybody. He asserted that the higher pleasures of the intellect yielded far greater happiness than the lower pleasure of the senses. He conceived of human beings as morally and intellectually capable of being educated and civilised. Mill believed everyone should have the right to vote, with the only exceptions being barbarians and uneducated people.

Mill argues that people should be able to vote to defend their own rights and to learn to stand on their two feet, morally and intellectually. This argument is applied to both men and women. Mill often used his position as a member of Parliament to demand the vote for women, a controversial position for the time.
In Mill's time a woman was generally subject to the whims of her husband and/or father due to social norms which said women were both physically and mentally less able than men, and therefore needed to be "taken care of." Contributing to this view were both hierarchical religious views of men and women within the family and social theories based on biological determinism. The archetype of the ideal woman as mother, wife and homemaker was a powerful idea in 19th century society.

At the time of writing, Mill recognized that he was going against the common views of society and was aware that he would be forced to back up his claims persistently. Mill argued that the inequality of women was a relic from the past, when "might was right,"[5] but it had no place in the modern world.[6] Mill saw that having effectively half the human race unable to contribute to society outside of the home as a hindrance to human development.

"... [T]he legal subordination of one sex to another – is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances to human improvement; and that it ought to be replaced by a system of perfect equality, admitting no power and privilege on the one side, nor disability on the other."[7]


FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK Renoir’s Luncheon of the Boating Party 1030


    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Prospect of America 1045

32 The Course of Empire

EXPANSION AND CONFLICT IN AMERICA 1049

    The Native American in Myth and Reality 1052

In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of numerous distinct tribes, bands, and ethnic groups, and many of these groups survive intact today as sovereign nations.
The terms Native Americans use to refer to themselves vary regionally and generationally, with many older Native Americans self-identifying as "Indians" or "American Indians", while younger Native Americans often identify as "Indigenous" or "Aboriginal." Which terms should be used to refer to Native Americans has at times been controversial. The term "Native American" has been adopted by major newspapers and some academic groups, but has not traditionally included Native Hawaiians or certain Alaskan Natives, such as Aleut, Yup'ik, or Inuit peoples. Indigenous American peoples from Canada are known as First Nations.
Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of exchange and adjustment between Old and New World societies. Most Native American groups had historically lived as hunter-gatherer societies and preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, which has resulted in the first written sources on the conflict being authored by Europeans.[3]

At the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than the Europeans were familiar with. The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. The differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, and social disruption. Even before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with European diseases spread throughout the Americas by the Spanish to which they had yet not acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations, although estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U.S. vary significantly, from one million to eighteen million.[4][5]

After the thirteen colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as U.S. citizens.[6][7][8][9][10] Assimilation (whether voluntary, as with the Choctaw,[11][12] or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations. During the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement. Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands, warfare between the groups, and rising tensions. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the government to relocate Native Americans from their homelands within established states to lands west of the Mississippi River, accommodating European-American expansion. This resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears.

As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains, and other Western tribes. These were complex nomadic cultures based on (introduced) horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. They carried out resistance against United States incursion in the decades after the completion of the Civil War and the Transcontinental Railroad in a series of Indian Wars, which were frequent up until the 1890s but continued into the 20th century. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes and established reservations for them in many western states. U.S. agents encouraged Native Americans to adopt European-style farming and similar pursuits, but European-American agricultural technology of the time was inadequate for often dry reservation lands, leading to mass starvation. In 1924, Native Americans who were not already U.S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress.

Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights. Cultural activism since the late 1960s has increased political participation and led to an expansion of efforts to teach and preserve Indigenous languages for younger generations and to establish a greater cultural infrastructure: Native Americans have founded independent newspapers and online media, recently including First Nations Experience, the first Native American television channel;[13] established Native American studies programs, tribal schools and universities, and museums and language programs; and have increasingly been published as authors.

Did Native Americans Migrate From Eurasia? 1:32

DNA sequencing of the 12,600-year-old remains of an infant reveal Native Americans might have migrated from Asia, not Europe as previously theorized.

https://youtu.be/i6CGMCZpbqk




        The Indian Removal Act 1052

The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the founding father of the Democratic Party. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.[1][2][3]

The act enjoyed strong support from the non-Indian peoples of the South, who were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the southeastern tribes. Christian missionaries protested against the law's passage.

Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act, 3:41
The founder of which political party promoted the Indian Removal Act?
The founder of the Democratic Party, Andrew Jackson, removed Indians from their lands and expanded the role of the President. Anticipating the growth of the Presidency in the 20th Century the Progressives diminished the power of Congress.


https://youtu.be/3E4f_oekpzI



America's Territorial Expansion Mapped (1789-2014), 1:18

An animated map showing the territorial expansion of the United States from its inception in 1789 to 2014.


https://youtu.be/dVJxKis7_zo



        Recording Native Americans: Catlin’s Ethnographic Enterprise 1053

Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. The word can thus be said to have a "double meaning," which partly depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountably.[1] The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group.[2][3][4]

Ethnography, as the presentation of empirical data on human societies and cultures, was pioneered in the biological, social, and cultural branches of anthropology, but it has also become popular in the social sciences in general—sociology,[5] communication studies, history—wherever people study ethnic groups, formations, compositions, resettlements, social welfare characteristics, materiality, spirituality, and a people's ethnogenesis.[6] The typical ethnography is a holistic study[7][8] and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat. In all cases it should be reflexive, make a substantial contribution toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic impact on the reader, and express a credible reality. An ethnography records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations, using concepts that avoid causal explanations.


        Huron Moccasins: The Influence of European Styles on Native American Art 1054

The Moccasin Maker, 1:45

https://youtu.be/3K-Z9VXakYg




        Plains Narrative Painting: Picturing Personal History and Change 1054

Plains hide painting is a traditional Plains Indian artistic practice of painting on either tanned or raw animal hides. Tipis, tipi liners, shields, parfleches, robes, clothing, drums, and winter counts could all be painted.



        Women’s Arts on the Plains: Quillwork and Beadwork 1055

        Weaving and Basketry 1056

Textile arts of indigenous peoples of the Americas are decorative, utilitarian, ceremonial, or conceptual artworks made from plant, animal, or synthetic fibers by native peoples of both North and South America.
Textile arts and fiber arts include fabric that is flexible woven material, as well as felt, bark cloth, knitting, embroidery,[1] featherwork, skin-sewing, beadwork, and similar media. Textile arts are one of the earliest known industries.[1] Basketry is associated with textile arts.[2]

While humans have created textiles since the dawn of culture, many are fragile and disintegrate rapidly. Ancient textiles are preserved only by special environmental conditions. The oldest known textiles in the Americas is some early fiberwork found in Guitarrero Cave, Peru dating back to 10,1000 to 9,080 BCE.[3]
The oldest known textiles in North America are twine and plain weave fabrics preserved in a peat pond at the Windover Archaeological Site in Florida, the earliest dating to 6,000 BCE.[4]


        The End of an Era 1057

    Walt Whitman’s America 1058

Walter "Walt" Whitman (/ˈhwɪtmən/; May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse.[1] His work was very controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, which was described as obscene for its overt sexuality.

Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, a government clerk, and—in addition to publishing his poetry—was a volunteer nurse during the American Civil War. Early in his career, he also produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans (1842). Whitman's major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money. The work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892. After a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined. When he died at age 72, his funeral became a public spectacle.[2][3]

Whitman's sexuality is often discussed alongside his poetry. Though biographers continue to debate his sexuality, he is usually described as either homosexual or bisexual in his feelings and attractions. However, there is disagreement among biographers as to whether Whitman had actual sexual experiences with men.[4]

Poetry Analysis 84: "I Hear America Singing" by Walt Whitman, 4:42

https://youtu.be/4Z8R_y68t-I



Levi's - America (Go Forth) Commercial, 1:01

Levi's America (Go Forth) commercial directed by Cary Fukunaga for Wieden+Kennedy, Portland using poem by Walt Whitman. The prints (see link below) were photographed by Ryan McGinley.

https://youtu.be/FdW1CjbCNxw



        In the Interest of Liberty: An Era of Contradictions 1062

        The American Woman 1064


What form of music should you associate with America?
  
 Ragtime and the Beginnings of Jazz 1070

Ragtime – also spelled rag-time or rag time[1] – is a musical genre that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918.[2] Its cardinal trait is its syncopated, or "ragged", rhythm.[2] The genre has its origins in African-American communities like St. Louis[3][4] years before being published as popular sheet music for piano. Ernest Hogan (1865–1909) was a pioneer of ragtime music and was the first to compose ragtime into sheet music. The composition was called "LA Pas Ma LA" and it was released in 1895. Hogan has also been credited for coining the term ragtime. The term is actually derived from his hometown "Shake Rag " in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Ben Harney, who is also Kentucky native has often been credited for introducing the music to the mainstream public. His first ragtime composition "You've been a good old wagon but you done broke" helped popularize the musical genre. The composition was published in 1895 but released in 1896.[5][6] Ragtime was also a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa, with additional polyrhythms coming from African music.[7] The ragtime composer Scott Joplin (ca. 1868–1917) became famous through the publication of the "Maple Leaf Rag" (1899) and a string of ragtime hits such as "The Entertainer" (1902), although he was later forgotten by all but a small, dedicated community of ragtime aficionados until the major ragtime revival in the early 1970s.[8][9] For at least 12 years after its publication, "Maple Leaf Rag" heavily influenced subsequent ragtime composers with its melody lines, harmonic progressions or metric patterns.[10]

Ragtime fell out of favor as jazz claimed the public's imagination after 1917, but there have been numerous revivals since the music has been re-discovered. First in the early 1940s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire and put out ragtime recordings on 78 rpm records. A more significant revival occurred in the 1950s as a wider variety of ragtime styles of the past were made available on records, and new rags were composed, published, and recorded. In 1971 Joshua Rifkin brought out a compilation of Joplin's work which was nominated for a Grammy Award.[11] In 1973 The New England Ragtime Ensemble (then a student group called The New England Conservatory Ragtime Ensemble) recorded The Red Back Book, a compilation of some of Joplin's rags in period orchestrations edited by conservatory president Gunther Schuller. This also won a Grammy for Best Chamber Music Performance of the year and was named Billboard's Top Classical Album of 1974. Subsequently, the motion picture The Sting (1973) brought ragtime to a wide audience with its soundtrack of Joplin tunes. The film's rendering of "The Entertainer", adapted and orchestrated by Marvin Hamlisch, was a Top 5 hit in 1974.

Ragtime – with Joplin's work at the forefront – has been cited as an American equivalent of the minuets of Mozart, the mazurkas of Chopin, or the waltzes of Brahms.[12] Ragtime also influenced classical composers including Erik Satie, Claude Debussy and Igor Stravinsky.[13][14]

Ragtime (1981) trailer, 1:14

https://youtu.be/dTt7RL0PLbA





Jazz is a music genre that originated from African American communities of New Orleans in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African American and European American musical parentage with a performance orientation.[1] Jazz spans a period of over a hundred years, encompassing a very wide range of music, making it difficult to define. Jazz makes heavy use of improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation and the swing note,[2] as well as aspects of European harmony, American popular music,[3] the brass band tradition, and African musical elements such as blue notes and African-American styles such as ragtime.[1] Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience and styles to the art form as well. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms".[4]
As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to many distinctive styles.

New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine, ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz (a style that emphasized musette waltzes) were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines.

The 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures, and in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin and Afro-Cuban jazz.

New Orleans: The Birth of Jazz (History of Jazz Part 1), 1:48


https://youtu.be/DVtURmlp7hY



History of Jazz, 4:33

https://youtu.be/PEGTu7yoQmo



The American Abroad 1070

    Henry James and the International Novel 1071

    Painters Abroad: The Expatriate Vision 1071

Chicago and the Columbian Exposition of 1893 1074

    Louis Sullivan and the Chicago School of Architecture 1076

    Frederick Law Olmsted and the Invention of Suburbia 1077

READINGS

    32.1 from Walt Whitman, “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” (1856) 1059

    32.2 from Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, “Song of Myself” (1867) 1081

    32.2a–b from Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, “Song of Myself” (1867) 1059–1060

    32.3 from Walt Whitman, Democratic Vistas (1871) 1061

    32.4 from Emily Dickinson, Poems (as published in The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson, ed. T.H. Johnson, 1953) 1082

    32.4a Emily Dickinson, “Wild Nights” (as published in 1953) 1069

    32.5a from Kate Chopin, The Awakening, Chapter 1 (1899) 1069

    32.5b from Kate Chopin, The Awakening, Chapter 6 (1899) 1069

FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK Eakins’s Gross Clinic and Agnew Clinic 1066

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The “Frontier Thesis” of Frederick Jackson Turner 1079





DISCUSSION










Week 6 Discussion

"Tchaikovsky and Women in Art" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Select one (1) composition by Tchaikovsky that you enjoy. Describe the music and subject matter of that work, and explain why you enjoy it. Explain the key reasons why you believe that compositions by Tchaikovsky continue to be popular with contemporary orchestras and audiences. Passionate nationalism, like Tchaikovsky's for Russia, could be a feature of Romantic art and music and in the arts of the late 1800s. Give primary examples of music today (besides national anthems) that is characterized by nationalism.
  • Select two (2) paintings depicting females by both a male artist and female artist named within the Explore section. Compare and contrast these two (2) depictions of women, and comment on any general tendencies that you detect among artists of that era in this respect. Compare this situation in the late 1800s to the way females are depicted in our own modern times, using at least one (1) specific modern example.
Explore:
Tchaikovsky

Artists’ Depictions of Women
Why, in 1877, did Southern African Americans lose many of the freedoms they had gained from
       the Civil War?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Union troops withdrew from the South.
Correct Answer:
 
Union troops withdrew from the South.


Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why does Huckleberry Finn decide not to turn in the runaway slave Jim for a reward?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Huck has learned to appreciate Jim’s humanity.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Huck has learned to appreciate Jim’s humanity.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, the white whale seems to symbolize
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the natural world’s uncontrollable elements.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the natural world’s uncontrollable elements.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice


  1. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was inspired by


    Correct Answer:
     
    the death and burial of her young son.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice


  1. Frederick Douglass eventually broke away from the Anti-Slavery Society out of


    Correct Answer:
     
    concern that their doctrine would dissolve the Union.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to Charles Baudelaire, the greatest job of a flâneur like himself and Édouard Manet was to
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    shock the bourgeoisie.
    Correct Answer:
     
    shock the bourgeoisie.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann’s plan increased land dedicated to public parks in Paris by
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    100 times.
    Correct Answer:
     
    100 times.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did French audiences react so negatively to Richard Wagner’s Tannhäuser?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The German plot inflamed French hostility.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The German plot inflamed French hostility.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Japonisme is
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the imitation of Japanese art.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the imitation of Japanese art.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Which nineteenth-century artist was most enthusiastic about Japanese prints?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Vincent van Gogh
Correct Answer:
 
Vincent van Gogh




HUM 112 Week 6
Week 6 Discussion
"Tchaikovsky and Women in Art" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Select one (1) composition by Tchaikovsky that you enjoy. Describe the music and subject matter of that work, and explain why you enjoy it. Explain the key reasons why you believe that compositions by Tchaikovsky continue to be popular with contemporary orchestras and audiences. Passionate nationalism, like Tchaikovsky's for Russia, could be a feature of Romantic art and music and in the arts of the late 1800s. Give primary examples of music today (besides national anthems) that is characterized by nationalism.
  • Select two (2) paintings depicting females by both a male artist and female artist named within the Explore section. Compare and contrast these two (2) depictions of women, and comment on any general tendencies that you detect among artists of that era in this respect. Compare this situation in the late 1800s to the way females are depicted in our own modern times, using at least one (1) specific modern example.
Explore:
Tchaikovsky

Artists’ Depictions of Women
What did you find out about Tchaikovsky’s biography?
Which version of Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture is best? Why?
What was it like to hear the Maple Leaf Rag for the first time?
What is your impression, of Impressionism?
What are the features of French Impressionist paintings
Who is Monet?
What is notable about where Monet painted?
How did Monet, Renoir, and the other famous Impressionist painters create their beautiful works of art?
Degas was someone known for painting what?
How do you say "Caillebotte"?
What is the difference between the Romantics and Realists (literary Naturalism)?
What is the formula?
What memorable writers existed under the Tsars?
What notes can be made about the Underground (Dostoevsky)?
Repression under the Tsars led to socialism yet Britain focused on the design of social reform. Why? Consider William Morris and John Stuart Mill.
Where does liberty begin and end? What limits to personal freedom should people accept in society and why?
Did Native Americans Migrate From Eurasia?
The founder of which political party promoted the Indian Removal Act?
What form of music should you associate with America? 


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What two principles did William Morris emphasize in his designs?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Simplicity and utility
    Correct Answer:
     
    Simplicity and utility

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What effect does Claude Monet's loose brushwork give to Boulevard des Capucines?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Animation of a public street
    Correct Answer:
     
    Animation of a public street

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, and other artists found a Société anonyme?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To help rebuild French culture
    Correct Answer:
     
    To help rebuild French culture

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was Emperor Louis-Napoleon imprisoned and exiled to England in 1870?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Prussian army defeated his forces
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Prussian army defeated his forces

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In Berthe Morisot's Summer's Day, why is one woman's dress with zigzags while the other is a patchwork of straight strokes?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To emphasize the distance between them
    Correct Answer:
     
    To emphasize the distance between them

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    By how much did Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase increase the United States' size?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Doubled
    Correct Answer:
     
    Doubled

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did one reviewer call Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass "a mass of rotten filth"?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Celebrations of sexuality
    Correct Answer:
     
    Celebrations of sexuality

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to architect Louis H. Sullivan, what determined a building's identity?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Ornamentation
    Correct Answer:
     
    Ornamentation

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did John Ruskin criticize James Whistler's Impressionistic Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    For looking like flung paint
    Correct Answer:
     
    For looking like flung paint

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why was the Tammany Society originally founded?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Social purposes
Correct Answer:
 
Social purposes