Tuesday, February 21, 2017

HUM 112 Week 8 Winter 2017

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We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00. Discussion is at 10:00 before you are dismissed at 10: 15 pm.


LECTURE

Literary Imagination, War Inspires Art, 2:32
Harlem Renaissance: Talkin' All That Jazz, 2:35

Skyscraper Culture: New York State of Mind, 2:32

Hollywood: The Golden Age of Silent Film, 2:27

Click the image below to learn more about Literary Imagination, Harlem Renaissance, Skyscraper Culture, and Hollywood.

 





    Chapter 35: The Great War and Its Impact
    Chapter 36: New York, Skyscraper Culture, and the Jazz Age



HUM112 Music Clips for Week 8

  
This week's music clips relate to chapters 35 and 36.  Chapter 35 covers no music, so all selections below are mentioned in Chapter 36.  We pick up with early American Blues and Jazz. 
  1. Bessie Smith, Florida-Bound Blues (chap. 36, pp. 1177-1178)
Read pp. 1177-1178 (in chap. 36).  Bessie Smith (lived 1894-1937) recorded this blues song in the mid-1920s.  See p. 1178, fig. 36.4 for a photo of her. She was known as the "Empress of the Blues" Read carefully on p. 1178 about her pioneering contributions to the blues when the genre was in its early stages. 





    Florida Bound Blues (Bessie Smith, 1925) Jazz Legend, 3:10

    Bessie Smith (Vocal) Clarence Williams (Piano)

    https://youtu.be/el1pNJceLHE


     
    Bessie Smith, Mini Bio, 3:20


    A short biography of Bessie Smith, the blues singer who hit the theater circuit at the age of 18, touring in minstrel shows and cabarets. She eventually started her own revue, which showcased her distinctive voice and established Smith as one of the greatest female blues singer to ever live.



    https://youtu.be/CT4z847-hyc




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    From pianists to presidents, learn it all in our Mini Bios playlist: http://bit.ly/1dM6ts3

    Learn about more sultry singers in our Musicians playlist: http://bit.ly/1dM104s
    https://youtu.be/CT4z847-hyc

    Bessie Smith
    Bessiesmith.jpg

    Smith in 1936. (photograph by Carl Van Vechten)
    Background information
    Birth name Bessie Smith
    Also known as The Empress of the Blues
    Born April 15, 1894
    Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.
    Died September 26, 1937 (aged 43)
    Clarksdale, Mississippi, U.S.
    Genres Blues, Jazz blues
    Occupation(s) Singer, Actress
    Instruments Vocals
    Years active 1912–1937
    Labels Columbia
    Associated acts Ma Rainey, Alberta Hunter, Ethel Waters

    Nicknamed The Empress of the Blues, Smith was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s.[1] She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and, along with Louis Armstrong, a major influence on other jazz vocalists.[2]

    Life

    Portrait of Bessie Smith, 1936

    Portrait of Bessie Smith, 1936
    The 1900 census indicates that Bessie Smith was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in July 1892, a date provided by her mother. However, the 1910 census recorded her birthday as April 15, 1894, a date that appears on all subsequent documents and was observed by the entire Smith family. Census data also contribute to controversy about the size of her family. The 1870 and 1880 censuses report three older half-siblings, while later interviews with Smith's family and contemporaries did not include these individuals among her siblings.

    Bessie Smith was the daughter of Laura (née Owens) and William Smith. William Smith was a laborer and part-time Baptist preacher (he was listed in the 1870 census as a "minister of the gospel", in Moulton, Lawrence, Alabama.) He died before his daughter could remember him. By the time she was nine, she had lost her mother and a brother as well. Her older sister Viola took charge of caring for her siblings.[3]

    To earn money for their impoverished household, Bessie Smith and her brother Andrew began busking on the streets of Chattanooga as a duet: she singing and dancing, he accompanying her on guitar. Their favorite location was in front of the White Elephant Saloon at Thirteenth and Elm streets in the heart of the city's African-American community.

    In 1904, her oldest brother, Clarence, covertly left home, joining a small traveling troupe owned by Moses Stokes. "If Bessie had been old enough, she would have gone with him," said Clarence's widow, Maud. "That's why he left without telling her, but Clarence told me she was ready, even then. Of course, she was only a child."[4]

    In 1912, Clarence returned to Chattanooga with the Stokes troupe. He arranged for its managers, Lonnie and Cora Fisher, to give Smith an audition. She was hired as a dancer rather than a singer, because the company also included the unknown singer, Ma Rainey. Smith eventually moved on to performing in various chorus lines, making the "81" Theater in Atlanta her home base. There were times when she worked in shows on the black-owned T.O.B.A. (Theater Owners Booking Association) circuit. She would rise to become its biggest star after signing with Columbia Records.
    By 1923, when she began her recording career, Smith had taken up residence in Philadelphia. There she met and fell in love with Jack Gee, a security guard whom she married on June 7, 1923, just as her first record was released. During the marriage—a stormy one, with infidelity on both sides—Smith became the highest paid black entertainer of the day, heading her own shows, which sometimes featured as many as 40 troupers, and touring in her own railroad car. Gee was impressed by the money, but never adjusted to show business life, or to Smith's bisexuality. In 1929, when she learned of his affair with another singer, Gertrude Saunders, Bessie Smith ended the relationship, although neither of them sought a divorce.

    Smith eventually found a common-law husband in an old friend, Richard Morgan, who was Lionel Hampton's uncle and the antithesis of her husband. She stayed with him until her death.[3]

    Career


    Portrait of Bessie Smith by Carl Van Vechten


    All contemporary accounts indicate that while Rainey did not teach Smith to sing, she probably helped her develop a stage presence.[5] Smith began forming her own act around 1913, at Atlanta's "81" Theater. By 1920, Smith had established a reputation in the South and along the Eastern Seaboard.
    In 1920, sales figures of over 100,000 copies for "Crazy Blues," an Okeh Records recording by singer Mamie Smith (no relation) pointed to a new market. The recording industry had not directed its product to blacks, but the success of the record led to a search for female blues singers. Bessie Smith was signed to Columbia Records in 1923 by Frank Walker, a talent agent who had seen her perform years earlier. Her first session for Columbia was February 15, 1923. For most of 1923, her records were issued on Columbia's regular A- series; when the label decided to establish a "race records" series, Smith's "Cemetery Blues" (September 26, 1923) was the first issued.

    She scored a big hit with her first release, a coupling of "Gulf Coast Blues" and "Downhearted Blues", which its composer Alberta Hunter had already turned into a hit on the Paramount label. Smith became a headliner on the black T.O.B.A. circuit and rose to become its top attraction in the 1920s.[6] Working a heavy theater schedule during the winter months and doing tent tours the rest of the year (eventually traveling in her own railroad car), Smith became the highest-paid black entertainer of her day.[7] Columbia nicknamed her "Queen of the Blues," but a PR-minded press soon upgraded her title to "Empress".

    Smith had a powerfully strong voice that recorded very well from her first record, made during the time when recordings were made acoustically. With the coming of electrical recording (her first electrical recording was "Cake Walking Babies (From Home)" recorded Tuesday, May 5, 1925),[8] the sheer power of her voice was even more evident. She was also able to benefit from the new technology of radio broadcasting, even on stations that were in the segregated south. For example, after giving a concert for a white-only audience at a local theater in Memphis, Tennessee, in October 1923, she then performed a late night concert on station WMC, where her songs were very well received by the radio audience.[9]

    She made 160 recordings for Columbia, often accompanied by the finest musicians of the day, most notably Louis Armstrong, Coleman Hawkins, Fletcher Henderson, James P. Johnson, Joe Smith, and Charlie Green.

    Broadway

    Smith's career was cut short by a combination of the Great Depression, which nearly put the recording industry out of business, and the advent of "talkies", which spelled the end for vaudeville. She never stopped performing, however. While the days of elaborate vaudeville shows were over, Smith continued touring and occasionally singing in clubs. In 1929, she appeared in a Broadway flop called Pansy, a musical in which top critics said she was the only asset.

    Film

    In 1929, Smith made her only film appearance, starring in a two-reeler titled St. Louis Blues, based on W. C. Handy's song of the same name. In the film, directed by Dudley Murphy and shot in Astoria, she sings the title song accompanied by members of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra, the Hall Johnson Choir, pianist James P. Johnson and a string section—a musical environment radically different from any found on her recordings.

    Swing era

    In 1933, John Hammond, who also mentored Billie Holiday, asked Smith to record four sides for Okeh (which had been acquired by Columbia Records in 1925). He claimed to have found her in semi-obscurity, working as a hostess in a speakeasy on Philadelphia's Ridge Avenue.[10] Bessie Smith worked at Art's Cafe on Ridge Avenue, but not as a hostess and not until the summer of 1936. In 1933, when she made the Okeh sides, Bessie was still touring. Hammond was known for his selective memory and gratuitous embellishments.[11]

    Bessie Smith was paid a non-royalty fee of $37.50 for each selection and these Okeh sides, which were her last recordings. Made on November 24, 1933, they serve as a hint of the transformation she made in her performances as she shifted her blues artistry into something that fit the "swing era". The relatively modern accompaniment is notable. The band included such swing era musicians as trombonist Jack Teagarden, trumpeter Frankie Newton, tenor saxophonist Chu Berry, pianist Buck Washington, guitarist Bobby Johnson, and bassist Billy Taylor. Benny Goodman, who happened to be recording with Ethel Waters in the adjoining studio, dropped by and is barely audible on one selection. Hammond was not entirely pleased with the results, preferring to have Smith revisit her old blues groove. "Take Me for a Buggy Ride" and "Gimme a Pigfoot (And a Bottle of Beer)", both written by Wesley Wilson, continue to be ranked among her most popular recordings.[3] Billie Holiday, who credited Smith as her major influence along with Louis Armstrong, would go on to record her first record for Columbia three days later with the same band personnel.

    Death



    Smith's death certificate


    I'll have more to say about her death when discussing one of her biggest fans and imitators.








  1. Louis Armstrong, Hotter Than That (chap. 36, pp. 1178-1179)






Read pp. 1178-1179 (in chap. 36) .   Note the reason that Armstrong and other Dixieland Jazz musicians left New Orleans for Chicago and other northern cities.  Notice the scat singing and the "call-and-response".




      

2.b.   Louis Armstrong, What a Wonderful World (not in book; Armstrong is on pp. 1178-9) 

https://youtu.be/A3yCcXgbKrE


                   
 


Louis Armstrong

Future Shorts presents Music Matters - Louis Armstrong, 1:33

Louis Armstrong gave the world songs full of hope.

http://whymusicmatters.org/

Music Matters is a collective of people across the music industry, including artists, retailers, songwriters, labels and managers, formed to remind listeners of the significance and value of music.

Words from the filmmaker:

"Music has been my closest ally for as long as I can remember. When none of my friends cared to hear about my messy prolonged break ups any more, Jeff Buckley still listened. More importantly he still spoke to me, even though he was dead. Similarly, Louis Armstrong and I are best friends now despite the fact that neither of us was ever alive at the same time. Thanks to his music he means more to me than most of my 'friends' on Facebook. I feel I know more about his history than that of my own family and the way he blows that horn makes me feel as though he understands me better than I understand myself.

I felt that these sentiments were perhaps a bit much for the purposes of my animated film. Instead I focused on Louis' essence as conveyed through his own words. The text in my short film is taken from Louis introduction 'What A Wonderful World' for a live recording of the song."


https://youtu.be/E8HpLq3BVtc





Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong restored.jpg
Louis Armstrong's stage personality matched his cornet and trumpet playing.
Background information
Born August 4, 1901
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Died July 6, 1971 (aged 69)
Corona, Queens, New York City, U.S.
Genres Dixieland, jazz, swing, traditional pop, scat
Occupation(s) Musician
Instruments Trumpet, cornet, vocals
Years active c. 1914–1971
Associated acts Joe "King" Oliver, Ella Fitzgerald, Kid Ory
Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971),[1] nicknamed Satchmo[2] or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and an influential figure in jazz music.

Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. With his instantly recognizable gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes. He was also skilled at scat singing (vocalizing using sounds and syllables instead of actual lyrics).
Renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice almost as much as for his trumpet-playing, Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz music, and by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was widely regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first truly popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", whose skin color was secondary to his music in an America that was severely racially divided. He rarely publicly politicized his race, often to the dismay of fellow African-Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation during the Little Rock Crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him socially acceptable access to the upper echelons of American society that were highly restricted for black men.

Early life



Handcolored etching Louis Armstrong by Adi Holzer 2002
Armstrong often stated that he was born on July 4, 1900,[3][4] a date that has been noted in many biographies. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date of August 4, 1901 was discovered by researcher Tad Jones through the examination of baptismal records.[5] 

Armstrong was born into a very poor family in New Orleans, Louisiana, the grandson of slaves. He spent his youth in poverty, in a rough neighborhood, known as “the Battlefield”, which was part of the Storyville legal prostitution district.

 His father, William Armstrong (1881–1922), abandoned the family when Louis was an infant and took up with another woman. 

His mother, Mary "Mayann" Albert (1886–1927), then left Louis and his younger sister, Beatrice Armstrong Collins (1903–1987), in the care of his grandmother, Josephine Armstrong, and at times, his Uncle Isaac. 

At five, he moved back to live with his mother and her relatives, and saw his father only in parades. 

He attended the Fisk School for Boys, where he likely had early exposure to music. 

He brought in some money as a paperboy and also by finding discarded food and selling it to restaurants, but it was not enough to keep his mother from prostitution

He hung out in dance halls close to home, where he observed everything from licentious dancing to the quadrille

For extra money he also hauled coal to Storyville, the famed red-light district, and listened to the bands playing in the brothels and dance halls, especially Pete Lala's where Joe "King" Oliver performed and other famous musicians would drop in to jam.

After dropping out of the Fisk School at age eleven, Armstrong joined a quartet of boys who sang in the streets for money. 

But he also started to get into trouble. 

Cornet player Bunk Johnson said he taught Armstrong (then 11) to play by ear at Dago Tony's Tonk in New Orleans,[6] although in his later years Armstrong gave the credit to Oliver. 

Armstrong hardly looked back at his youth as the worst of times but instead drew inspiration from it, “Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for.”[7]

He also worked for a Lithuanian-Jewish immigrant family, the Karnofskys, who had a junk hauling business and gave him odd jobs. 

They took him in and treated him as almost a family member, knowing he lived without a father, and would feed and nurture him.[8] 

He later wrote a memoir of his relationship with the Karnofskys titled, Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La., the Year of 1907. 

In it he describes his discovery that this family was also subject to discrimination by "other white folks' nationalities who felt that they were better than the Jewish race... I was only seven years old but I could easily see the ungodly treatment that the White Folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."[9]

Armstrong wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination."[10] 

The influence of Karnofsky is remembered in New Orleans by the Karnofsky Project, a non-profit organization dedicated to accepting donated musical instruments to "put them into the hands of an eager child who could not otherwise take part in a wonderful learning experience."[11]




Armstrong with his first trumpet instructor, Peter Davis, in 1965
Armstrong developed his cornet playing skills by playing in the band of the New Orleans Home for Colored Waifs, where he had been sent multiple times for general delinquency, most notably for a long term after firing his stepfather's pistol into the air at a New Year's Eve celebration, as police records confirm. 

Professor Peter Davis (who frequently appeared at the Home at the request of its administrator, Captain Joseph Jones)[12] instilled discipline in and provided musical training to the otherwise self-taught Armstrong. 

Eventually, Davis made Armstrong the band leader. 

The Home band played around New Orleans and the thirteen-year-old Louis began to draw attention by his cornet playing, starting him on a musical career.[13] 

At fourteen he was released from the Home, living again with his father and new stepmother and then back with his mother and also back to the streets and their temptations. 

Armstrong got his first dance hall job at Henry Ponce’s where Black Benny became his protector and guide. He hauled coal by day and played his cornet at night.

He played in the city's frequent brass band parades and listened to older musicians every chance he got, learning from Bunk Johnson, Buddy Petit, Kid Ory, and above all, Joe "King" Oliver, who acted as a mentor and father figure to the young musician. 

Later, he played in the brass bands and riverboats of New Orleans, and began traveling with the well-regarded band of Fate Marable, which toured on a steamboat up and down the Mississippi River

He described his time with Marable as "going to the University," since it gave him a much wider experience working with written arrangements.

In 1919, Joe Oliver decided to go north and resigned his position in Kid Ory's band; Armstrong replaced him. He also became second trumpet for the Tuxedo Brass Band, a society band.[14]

Career



“Heebie Jeebies” by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five


"Muggles"(1938 reissue pressing)
"Heebie Jeebies," 2:57

https://youtu.be/0EL7XyME-k8


Louis Armstrong And His Hot Five Louis Armstrong (c,vo) Kid Ory (tb) Johnny Dodds (cl) Lil Armstrong (p) Johnny St. Cyr (bj) February 26, 1926, Chicago, Illinois



"Muggles," 2:52

https://youtu.be/qY6Yo6lE-Jg


Armstrong on trumpet; Fred Robinson, trombone; Jimmy Dodds, clarinet; Earl Hines, piano; Mancy Carr (not "Cara" as his name has been too often misspelled) on banjo, and Zutty Singleton on drums. December 7, 1928, Chicago, IL



"Skokiaan," 4:55


https://youtu.be/6YTS9jFB084

Louis Armstrong With Sy Olivers Orchestra - Recorded August 13, 1954 Louis Armstrong, trumpet, vocal; Omer Simeon, soprano saxophone; Charlie Shavers, Taft Jordan, Abdul Salaam [William Chiefie Scott], trumpets; Al Cobbs Elmer Crumley, Paul Seiden, trombone; Barney Bigard, clarinet; Dave Martin, piano; Danny Barker, banjo; Arvell Shaw, bass; Barrett Deems, drums; Sy Oliver, arranger, conductor


 
Through all his riverboat experience Armstrong’s musicianship began to mature and expand. At twenty, he could read music and he started to be featured in extended trumpet solos, one of the first jazzmen to do this, injecting his own personality and style into his solo turns. He had learned how to create a unique sound and also started using singing and patter in his performances.[15] In 1922, Armstrong joined the exodus to Chicago, where he had been invited by his mentor, Joe "King" Oliver, to join his Creole Jazz Band and where he could make a sufficient income so that he no longer needed to supplement his music with day labor jobs. It was a boom time in Chicago and though race relations were poor, the “Windy City” was teeming with jobs for black people, who were making good wages in factories and had plenty to spend on entertainment.

Oliver's band was the best and most influential hot jazz band in Chicago in the early 1920s, at a time when Chicago was the center of the jazz universe. Armstrong lived luxuriously in Chicago, in his own apartment with his own private bath (his first). Excited as he was to be in Chicago, he began his career-long pastime of writing nostalgic letters to friends in New Orleans. As Armstrong’s reputation grew, he was challenged to “cutting contests” by hornmen trying to displace the new phenom, who could blow two hundred high C’s in a row.[16] Armstrong made his first recordings on the Gennett and Okeh labels (jazz records were starting to boom across the country), including taking some solos and breaks, while playing second cornet in Oliver's band in 1923. At this time, he met Hoagy Carmichael (with whom he would collaborate later) who was introduced by friend Bix Beiderbecke, who now had his own Chicago band.

Armstrong enjoyed working with Oliver, but Louis' second wife, pianist Lil Hardin Armstrong, urged him to seek more prominent billing and develop his newer style away from the influence of Oliver. Armstrong took the advice of his wife and left Oliver's band. For a year Armstrong played in Fletcher Henderson's band in New York on many recordings. After playing in New York, Armstrong returned to Chicago, playing in large orchestras; there he created his most important early recordings.[17] Lil had her husband play classical music in church concerts to broaden his skill and improve his solo play and she prodded him into wearing more stylish attire to make him look sharp and to better offset his growing girth. Lil’s influence eventually undermined Armstrong’s relationship with his mentor, especially concerning his salary and additional moneys that Oliver held back from Armstrong and other band members. Armstrong and Oliver parted amicably in 1924. Shortly afterward, Armstrong received an invitation to go to New York City to play with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, the top African-American band of the day. Armstrong switched to the trumpet to blend in better with the other musicians in his section. His influence upon Henderson's tenor sax soloist, Coleman Hawkins, can be judged by listening to the records made by the band during this period.

Armstrong quickly adapted to the more tightly controlled style of Henderson, playing trumpet and even experimenting with the trombone and the other members quickly took up Armstrong’s emotional, expressive pulse. Soon his act included singing and telling tales of New Orleans characters, especially preachers.[18] The Henderson Orchestra was playing in the best venues for white-only patrons, including the famed Roseland Ballroom, featuring the classy arrangements of Don Redman. Duke Ellington’s orchestra would go to Roseland to catch Armstrong’s performances and young hornmen around town tried in vain to outplay him, splitting their lips in their attempts.

During this time, Armstrong made many recordings on the side, arranged by an old friend from New Orleans, pianist Clarence Williams; these included small jazz band sides with the Williams Blue Five (some of the best pairing Armstrong with one of Armstrong's few rivals in fiery technique and ideas, Sidney Bechet) and a series of accompaniments with blues singers, including Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and Alberta Hunter.
Armstrong returned to Chicago in 1925 due mostly to the urging of his wife, who wanted to pump up Armstrong’s career and income. He was content in New York but later would concede that she was right and that the Henderson Orchestra was limiting his artistic growth. In publicity, much to his chagrin, she billed him as “the World’s Greatest Trumpet Player”. At first, he was actually a member of the Lil Hardin Armstrong Band and working for his wife.[19] He began recording under his own name for Okeh with his famous Hot Five and Hot Seven groups, producing hits such as "Potato Head Blues", "Muggles", (a reference to marijuana, for which Armstrong had a lifelong fondness), and "West End Blues", the music of which set the standard and the agenda for jazz for many years to come.

The group included Kid Ory (trombone), Johnny Dodds (clarinet), Johnny St. Cyr (banjo), wife Lil on piano, and usually no drummer. Armstrong’s bandleading style was easygoing, as St. Cyr noted, "One felt so relaxed working with him, and he was very broad-minded . . . always did his best to feature each individual."[20] His recordings soon after with pianist Earl "Fatha" Hines (most famously their 1928 Weatherbird duet) and Armstrong's trumpet introduction to "West End Blues" remain some of the most famous and influential improvisations in jazz history. Armstrong was now free to develop his personal style as he wished, which included a heavy dose of effervescent jive, such as "whip that thing, Miss Lil" and "Mr. Johnny Dodds, Aw, do that clarinet, boy!"[21]

Armstrong also played with Erskine Tate’s Little Symphony, actually a quintet, which played mostly at the Vendome Theatre. They furnished music for silent movies and live shows, including jazz versions of classical music, such as "Madame Butterfly," which gave Armstrong experience with longer forms of music and with hosting before a large audience. He began to scat sing (improvised vocal jazz using nonsensical words) and was among the first to record it, on "Heebie Jeebies" in 1926. The recording was so popular that the group became the most famous jazz band in the United States, even though they had not performed live to any great extent. Young musicians across the country, black or white, were turned on by Armstrong’s new type of jazz.[22]





With Jack Teagarden (left) and Barney Bigard (right), Armstrong plays the trumpet in Helsinki, Finland, October 1949
After separating from Lil, Armstrong started to play at the Sunset Café for Al Capone's associate Joe Glaser in the Carroll Dickerson Orchestra, with Earl Hines on piano, which was soon renamed Louis Armstrong and his Stompers,[23] though Hines was the music director and Glaser managed the orchestra. Hines and Armstrong became fast friends and successful collaborators.[24]

Armstrong returned to New York, in 1929, where he played in the pit orchestra of the successful musical Hot Chocolate, an all-black revue written by Andy Razaf and pianist/composer Fats Waller. He also made a cameo appearance as a vocalist, regularly stealing the show with his rendition of "Ain't Misbehavin'", his version of the song becoming his biggest selling record to date.[25]

Armstrong started to work at Connie's Inn in Harlem, chief rival to the Cotton Club, a venue for elaborately staged floor shows,[26] and a front for gangster Dutch Schultz. Armstrong also had considerable success with vocal recordings, including versions of famous songs composed by his old friend Hoagy Carmichael. His 1930s recordings took full advantage of the new RCA ribbon microphone, introduced in 1931, which imparted a characteristic warmth to vocals and immediately became an intrinsic part of the 'crooning' sound of artists like Bing Crosby. Armstrong's famous interpretation of Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust" became one of the most successful versions of this song ever recorded, showcasing Armstrong's unique vocal sound and style and his innovative approach to singing songs that had already become standards.

Armstrong's radical re-working of Sidney Arodin and Carmichael's "Lazy River" (recorded in 1931) encapsulated many features of his groundbreaking approach to melody and phrasing. The song begins with a brief trumpet solo, then the main melody is stated by sobbing horns, memorably punctuated by Armstrong's growling interjections at the end of each bar: "Yeah! ..."Uh-huh" ..."Sure" ... "Way down, way down." In the first verse, he ignores the notated melody entirely and sings as if playing a trumpet solo, pitching most of the first line on a single note and using strongly syncopated phrasing. In the second stanza he breaks into an almost fully improvised melody, which then evolves into a classic passage of Armstrong "scat singing".




Louis Armstrong in 1953
As with his trumpet playing, Armstrong's vocal innovations served as a foundation stone for the art of jazz vocal interpretation. The uniquely gritty coloration of his voice became a musical archetype that was much imitated and endlessly impersonated. His scat singing style was enriched by his matchless experience as a trumpet soloist. His resonant, velvety lower-register tone and bubbling cadences on sides such as "Lazy River" exerted a huge influence on younger white singers such as Bing Crosby.

The Great Depression of the early 1930s was especially hard on the jazz scene. The Cotton Club closed in 1936 after a long downward spiral, and many musicians stopped playing altogether as club dates evaporated. Bix Beiderbecke died and Fletcher Henderson’s band broke up. King Oliver made a few records but otherwise struggled. Sidney Bechet became a tailor and Kid Ory returned to New Orleans and raised chickens.[27]

Armstrong moved to Los Angeles in 1930 to seek new opportunities. He played at the New Cotton Club in Los Angeles with Lionel Hampton on drums. The band drew the Hollywood crowd, which could still afford a lavish night life, while radio broadcasts from the club connected with younger audiences at home. Bing Crosby and many other celebrities were regulars at the club. In 1931, Armstrong appeared in his first movie, Ex-Flame. Armstrong was convicted of marijuana possession but received a suspended sentence.[28] He returned to Chicago in late 1931 and played in bands more in the Guy Lombardo vein and he recorded more standards. When the mob insisted that he get out of town,[29] Armstrong visited New Orleans, got a hero’s welcome and saw old friends. He sponsored a local baseball team known as “Armstrong’s Secret Nine” and had a cigar named after him.[30] But soon he was on the road again and after a tour across the country shadowed by the mob, Armstrong decided to go to Europe to escape.

After returning to the United States, he undertook several exhausting tours. His agent Johnny Collins’ erratic behavior and his own spending ways left Armstrong short of cash. Breach of contract violations plagued him. Finally, he hired Joe Glaser as his new manager, a tough mob-connected wheeler-dealer, who began to straighten out his legal mess, his mob troubles, and his debts. Armstrong also began to experience problems with his fingers and lips, which were aggravated by his unorthodox playing style. As a result he branched out, developing his vocal style and making his first theatrical appearances. He appeared in movies again, including Crosby's 1936 hit Pennies from Heaven. In 1937, Armstrong substituted for Rudy Vallee on the CBS radio network and became the first African American to host a sponsored, national broadcast.[31]

After spending many years on the road, Armstrong settled permanently in Queens, New York in 1943 in contentment with his fourth wife, Lucille. Although subject to the vicissitudes of Tin Pan Alley and the gangster-ridden music business, as well as anti-black prejudice, he continued to develop his playing. He recorded Hoagy Carmichael's Rockin' Chair for Okeh Records.

During the subsequent thirty years, Armstrong played more than three hundred gigs a year. Bookings for big bands tapered off during the 1940s due to changes in public tastes: ballrooms closed, and there was competition from television and from other types of music becoming more popular than big band music. It became impossible under such circumstances to support and finance a 16-piece touring band.

The All Stars



Louis Armstrong in 1953
Following a highly successful small-group jazz concert at New York Town Hall on May 17, 1947, featuring Armstrong with trombonist/singer Jack Teagarden, Armstrong's manager Joe Glaser dissolved the Armstrong big band on August 13, 1947 and established a six-piece small group featuring Armstrong with (initially) Teagarden, Earl Hines and other top swing and dixieland musicians, most of them ex-big band leaders. The new group was announced at the opening of Billy Berg's Supper Club.

This group was called Louis Armstrong and his All Stars and included at various times Earl "Fatha" Hines, Barney Bigard, Edmond Hall, Jack Teagarden, Trummy Young, Arvell Shaw, Billy Kyle, Marty Napoleon, Big Sid Catlett, Cozy Cole, Tyree Glenn, Barrett Deems, Joe Darensbourg and the Filipino-American percussionist Danny Barcelona. During this period, Armstrong made many recordings and appeared in over thirty films. He was the first jazz musician to appear on the cover of Time Magazine on February 21, 1949.)
In 1948, he participated in the Nice Jazz Festival where Suzy Delair sings for the first time in public C'est si bon by Henri Betti and André Hornez. Love this song, Armstrong asked the editor if he can make a recording in America what the publisher allows it. Armstrong recorded the first American version of C'est si bon June 26, 1950 in New York with English lyrics by Jerry Seelen. On its release, the disc becomes a worldwide success.

In 1964, he recorded his biggest-selling record, "Hello, Dolly!", a song by Jerry Herman, originally sung by Carol Channing. Armstrong's cover of the song, which lasted 22 weeks on the Hot 100, longer than any other record that year, went to No. 1 on the pop chart, making Armstrong (age 62 years, 9 months, 5 days) the oldest person to date to ever accomplish that feat. In the process, Armstrong dislodged The Beatles from the No. 1 position they had occupied for 14 consecutive weeks with three different songs.[32]

Armstrong kept up his busy tour schedule until a few years before his death in 1971. In his later years he would sometimes play some of his numerous gigs by rote, but other times would enliven the most mundane gig with his vigorous playing, often to the astonishment of his band. He also toured Africa, Europe, and Asia under sponsorship of the US State Department with great success, earning the nickname "Ambassador Satch " and inspiring Dave Brubeck to compose his jazz musical The Real Ambassadors [33]

While failing health restricted his schedule in his last years, within those limitations he continued playing until the day he died.

Death

Armstrong died of a heart attack in his sleep on July 6, 1971, a month before his 70th birthday,[34] 11 months after playing a famous show at the Waldorf-Astoria's Empire Room.[35] He was residing in Corona, Queens, New York City, at the time of his death.[36] He was interred in Flushing Cemetery, Flushing, in Queens, New York City.[37] His honorary pallbearers included Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Pearl Bailey, Count Basie, Harry James, Frank Sinatra, Ed Sullivan, Earl Wilson, Alan King, Johnny Carson and David Frost.[38] Peggy Lee sang The Lord's Prayer at the services while Al Hibbler sang "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen" and Fred Robbins, a long-time friend, gave the eulogy.[39]

Personal life

Pronunciation of name

The Louis Armstrong House Museum website states:
Judging from home recorded tapes now in our Museum Collections, Louis pronounced his own name as “Lewis.” On his 1964 record “Hello, Dolly,” he sings, “This is Lewis, Dolly” but in 1933 he made a record called “Laughin’ Louie.” Many broadcast announcers, fans, and acquaintances called him “Louie” and in a videotaped interview from 1983 Lucille Armstrong calls her late husband “Louie” as well. Musicians and close friends usually called him “Pops.”[40]
In a memoir written for Robert Goffin between 1943 and 1944, Armstrong states, "All white folks call me Louie," suggesting that he himself did not.[41] That said, Armstrong was registered as "Lewie" for the 1920 U.S. Census. On various live records he's called "Louie" on stage, such as on the 1952 "Can Anyone Explain?" from the live album In Scandinavia vol.1. It should also be noted that "Lewie" is the French pronunciation of "Louis" and is commonly used in Louisiana.

Family

On March 19, 1918, Louis married Daisy Parker, a prostitute from Gretna, Louisiana.[42] They adopted a 3-year-old boy, Clarence Armstrong, whose mother, Louis' cousin Flora, died soon after giving birth. Clarence Armstrong was mentally disabled (the result of a head injury at an early age) and Louis would spend the rest of his life taking care of him.[43] Louis' marriage to Parker failed quickly and they separated in 1923.




Armstrong with Lucille Wilson (c. 1960s)
On February 4, 1924, Louis married Lil Hardin Armstrong, who was Oliver's pianist and had also divorced her first spouse only a few years earlier. His second wife was instrumental in developing his career, but in the late 1920s Hardin and Louis grew apart. They separated in 1931 and divorced in 1938, after which Louis married longtime girlfriend Alpha Smith.[44] His marriage to his third wife lasted four years, and they divorced in 1942. Louis then married Lucille Wilson, a singer at the Cotton Club, to whom he was married until his death in 1971.[45]

Armstrong's marriages never produced any offspring, though he loved children.[46] However, in December 2012, 57-year-old Sharon Preston-Folta claimed to be his daughter, from a 1950s affair between Armstrong and Lucille "Sweets" Preston, a dancer at the Cotton Club.[47] In a 1955 letter to his manager, Joe Glaser, Armstrong affirmed his belief that Preston's newborn baby was his daughter, and ordered Glaser to pay a monthly allowance of $400 to mother and child.[48]

Personality

Armstrong was noted for his colorful and charismatic personality. His own biography vexed some biographers and historians, as he had a habit of telling tales, particularly of his early childhood, when he was less scrutinized, and his embellishments of his history often lack consistency.

He was not only an entertainer, Armstrong was also a leading personality of the day. He was beloved by an American public that gave even the greatest African American performers little access beyond their public celebrity, and he was able to live a private life of access and privilege accorded to few other African Americans during that era.

He generally remained politically neutral, which at times alienated him from members of the black community who looked to him to use his prominence with white America to become more of an outspoken figure during the Civil Rights Era of U.S. history.

Nicknames



Autograph of Armstrong on the muretto of Alassio
The nicknames Satchmo and Satch are short for Satchelmouth. Like many things in Armstrong's life, which was filled with colorful stories both real and imagined, many of his own telling, the nickname has many possible origins.

The most common tale that biographers tell is the story of Armstrong as a young boy dancing for pennies in the streets of New Orleans, who would scoop up the coins off of the streets and stick them into his mouth to avoid having the bigger children steal them from him. Someone dubbed him "satchel mouth" for his mouth acting as a satchel. Another tale is that because of his large mouth, he was nicknamed "satchel mouth" which became shortened to Satchmo.

Early on he was also known as Dipper, short for Dippermouth, a reference to the piece Dippermouth Blues.[49] and something of a riff on his unusual embouchure.

The nickname Pops came from Armstrong's own tendency to forget people's names and simply call them "pops" instead. The nickname was soon turned on Armstrong himself. It was used as the title of a 2010 biography of Armstrong by Terry Teachout.They also called him the king of jazz.




Armstrong's autograph from the 1960s

Armstrong and race

Armstrong was largely accepted into white society, both on stage and off, a privilege reserved for very few African-American public figures, and usually those of either exceptional talent or fair skin tone. As his fame grew, so did his access to the finer things in life usually denied to a black man, even a famous one. His renown was such that he dined in the best restaurants and stayed in hotels usually exclusively for whites.[50]
It was a power and privilege that he enjoyed, although he was very careful not to flaunt it with fellow performers of color, and privately, he shared what access that he could with friends and fellow musicians.
That still did not prevent members of the African-American community, particularly in the late 1950s to the early 1970s, from calling him an Uncle Tom, a black-on-black racial epithet for someone who kowtowed to white society at the expense of their own racial identity. Billie Holiday countered, however, "Of course Pops toms, but he toms from the heart."[51]

He was criticized for accepting the title of "King of The Zulus" for Mardi Gras in 1949. In the New Orleans African-American community it is an honored role as the head of leading black Carnival Krewe, but bewildering or offensive to outsiders with their traditional costume of grass-skirts and blackface makeup satirizing southern white attitudes.

Some musicians criticized Armstrong for playing in front of segregated audiences, and for not taking a strong enough stand in the civil rights movement.[52]

The few exceptions made it more effective when he did speak out. Armstrong's criticism of President Eisenhower, calling him "two-faced" and "gutless" because of his inaction during the conflict over school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 made national news.

As a protest, Armstrong canceled a planned tour of the Soviet Union on behalf of the State Department saying "The way they're treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell" and that he could not represent his government abroad when it was in conflict with its own people.[53] Six days after Armstrong's comments, Eisenhower ordered Federal troops to Little Rock to escort students into the school.[54]
The FBI kept a file on Armstrong, for his outspokenness about integration.[55]

Religion

When asked about his religion, Armstrong would answer that he was raised a Baptist, always wore a Star of David, and was friends with the Pope.[56] Armstrong wore the Star of David in honor of the Karnofsky family, who took him in as a child and lent him the money to buy his first cornet. Louis Armstrong was, in fact, baptized as a Catholic at the Sacred Heart of Jesus Church in New Orleans,[56] and he met popes Pius XII and Paul VI, though there is no evidence that he considered himself Catholic. Armstrong seems to have been tolerant towards various religions, but also found humor in them.

Personal habits

Purging

Armstrong was also greatly concerned with his health. He made frequent use of laxatives as a means of controlling his weight, a practice he advocated both to personal acquaintances and in the diet plans he published under the title Lose Weight the Satchmo Way. Armstrong's laxative of preference in his younger days was Pluto Water, but he then became an enthusiastic convert when he discovered the herbal remedy Swiss Kriss. He would extol its virtues to anyone who would listen and pass out packets to everyone he encountered, including members of the British Royal Family. (Armstrong also appeared in humorous, albeit risqué, cards that he had printed to send out to friends; the cards bore a picture of him sitting on a toilet—as viewed through a keyhole—with the slogan "Satch says, 'Leave it all behind ya!'")[57] The cards have sometimes been incorrectly described as ads for Swiss Kriss.[58]

In a live recording of "Baby, It's Cold Outside" with Velma Middleton, he changes the lyric from "Put another record on while I pour" to "Take some Swiss Kriss while I pour."[59]

Love of food

The concern with his health and weight was balanced by his love of food, reflected in such songs as "Cheesecake", "Cornet Chop Suey,"[60] though "Struttin’ with Some Barbecue" was written about a fine-looking companion, not about food.[61] He kept a strong connection throughout his life to the cooking of New Orleans, always signing his letters, "Red beans and ricely yours..."[62]

Writings

Armstrong’s gregariousness extended to writing. On the road, he wrote constantly, sharing favorite themes of his life with correspondents around the world. He avidly typed or wrote on whatever stationery was at hand, recording instant takes on music, sex, food, childhood memories, his heavy "medicinal" marijuana use—and even his bowel movements, which he gleefully described.[63] He had a fondness for lewd jokes and dirty limericks as well.

Social organizations

Louis Armstrong was not, as is often claimed, a Freemason. Although he is usually listed as being a member of Montgomery Lodge No. 18 (Prince Hall) in New York, no such lodge has ever existed. Armstrong states in his autobiography, however, that he was a member of the Knights of Pythias, which is not a Masonic group.[64]

Music

Horn playing and early jazz



Selmer trumpet, given as a gift by King George V of the United Kingdom to Louis Armstrong in 1933
In his early years, Armstrong was best known for his virtuosity with the cornet and trumpet. The greatest trumpet playing of his early years can be heard on his Hot Five and Hot Seven records, as well as the Red Onion Jazz Babies. Armstrong's improvisations were daring and sophisticated for the time, while often subtle and melodic.

He often essentially re-composed pop-tunes he played, making them more interesting. Armstrong's playing is filled with original melodies, creative leaps, and subtle relaxed or driving rhythms. Armstrong's playing technique, honed by constant practice, extended the range, tone and capabilities of the trumpet. In these records, Armstrong almost single-handedly created the role of the jazz soloist, taking what was essentially a collective folk music and turning it into an art form with tremendous possibilities for individual expression.
Armstrong's work in the 1920s shows him playing at the outer limits of his abilities. The Hot Five records, especially, often have minor flubs and missed notes, which do little to detract from listening enjoyment since the energy of the spontaneous performance comes through. By the mid-1930s, Armstrong achieved a smooth assurance, knowing exactly what he could do and carrying out his ideas to perfection.

He was one of the first artists to use recordings of his performances to improve himself. Armstrong was an avid audiophile. He had a large collection of recordings, including reel-to-reel tapes, which he took on the road with him in a trunk during his later career. He enjoyed listening to his own recordings, and comparing his performances musically. In the den of his home, he had the latest audio equipment and would sometimes rehearse and record along with his older recordings or the radio.[65]

Vocal popularity

As his music progressed and popularity grew, his singing also became very important. Armstrong was not the first to record scat singing, but he was masterful at it and helped popularize it. He had a hit with his playing and scat singing on "Heebie Jeebies" when, according to some legends, the sheet music fell on the floor and he simply started singing nonsense syllables. Armstrong stated in his memoirs that this actually occurred. He also sang out "I done forgot the words" in the middle of recording "I'm A Ding Dong Daddy From Dumas."
Such records were hits and scat singing became a major part of his performances. Long before this, however, Armstrong was playing around with his vocals, shortening and lengthening phrases, interjecting improvisations, using his voice as creatively as his trumpet.

Colleagues and followers

During his long career he played and sang with some of the most important instrumentalists and vocalists of the time; among them were Bing Crosby, Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, the singing brakeman Jimmie Rodgers, Bessie Smith and perhaps most famously Ella Fitzgerald.

His influence upon Bing Crosby is particularly important with regard to the subsequent development of popular music: Crosby admired and copied Armstrong, as is evident on many of his early recordings, notably "Just One More Chance" (1931). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz describes Crosby's debt to Armstrong in precise detail, although it does not acknowledge Armstrong by name:
Crosby... was important in introducing into the mainstream of popular singing an Afro-American concept of song as a lyrical extension of speech... His techniques—easing the weight of the breath on the vocal cords, passing into a head voice at a low register, using forward production to aid distinct enunciation, singing on consonants (a practice of black singers), and making discreet use of appoggiaturas, mordents, and slurs to emphasize the text—were emulated by nearly all later popular singers.
Armstrong recorded two albums with Ella Fitzgerald: Ella and Louis, and Ella and Louis Again for Verve Records, with the sessions featuring the backing musicianship of the Oscar Peterson Trio and drummers Buddy Rich (on the first album), and Louie Bellson (on the second). Norman Granz then had the vision for Ella and Louis to record Porgy and Bess which is the most famous and critically acclaimed version of the Gerswhin brothers' masterpiece.

His recordings for Columbia Records, Louis Armstrong Plays W.C. Handy (1954) and Satch Plays Fats (all Fats Waller tunes) (1955) were both being considered masterpieces, as well as moderately well selling. In 1961 the All Stars participated in two albums - "The Great Summit" and "The Great Reunion" (now together as a single disc) with Duke Ellington. The albums feature many of Ellington's most famous compositions (as well as two exclusive cuts) with Duke sitting in on piano. His participation in Dave Brubeck's high-concept jazz musical The Real Ambassadors (1963) was critically acclaimed, and features "Summer Song," one of Armstrong's most popular vocal efforts.




Louis Armstrong in 1966
In 1964 his recording of the song "Hello Dolly" went to number one. An album of the same title was quickly created around the song, and also shot to number one (knocking The Beatles off the top of the chart). The album sold very well for the rest of the year, quickly going "Gold" (500,000). His performance of "Hello Dolly" won for best male pop vocal performance at the 1964 Grammy Awards.

Hits and later career

Armstrong had many hit records including "Stardust", "What a Wonderful World", "When The Saints Go Marching In", "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Ain't Misbehavin'", "You Rascal You", and "Stompin' at the Savoy". "We Have All the Time in the World" was featured on the soundtrack of the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and enjoyed renewed popularity in the UK in 1994 when it featured on a Guinness advert. It reached number 3 in the charts on being re-released.

In 1964, Armstrong knocked The Beatles off the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart with "Hello, Dolly!", which gave the 63-year-old performer a U.S. record as the oldest artist to have a number one song. His 1964 song "Bout Time" was later featured in the film Bewitched.

Armstrong performed in Italy at the 1968 Sanremo Music Festival where he sang "Mi Va di Cantare"[66] alongside his friend, the Eritrean-born Italian singer Lara Saint Paul.[67] In February 1968, he also appeared with Lara Saint Paul on the Italian RAI television channel where he performed "Grassa e Bella," a track he sang in Italian for the Italian market and C.D.I. label.[68]

In 1968, Armstrong scored one last popular hit in the United Kingdom with "What a Wonderful World", which topped the British charts for a month; however, the single did not chart at all in America. The song gained greater currency in the popular consciousness when it was used in the 1987 movie Good Morning, Vietnam, its subsequent re-release topping many charts around the world. Armstrong even appeared on the October 28, 1970, Johnny Cash Show, where he sang Nat King Cole's hit "Rambling Rose" and joined Cash to re-create his performance backing Jimmie Rodgers on "Blue Yodel No. 9".

Stylistic range

Armstrong enjoyed many types of music, from blues to the arrangements of Guy Lombardo, to Latin American folksongs, to classical symphonies and opera. Armstrong incorporated influences from all these sources into his performances, sometimes to the bewilderment of fans who wanted him to stay in convenient narrow categories. Armstrong was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as an early influence. Some of his solos from the 1950s, such as the hard rocking version of "St. Louis Blues" from the WC Handy album, show that the influence went in both directions.

Literature, radio, films and TV

Armstrong appeared in more than a dozen Hollywood films, usually playing a band leader or musician. His most familiar role was as the bandleader cum narrator in the 1956 musical, High Society, in which he sang the title song and performed a duet with Bing Crosby on "Now You Has Jazz". In 1947, he played himself in the movie New Orleans opposite Billie Holiday, which chronicled the demise of the Storyville district and the ensuing exodus of musicians from New Orleans to Chicago.[69] In the 1959 film, The Five Pennies (the story of the cornetist Red Nichols), Armstrong played himself as well as singing and playing several classic numbers. With Danny Kaye Armstrong performed a duet of "When the Saints Go Marching In" during which Kaye impersonated Armstrong. Armstrong also had a part in the film alongside James Stewart in The Glenn Miller Story in which Glenn (played by Stewart) jammed with Armstrong and a few other noted musicians of the time.

He was the first African American to host a nationally broadcast radio show in the 1930s. In 1969, Armstrong had a cameo role in the film version of Hello, Dolly! as the bandleader, Louis, to which he sang the title song with actress Barbra Streisand. His solo recording of "Hello, Dolly!" is one of his most recognizable performances.




Armstrong played a bandleader in the television production "The Lord Don't Play Favorites" on Producers' Showcase in 1956
He was heard on such radio programs as The Story of Swing (1937) and This Is Jazz (1947), and he also made countless television appearances, especially in the 1950s and 1960s, including appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.

Many of Armstrong's recordings remain popular. More than four decades since his death, a larger number of his recordings from all periods of his career are more widely available than at any time during his lifetime. His songs are broadcast and listened to every day throughout the world, and are honored in various movies, TV series, commercials, and even anime and video games. "A Kiss to Build a Dream On" was included in the video game Fallout 2, accompanying the intro cinematic. It was also used in the 1993 film Sleepless in Seattle and the 2005 film Lord of War. "Melancholy Blues," performed by Armstrong and his Hot Seven was included on the Voyager Golden Record sent into outer space to represent one of the greatest achievements of humanity. Most familiar to modern listeners is his ubiquitous rendition of "What a Wonderful World". In 2008, Armstrong's recording of Edith Piaf's famous "La Vie En Rose" was used in a scene of the popular Disney/Pixar film WALL-E. The song was also used in parts, especially the opening trumpets, in the French film Jeux d'enfants (Love Me If You Dare.)

Argentine writer Julio Cortázar, a self-described Armstrong admirer, asserted that a 1952 Louis Armstrong concert at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris played a significant role in inspiring him to create the fictional creatures called Cronopios that are the subject of a number of Cortázar's short stories. Cortázar once called Armstrong himself "Grandísimo Cronopio" (The Great Cronopio).

Armstrong appears as a minor fictionalized character in Harry Turtledove's Southern Victory Series. When he and his band escape from a Nazi-like Confederacy, they enhance the insipid mainstream music of the North. A young Armstrong also appears as a minor fictionalized character in Patrick Neate's 2001 novel Twelve Bar Blues, part of which is set in New Orleans, and which was a winner at that year's Whitbread Book Awards.

There is a pivotal scene in Stardust Memories (1980) in which Woody Allen is overwhelmed by a recording of Armstrong's "Stardust" and experiences a nostalgic epiphany.[70] The combination of the music and the perfect moment is the catalyst for much of the film's action, prompting the protagonist to fall in love with an ill-advised woman.[71]

Terry Teachout wrote a one-man play about Armstrong called Satchmo at the Waldorf that was premiered in 2011 in Orlando, Fla., and has since been produced by Shakespeare & Company, Long Wharf Theater, and the Wilma Theater. The production ran off Broadway in 2014.

Legacy



Louis Armstrong and Grace Kelly on the set of High Society, 1956
The influence of Armstrong on the development of jazz is virtually immeasurable. Yet, his irrepressible personality both as a performer, and as a public figure later in his career, was so strong that to some it sometimes overshadowed his contributions as a musician and singer.

As a virtuoso trumpet player, Armstrong had a unique tone and an extraordinary talent for melodic improvisation. Through his playing, the trumpet emerged as a solo instrument in jazz and is used widely today. He was a masterful accompanist and ensemble player in addition to his extraordinary skills as a soloist. With his innovations, he raised the bar musically for all who came after him.

Though Armstrong is widely recognized as a pioneer of scat singing, Ethel Waters precedes his scatting on record in the 1930s according to Gary Giddins and others.[77] Billie Holiday and Frank Sinatra are just two singers who were greatly indebted to him. Holiday said that she always wanted Bessie Smith's 'big' sound and Armstrong's feeling in her singing. Even special musicians like Duke Ellington have praised Armstrong through strong testimonials. Duke Ellington said, "If anybody was a master, it was Louis Armstrong." In 1950, Bing Crosby, the most successful vocalist of the first half of the 20th century, said, "He is the beginning and the end of music in America."

In the summer of 2001, in commemoration of the centennial of Armstrong's birth, New Orleans's main airport was renamed Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport.

In 2002, the Louis Armstrong's Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings (1925–1928) were preserved in the United States National Recording Registry, a registry of recordings selected yearly by the National Recording Preservation Board for preservation in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress.[78]

The US Open tennis tournament's former main stadium was named Louis Armstrong Stadium in honor of Armstrong who had lived a few blocks from the site.[79]
Today, there are many bands worldwide dedicated to preserving and honoring the music and style of Satchmo, including the Louis Armstrong Society located in New Orleans, Louisiana.

House

The house where Armstrong lived for almost 28 years was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1977 and is now a museum. The Louis Armstrong House Museum, at 34-56 107th Street (between 34th and 37th Avenues) in Corona, Queens, presents concerts and educational programs, operates as a historic house museum and makes materials in its archives of writings, books, recordings and memorabilia available to the public for research. The museum is operated by the City University of New York's Queens College, following the dictates of Lucille Armstrong's will. The museum opened to the public on October 15, 2003. A new visitors center is planned.[80]


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  1. Duke Ellington, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) (chap. 36, p. 1179)
Read p. 1179 (in chap. 36) carefully and then read this paragraph.  This was composed by Ellington in 1931; it is the song that introduced the term "swing" to the jazz world of the day.  Ellington (1899-1974) was born in Washington DC and became famous at Harlem's Cotton Club. 

"It Don't Mean A Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)" was a 1931 composition by Duke Ellington with lyrics by Irving Mills, now accepted as a jazz standard. The music was written and arranged by Ellington in August 1931 during intermissions at Chicago's Lincoln Tavern and was first recorded by Ellington and his orchestra for Brunswick Records on February 2, 1932. Ivie Anderson sang the vocal and trombonist Joe Nanton and alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges played the instrumental solos. The title was based on the oft-stated credo of Ellington's former trumpeter Bubber Miley, who was dying of tuberculosis. The song became famous, Ellington wrote, 'as the expression of a sentiment which prevailed among jazz musicians at the time'. Probably the first song to use the phrase 'swing' in the title, it introduced the term into everyday language and preceded the swing era in music by three years. Edward Kennedy 'Duke' Ellington (April 29, 1899 - May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and jazz orchestra leader. Duke Ellington became one of the most influential artists in the history of recorded music, and is largely recognized as one of the greatest figures in the history of jazz, though his music stretched into various other genres, including blues, gospel, movie soundtracks, popular, and classical. His career spanned five decades and comprised of leading his orchestra, an inexhaustible songbook, scoring for movies and world tours. Due to his inventive use of the orchestra, or 'big band', and in part to his refined public manner and extraordinary charisma, he is generally considered to have elevated the perception of jazz to an artistic level on par with that of classical music. This channel is dedicated to the classic jazz music you've loved for years. The smokin' hot, icy cool jams that still make you tap your feet whenever you hear them . . . Cool Jazz is here!

https://youtu.be/-FvsgGp8rSE


                      ------------------------------- 
  1. Camilla Williams, Summertime (from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess) (Gershwin's Porgy and Bess is discussed in chap. 36, p. 1179)
From the Community Audio website at  https://archive.org/details/GershwinPorgyAndBess1951 , one can listen to Gershwin's Porgy and Bess.  In Act 1, Scene 1, Camilla Williams (from the 1:20 mark to the 3:30 mark) sings "Summertime".  Then listen to more of this great American opera if you wish.
Gershwin and his work are well-known. But,Camilla Williams is one of those great artists and barrier breakers who has been unfortunately forgotten by most.   Listen to this 10-minute biography of Camilla Williams (1919-2012), an African American from Danville VA who became an internationally renowned opera singer: 

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSuMPY34KfE .  

My tribute to Camilla, 6:17

Camilla Williams passed away on Jan. 29th, 2012 at the age of 92. Camilla broke the color barrier in opera when she debuted in Madame Butterfly with the NYC Opera in May of 1946. She was one of my closest and dearest friends.





In her own voice, see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfy-SU80wzM


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfy-SU80wzM

Camilla Williams tells her story from growing up in Danville ,Virginia to her debut with a major opera company.





A New York Times tribute to her is at  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/arts/music/camilla-williams-opera-singer-dies-at-92.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0 .










"Summertime" is an aria composed in 1934 by George Gershwin for the 1935 opera Porgy and Bess. The lyrics are by DuBose Heyward, the author of the novel Porgy on which the opera was based, although the song is also co-credited to Ira Gershwin by ASCAP.[1]


The song soon became a popular and much recorded jazz standard, described as "without doubt ... one of the finest songs the composer ever wrote ... Gershwin's highly evocative writing brilliantly mixes elements of jazz and the song styles of blacks in the southeast United States from the early twentieth century".[2] Composer and lyricist Stephen Sondheim has characterized Heyward's lyrics for "Summertime" and "My Man's Gone Now" as "the best lyrics in the musical theater".[3] The song is recognized as one of the most covered songs in the history of recorded music, with more than 33,000 covers by groups and solo performers.[4]

There are over 25,000 recordings of "Summertime".[15] In September 1936, a recording by Billie Holiday was the first to hit the US pop charts, reaching no. 12.[7] Other versions to make the pop charts include those by Sam Cooke (US no. 81, 1957), Al Martino (UK no. 49, 1960), The Marcels (US no. 78, 1961), Rick Nelson (US no. 89, 1962), and the Chris Columbo Quintet (US no. 93, 1963).[16][17]




Act I: Introduction; Summertime (feat. Camilla Williams), 3:32

https://youtu.be/c5TfZLcAmrQ



The Zombies released their version in January 1965 on their debut LP The Zombies.

The most commercially successful version was by Billy Stewart, who reached no. 10 on the Billboard Hot 100, and no. 7 on the R&B chart in 1966;[18] his version reached no. 39 in the UK[19] and no.13 in Canada. His song featured Maurice White (later of Earth, Wind & Fire) on drums. It spent seven weeks in the Top 40.

Janis Joplin's version with Big Brother and the Holding Company has been highly praised.[20][21] David Starkey in his article "Summertime" says that Joplin sings the song "with the authority of a very old spirit".[22]

This was the first song The Beatles played with Ringo Starr. On October 15, 1960, they recorded at the Akustik Recording Studio, 57 Kirchenallee, Hamburg Germany. The place was an absolute shambles, at the back of a railway station. The main vocalist was Wally Eymond, aka Lou "Wally" Walters, who was guitarist for Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. Beatles drummer Pete Best wasn't there, so Eymond's bandmate Ringo Starr played. This was only a day or so after Stu Sutcliffe was brutally beaten, so he wasn't involved, although it's possible he was in attendance; Johnny Guitar and Ty Brian were also at the recording as observers only. They also recorded "September Song" and "Fever." Nine copies of the record were pressed. "Summertime" was the A side with "Fever" on the B side.

However, The Beatles aka The Beatals - 1960 The Braun Kirchherr Tapes, 1:55:38, the entire bootleg of the session does not include the song.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qj6doHW0oT8

Paul did record Summertime as a solo artist in 1988.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEzCxZ1hIwo

The Zombies - Summertime, 2:11

Shindig! 1965

https://youtu.be/0f12GBhib1k



Billy Stewart - Summertime, 4:50, 1966

https://youtu.be/XWxYx9mmr7U



Janis Joplin - Summertime, 4:00

Death of Bessie Smith

On September 26, 1937, Smith was critically injured in a car accident while traveling along U.S. Route 61 between Memphis, Tennessee, and Clarksdale, Mississippi. Her lover, Richard Morgan, was driving and misjudged the speed of a slow-moving truck ahead of him. Tire marks at the scene suggested that Morgan tried to avoid the truck by driving around its left side, but he hit the rear of the truck side-on at high speed. The tailgate of the truck sheared off the wooden roof of Smith's old Packard. Smith, who was in the passenger seat, probably with her right arm or elbow out the window, took the full brunt of the impact. Morgan escaped without injuries.

The first people on the scene were a Memphis surgeon, Dr. Hugh Smith (no relation), and his fishing partner, Henry Broughton. In the early 1970s, Hugh Smith gave a detailed account of his experience to Bessie's biographer Chris Albertson. This is the most reliable eyewitness testimony about the events surrounding her death.

After stopping at the accident scene, Hugh Smith examined the singer, who was lying in the middle of the road with obviously severe injuries. He estimated she had lost about a half pint of blood and immediately noted a major traumatic injury to her right arm; it had been almost completely severed at the elbow.[15] Hugh Smith was emphatic that this arm injury alone did not cause her death. Although the light was poor, he observed only minor head injuries. He attributed her death to extensive and severe crush injuries to the entire right side of her body, consistent with a sideswipe collision.[16]

Broughton and Hugh Smith moved the singer to the shoulder of the road. Dr. Smith dressed her arm injury with a clean handkerchief and asked Broughton to go to a house about 500 feet off the road to call an ambulance.

By the time Broughton returned approximately 25 minutes later, Bessie Smith was in shock. Time passed with no sign of the ambulance, so Hugh Smith suggested that they take her into Clarksdale in his car. He and Broughton had almost finished clearing the back seat when they heard the sound of a car approaching at high speed. Smith flashed his lights in warning, but the oncoming car failed to stop and plowed into his car at full speed. It sent his car careening into Bessie Smith's overturned Packard, completely wrecking it. The oncoming car ricocheted off Hugh Smith's car into the ditch on the right, barely missing Broughton and Bessie Smith.[17]

The young couple in the new car did not have life-threatening injuries. Two ambulances arrived on the scene from Clarksdale; one from the black hospital, summoned by Broughton, the other from the white hospital, acting on a report from the truck driver, who had not seen the accident victims.

Bessie Smith was taken to Clarksdale's G. T. Thomas Afro-American Hospital, where her right arm was amputated. She died that morning without regaining consciousness. After her death, an often repeated but now discredited story emerged that she had died as a result of having been refused admission to a whites-only hospital in Clarksdale. The jazz writer and producer John Hammond gave this account in an article in the November 1937 issue of Down Beat magazine. The circumstances of Smith's death and the rumor promoted by Hammond formed the basis for Edward Albee's 1959 one-act play The Death of Bessie Smith.[18]

Smith's funeral was held in Philadelphia a little over a week later on October 4, 1937. Her body was originally laid out at Upshur's funeral home. As word of her death spread through Philadelphia's black community, the body had to be moved to the O.V. Catto Elks Lodge to accommodate the estimated 10,000 mourners who filed past her coffin on Sunday, October 3.[20] Contemporary newspapers reported that her funeral was attended by about seven thousand people. Far fewer mourners attended the burial at Mount Lawn Cemetery, in nearby Sharon Hill. Jack Gee thwarted all efforts to purchase a stone for his estranged wife, once or twice pocketing money raised for that purpose.[21]

Bessie began her recording career in 1923,[6] when Smith had taken up residence in Philadelphia. There she met and fell in love with Gee, a security guard, whom she married on June 7, 1923, just as her first record was released. During the marriage—a stormy one, with infidelity on both sides—Smith became the highest-paid black entertainer of the day, heading her own shows, which sometimes featured as many as 40 troupers, and touring in her own custom-built railroad car.

Finally, on August 7, 1970, a tombstone—paid for by both Joplin and Juanita Green, who as a child had done housework for Bessie Smith—was erected at Smith's previously unmarked grave. On August 8 Janis performed at the Capitol Theatre in Port Chester, New York. It was there that she first performed "Mercedes Benz", a song she wrote that day in the bar next door.[53] The song went on to be her biggest hit.

On Sunday, October 4, 1970, producer Paul Rothchild became concerned when Joplin failed to show up at Sunset Sound Recorders for a recording session. Full Tilt Boogie's road manager, John Cooke, drove to the Landmark Motor Hotel in Hollywood where Joplin was staying. He saw Joplin's psychedelically painted Porsche 356C Cabriolet in the parking lot. Upon entering Joplin's room (#105), he found her dead on the floor beside her bed. The official cause of death was an overdose of heroin, possibly compounded by alcohol.[18][61] Cooke believes that Joplin had accidentally been given heroin that was much more potent than normal, as several of her dealer's other customers also overdosed that week.[62] She was cremated.[63]

Peggy Caserta and Seth Morgan had both failed to meet Joplin the Friday immediately prior to her death, October 2. She had been expecting both of them to keep her company that night.[17] According to the book Going Down With Janis, Joplin was saddened that neither of her friends visited her at the Landmark Motor Hotel as they had promised.[15][17] During the 24 hours Joplin lived after this disappointment, Caserta did not phone her to explain why she had failed to show up.[17] Caserta admitted to waiting until late Saturday night to dial the Landmark switchboard, only to learn that Joplin had instructed the desk clerk to get rid of all her incoming phone callers after midnight.[17] Morgan did speak to Joplin on the telephone within 24 hours of her death, but it is not known whether he admitted to her that he had broken his promise.[15]

Joplin's will funded $2,500 to throw a wake party in the event of her demise. The party, which took place October 26, 1970, at the Lion's Share in San Anselmo, California, was attended by Joplin's sister Laura, fiancé Seth Morgan, and close friends, including tattoo artist Lyle Tuttle, Bob Gordon, Jack Penty, and road manager Cooke.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guKoNCQFAFk





Week 8 Explore

Hide Details
Streaming Live
Stream of consciousness: of, relating to, or characterized by a manner of writing in which a character's thoughts or perceptions are presented as occurring in random form, without regard for logical sequences, syntactic structure, distinctions between various levels of reality, or the like:
a stream-of-consciousness novel; a stream-of-consciousness technique.



Harlem Renaissance



The Harlem Renaissance, 2:54





35 The Great War and Its Impact



World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[5][6] Over 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by trench warfare, a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.[7]

All Quiet on the Western Front (1979), 6:01

In the first scene, Paul Baumer (Richard Thomas) is chastised by his teacher (Donald Pleasence) for lack of attention in class, (specifically for furtively making a sketch of a small bird). He is ridiculed as an 'idealist' and a 'dreamer'. In the final trench scene, Paul sympathetically chivvies his exhausted soldiers into staying alert for their own safety. Yet moments later he himself becomes (fatally) distracted by a small bird, the same symbol of beauty that had so irritated his mentor three years previously. Other ironic subtleties reveal themselves here. Paul now seeks solace in smoking, a habit he had until now totally despised. (Recall how he had haughtily rejected his teacher's proffering of a cigarette!). Most tellingly, the movie links the image of Paul's drawings as the metaphor for the idealism of the new generation, a hope that died with Paul in the mud of those hellish trenches. If you enjoyed this excerpt, I recommend the complete film now superbly re-issued (with cuts restored) on blu-ray dvd.

https://youtu.be/7m8J_2KHV8w




GAMING WORLD WAR I

You can try your gaming luck during several front line missions with,

trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml




The war drew in all the world's economic great powers,[8] assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom/British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive, against the terms of the alliance.[9] These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.

The trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a diplomatic crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia,[10][11] and entangled international alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked. Within weeks, the major powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.

On 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia and subsequently invaded.[12][13] As Russia mobilised in support of Serbia, Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading the United Kingdom to declare war on Germany. After the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that would change little until 1917. Meanwhile, on the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, but was stopped in its invasion of East Prussia by the Germans. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. Italy joined the Allies in 1915 and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in the same year, while Romania joined the Allies in 1916, followed by the United States in 1917.

The Russian government collapsed in March 1917, and a subsequent revolution in November brought the Russians to terms with the Central Powers via the Treaty of Brest Litovsk, which constituted a massive German victory. After a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. On 4 November 1918, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to an armistice, and Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries, agreed to an armistice on 11 November 1918, ending the war in victory for the Allies.
By the end of the war, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire had ceased to exist. National borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germany's colonies were parceled out among the winners. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four (Britain, France, the United States and Italy) imposed their terms in a series of treaties. The League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed European nationalism, weakened member states, and the German feeling of humiliation contributed to the rise of Nazism. These conditions eventually contributed to World War II
 
Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

Animated battle of the Somme
 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml

Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches
 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

You can try your luck during several front line missions with

Trench warfare:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/

World War I in Popular Culture

In 1966, the "Ace" was immortalized in song by the Royal Guardsmen with their hit, Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron. This was followed in 1967 by Return of the Red Baron, in which it is revealed that the Baron survived their previous encounter but runs away when Snoopy challenges him to a duel with pistols, and then by Snoopy's Christmas, in which the two foes temporarily set aside their differences for a Christmas toast, as per the Christmas Truces that occurred during World War I. Snoopy's Christmas continues to be played as a holiday favorite on many oldies radio stations.

During the 1968 U.S. Presidential election, the Guardsmen released two additional songs, "Snoopy for President", in which Snoopy's bid for the nomination of the Beagle party is tipped in his favor by the Red Baron, and "Down Behind the Lines", which does not mention Snoopy specifically but describes the attempts of a World War I pilot to fly his damaged Sopwith Camel back to friendly territory.
In 2006 the Guardsmen recorded a song called "Snoopy vs. Osama" in which Snoopy shifts his focus away from The Red Baron and captures Osama Bin Laden.

Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:08



1966, The Royal Guardsmen - Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:40

The group from Ocala, FL with the British moniker rose to fame in 1966 with its single, “Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron,” which became the title track of its debut album. The album reached No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart and remained there for 12 weeks. It went on to sell one million copies, earning it gold certification from the R.I.A.A. in 1967.

https://youtu.be/Oxzg_iM-T4E





 Task

The date is July 30, 1914 and the situation is critical when you receive the telegram. You are a diplomat for one of the countries involved in the origins of World War I. Austria-Hungary has already declared war on Serbia after receiving reassurance of full support from Germany. Because of the alliance system, this war is not destined to remain a small, regional flare up. Russia and Germany are about to declare war because the Russian army has been mobilized at the German border. Germany has plans to attack France through neutral Belgium, and Great Britain has sworn to protect Belgium's neutrality. Belgium is trying to make one last effort to bring the interested countries together to avoid war.

The Process

Step1: Your team is a diplomatic advisory group representing one of the following:

1) Austro-Hungarian Empire

2) Germany

3) France

4) Great Britain

5) Russia

6) Italy, and

7) the Ottoman Empire.

Each country's team of diplomats will meet in neutral Belgium on July 31, 1914. In order to prepare for the peace conference, you and your team must research and make an oral presentation with visuals on the following topics as stated in the telegram:

* Background about your country including: a brief history, geographic location, alliances, and leaders
* Long term reasons explaining why your country is willing to risk going to war (events more than a year ago)
* Short term reasons explaining why your country is willing to risk going to war (events within the last year)

All students should take notes on these three topics: background, long term reasons, and short term reasons.
Step 2: After your group has made a presentation representing your country's point of view on these topics and studied the information given by the other countries, you will prepare and present a proposal to prevent the war. Take into account all that you have learned from the presentations of other countries, and try to formulate an agreement that will prevent the war by presenting a valid compromise. This proposal should obtain for your country what it really wants and make some concessions to other countries

Step 3: After your country has presented its peace proposal, the class will divide up into 4 groups with at least one representative from each country in each group. In these new peace negotiation groups, start by voting on the proposals from each country. Because some countries are more powerful than others, some countries will receive more votes: Germany (3), Great Britain (3), France (2), Russia (2), Serbia (1), Ottoman Empire (1), Austro-Hungarian Empire (2), Italy (1). Any country may abstain from voting. Modify the proposal with the most votes until you reach a consensus. If you do not reach a consensus within the class session, you will write out a declaration of war stating the reasons why you are going to war.

Resources

Read the information that your textbook gives about the beginning of World War I. You should also read the following background information first:

Assassination in Sarajevo (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlsara.htm)

1879-1914: The Deadly Alliances (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlalli.htm)

The July Crisis (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlplot.htm)

Germany

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are your allies?
* Why does Germany support the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
* What are Germany's colonial interests?
* What are Germany's military interests, and how is Germany building up its military?
* Why is Germany an economic rival of Great Britain?
* How does Germany's competition to build up its navy put them into an arms race with
* Great Britain?
* What is the "Blank Check" that Germany gives the Austro-Hungarian Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Germany
http://www.worldwar1.com/atger.htm

May, 1882 - The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

The Daily Telegraph Affair 28 October, 1908
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/dailytel.html

8-12 February,1912The Haldane Mission
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/haldane.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

6 July, 1914-The 'Blank Check'
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/blankche.html

1914 The German White Book
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germbook.html

June-July, 1914 German Dispatches and the Kaiser's Notes
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/wilnotes.html

Autograph Letter of Franz Joseph to the Kaiser, Vienna, 2 July, 1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/frzwilly.html

29 July-1 August, 1914 The "Willy-Nicky" Telegrams in the original English
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/willynilly.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Kaiser Wilhelm II's Account of Events, July, 1914. From his Memoirs
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/kwiijuly.html

France

* Look for the answers to these questions:
* Who are your allies?
* What area did France have to give to Germany after the Franco-Prussian War?
* How does France plan to defend itself against Germany?
* What problem does France have with Germany in Morocco, a colony of France?
* How did France win Russia over as an ally from Germany?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-France
http://www.worldwar1.com/atfra.htm

18 August, 1892 The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/franruss.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

Great Britain

* Look for the answers to these questions:
* Who are Britain's allies?
* How does Germany's increase in battleships (Dreadnoughts) affect Britain?
* How does the industrial rivalry affect Britain's relationship with Germany?
* What treaty does Britain have to protect Belgium's neutrality?
* What imperial rivalries does Britain have with Germany in Africa?
* What are Britain's interests in the Middle East, and how does this conflict with the Ottoman Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Great Britain
http://www.worldwar1.com/ateng.htm

8-12 February, 1912 - The Haldane Mission
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/haldane.html

28 October, 1908 - The Daily Telegraph Affair
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/dailytel.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

31 July, 1914 Sir Edward Grey's Indecisiveness
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/greyegal.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Russia

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Russia's allies?
* Why is access to the Dardanelles from the Black Sea important to Russia?
* Why is Russia allied with Serbia?
* How did Germany lose Russia as an ally and how does this affect the German war plans?
* Why is it necessary for Russia to mobilize its army so much in advance and how does Germany react?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Russia
http://www.worldwar1.com/atrus.htm

October, 1909 - The Racconigi Bargain
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/racco.html

18 August, 1892 - The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/franruss.html

1907 - The Anglo-Russian Entente
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/anglruss.html

1914 - The German White Book
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germbook.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

28 July, 1914: The Pledge Plan
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/pledplan.html

29 July-1 August, 1914 - The "Willy-Nicky" Telegrams in the original English
http://www.lib.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/willynilly.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Look for the answers to these questions:

* What countries is the Austro-Hungarian Empire allied with?
* What problems does the Austro-Hungarian Empire face?
* How is nationalism affecting the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
* What are the Austro-Hungarian Empireís goals in the Balkans?
* What happened in Sarajevo to bring events to a crisis and what did the Austro-Hungarian
* Empire demand of Serbia?
* Would the Austro-Hungarian Empire go to war without the help of Germany?
* How does the Austro-Hungarian Empire force Serbia into a war?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, War Atlas Austria
http://www.worldwar1.com/athng.htm

20 May, 1882 The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

6 July, 1914 - The 'Blank Check'
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/blankche.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

23 July, 1914: The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/austro-hungarian-ultimatum.html

25 July, 1914: The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/serbresponse.html

28 July, 1914: The Pledge Plan
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/pledplan.html

July 1914, Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Serbia (Everyone should review this material in addition to your assigned country)

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Serbia's allies?
* Why does Serbia object to the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria?
* What are the goals of the Serbian nationalist organizations?
* What is Pan-Slavism and what are its goals?
* What is Serbia's response to the ultimatum sent by the Austro-Hungarian Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Serbia
http://www.worldwar1.com/atserb.htm

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

1911 The Narodna Odbrana
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/odbrana.html

The Constitution of the Black Hand, 1911
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/blk-cons.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

23 July, 1914: The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/austro-hungarian-ultimatum.html

25 July, 1914 - The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/serbresponse.html

July 1914 - Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Italy

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Italy's allies?
* Under what conditions will Italy go to war to aid its allies? Is the Triple Alliance an offensive or defensive alliance?
* What territorial and colonial interests does Italy have in Europe, and Africa and how might their decision to declare war be affected by this?
* In what ways is your ally in the Triple Alliance, Austria, also your rival?

The documents below will help you:

20 May, 1882 The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

1914 - The Austro-Italian Naval Race
http://www.worldwar1.com/tlainr.htm

October, 1909 - The Racconigi Bargain
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/racco.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

Ottoman Empire

Look for the answers to these questions:

What is Ottoman Empire's relationship with Bosnia and other countries in the Balkans?

What strategic strait does Turkey control and why is it strategic?

What relationship does Turkey have with Great Britain in the Middle East?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-The Ottoman Empire
http://www.worldwar1.com/attur.htm

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html
Preview WW I
The Twentieth-Century Crisis 1914-1945

"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."

Winston Churchill



Americans engaged in trench warfare during World War I.

War and Revolution 1914-1919
Map of Europe

An assassination in the Balkans sparked the outbreak of World War I. Millions died during the war, which also led to a revolution and Communist rule in Russia. The war settlements redrew the map of Europe and imposed heavy penalties on Germany.

Military forces marched off to fight with stirring music such as the
United Forces March.

Yet, troops did not anticipate the carnage that they actually experienced on the battle field; this was not combat that they had learned about in school where brave, courageous young men went out to the battlefield to prove themselves.

Canadian John McCrae served as a military doctor on the Western Front in World War I. In 1915, McCrae wrote the following poem in the voice of those he had watched die.
“In Flanders fields the poppies blow

Between the crosses, row on row

That mark our place; and in the sky

The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago

We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,

Loved and were loved, and now we lie

In Flanders fields.”
—Dr. John McCrae, 1915

You can hear about McCrae’s experience during World War I.

The Battle of the Somme, 3:35

An Allied offensive at the Somme River (sum) was extremely costly. In a single grisly day, nearly 60,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded. In the five-month battle, more than one million soldiers were killed, without either side winning an advantage. Europe was to experience a new kind of war.

Features real footage from the Somme, including quotes and figures. Voted as one of the TEN BEST War Videos on WeShow Awards, 3:35.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the questions.
1. How many British troops were killed on the first day?
2. At the conclusion of the battle how many casualties were there?

Animated battle of the Somme

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml
Audio: Chapter 16 Section 1 The Road to World War I
The Road to World War I

Competition over trade and colonies led to the formation of two rival European alliances—the Triple Entente of Great Britain, France, and Russia; and the Triple Alliance, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Repeated crises over Serbian claims on the Austro-Hungarian region of Bosnia revealed the dangers inherent in these alliances. Austria-Hungary, as well as numerous other European governments, confronted challenges from minorities that wished to establish their own national states. Strikes and violent actions by Socialist labor movements also threatened European governments. Many states responded with increasing militarism. The assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary by a Bosnian Serb militant set off a chain of diplomatic and military decisions that led all of the great powers of Europe into World War I.

Key Terms

conscription
mobilization

Note Taking Reading Skill: Summarize As you read, use a chart to summarize the events that led up to the outbreak of World War I.
In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the questions.
This is a map for World War I: 1914-1918 Map, 6:41
Cf. http://ant.umn.edu/vav.php?pid=62159449393845


View the embedded player with the animated map content
WW I Map
1. Where did the spark occur?
2. Who was assassinated?
3. What were the two sides that formed?
4. What was the first country to mobilize?
5. In what year did the U.S. join the conflict?
6. Where did the Germans meet the Russians in the East?
7. In what month and year did the front line in the West stabilize?
8. In an attempt to knock Turkey out of the war where did the Allies attack?
9. Where did the Germans counterattack?
10. What was the one major naval battle of the war?
11. What British officer gained world wide fame in the Middle East?
12. What setback did the Allies suffer in 1917?
The Western Front and the Eastern Front, 1914–1918

For: Interactive map
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-2621

Map Skills

World War I was fought on several fronts in Europe. Despite huge loss of life and property, the two sides came to a stalemate on the Western and Eastern fronts in 1915 and 1916.

1. Locate

(a) Paris (b) Battle of the Marne (c) Verdun (d) Tannenberg

2. Movement

Using the scale, describe how the battle lines moved on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918.

3. Draw Inferences

Based on this map, why do you think many Russians were demoralized by the progress of the war?

The Human Cost To break the stalemate on the Western Front, both the Allies and the Central Powers launched massive offensives in 1916. German forces tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun (vur dun). The French defenders held firm, sending up the battle cry “They shall not pass.” The 11-month struggle cost more than a half a million casualties, or soldiers killed, wounded, or missing, on both sides.

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

Internal Dissent

Militarism

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914
The Serbian Problem

A crisis began when Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announced that he would visit Sarajevo (sa ruh yay voh), the capital of Bosnia. Francis Ferdinand was the nephew and heir of the aging Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph. At the time of his visit, Bosnia was under the rule of Austria-Hungary. But it was also the home of many Serbs and other Slavs. News of the royal visit angered many Serbian nationalists. They viewed the Austrians as foreign oppressors. Some members of Unity or Death, a Serbian terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand, vowed to take action.

Assassination in Sarajevo
The assassin, Gavrilo Princip. Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

The spark for World War I was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep), a member of a Serbian terrorist group, killed Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.

The archduke ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife, Sophie, rode through Sarajevo in an open car. As the car passed by, a conspirator named Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep) seized his chance and fired twice into the car. Moments later, the archduke and his wife were dead.

“The first [bullet] struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. . . . She died instantly.

The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered only one word, ’Sofia’—a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.”
—Borijove Jevtic, co-conspirator

The assassinations triggered World War I, called “The Great War” by people at the time.

Austria-Hungary Responds

The news of the assassination shocked Francis Joseph. Still, he was reluctant to go to war. The government in Vienna, however, saw the incident as an excuse to crush Serbia. In Berlin, Kaiser William II was horrified at the assassination of his ally’s heir. He wrote to Francis Joseph, advising him to take a firm stand toward Serbia. Instead of urging restraint, Germany gave Austria a “blank check,” or a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost.

Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum, or final set of demands. To avoid war, said the ultimatum, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot. It must even let Austria join in the investigation. Serbia agreed to most, but not all, of the terms of Austria’s ultimatum. This partial refusal gave Austria the opportunity it was seeking. On July 28, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia.

Russia Mobilizes

After Austria’s declaration of war, Serbia turned to its ally, Russia, the champion of Slavic nations. From St. Petersburg, Nicholas II telegraphed William II. The tsar asked the kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands. When this plea failed, Russia began to mobilize, or prepare its military forces for war. On August 1, Germany responded by declaring war on Russia.

Russia, in turn, appealed to its ally France. In Paris, nationalists saw a chance to avenge France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Though French leaders had some doubts, they gave Russia the same kind of backing Germany offered to Austria. When Germany demanded that France keep out of the conflict, France refused. Germany then declared war on France.

The Conflict Broadens
Summary of the Conflict Broadening

The early part of the war in 1914 is largely the story of The Schlieffen (shlee fun) Plan.

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

The Germans’ Schlieffen (shlee fun) Plan failed for several reasons. First, Russia mobilized more quickly than expected. After a few small Russian victories, German generals hastily shifted some troops to the east, weakening their forces in the west. Then, in September 1914, British and French troops pushed back the German drive along the Marne River. The first battle of the Marne ended Germany’s hopes for a quick victory on the Western Front.

Reasons for the failure of the Schlieffen Plan: Belgium, Britain, and the Eastern Front. The video ends at the Battle of the Marne, 3:49.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check
Evaluating
What was the Schlieffen Plan and how did it complicate the events leading to World War I?
On "Big Bertha" (noted in the video), named after the daughter of the famous German gun manufacturer, Krupp, a word can be added. Although the super-heavy artillery was fearsome, and Parisian civilians were killed, the howitzer proved largely ineffective and played a smaller role in the Schlieffen advance than the Germans had hoped The Encyclopedia of Weaponry: The Development of Weaponry from Prehistory to 21st Century Warfare, Ian V. Hogg, p. 123.

Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons




The War

Most people in 1914 believed that the war would end quickly. The picture changed, though, as trench warfare between France and Germany turned into a stalemate and casualties mounted throughout Europe. Italy switched sides, and the Ottoman Empire joined the war on the side of the Triple Alliance. The war broadened further when German colonies came under attack and the British encouraged Ottoman provinces in the Middle East to revolt. The United States entered the war in 1917 in response to the German use of submarines against passenger ships. As the war dragged on, governments took control of national economies, censored the news media, and used propaganda to bolster public opinion. Women entered the workforce in large numbers. After the war, many lost their jobs to men but gained expanded rights and status. By 1921 women had the vote in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.
Key Terms

propaganda
trench warfare
war of attrition
total war
planned economies

1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate

Propaganda of World War I, 2:35

These are some recruitment and propaganda posters from England and France during World War I. The song: "Boys in Khaki, Boys in Blue," means British and French soldiers.



WW 1 PROPAGANDA POSTERS(UK), 5:32
Each of the nations which participated in World War One from 1914-18 used propaganda posters not only as a means of justifying involvement to their own populace, but also as a means of procuring men, money and resources to sustain the military campaign.

In countries such as Britain the use of propaganda posters was readily understandable: in 1914 she only possessed a professional army and did not have in place a policy of national service, as was standard in other major nations such as France and Germany.


The Western Front
Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nap&wcsuffix=2621

American Battle Monuments Cemetery in Aisne Marne, France, 2:00
This video presents a brief narrated tour of Aisne-Marne American Cemetery's landscaped grounds, architecture, and works of art.

The 42.5-acre Aisne-Marne Cemetery and Memorial in France, its headstones lying in a sweeping curve, sits at the foot of the hill where stands Belleau Wood. The cemetery contains the graves of 2,289 war dead, most of whom fought in the vicinity and in the Marne valley in the summer of 1918. The memorial chapel sits on a hillside, decorated with sculptured and stained-glass details of wartime personnel, equipment and insignia. Inscribed on its interior wall are 1,060 names of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. During World War II, the chapel was damaged slightly by an enemy shell.

Belleau Wood adjoins the cemetery and contains many vestiges of World War I. A monument at the flagpole commemorates the valor of the U.S. Marines who captured much of this ground in 1918.


The Eastern Front

On Europe’s Eastern Front, battle lines shifted back and forth, sometimes over large areas. Even though the armies were not mired in trench warfare, casualties rose even higher than on the Western Front. The results were just as indecisive.

In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany. Then, the Russians suffered a disastrous defeat at Tannenberg, causing them to retreat back into Russia. As the least industrialized of the great powers, Russia was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. Some troops even lacked rifles. Still, Russian commanders continued to send masses of soldiers into combat.

Battle of Tannenberg, 4:26



Battle of Masurian Lakes

1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter

A film version of the novel "All Quiet on the Western Front illustrates the horror of trench warfare.

In the first scene, Paul Baumer (Richard Thomas) is chastised by his teacher (Donald Pleasence) for lack of attention in class, (specifically for furtively making a sketch of a small bird). He is ridiculed as an 'idealist' and a 'dreamer.'

In the final trench scene, Paul sympathetically chivvies his exhausted soldiers into staying alert for their own safety. Yet moments later he himself becomes (fatally) distracted by a small bird, the same symbol of beauty that had so irritated his mentor three years previously. Other ironic subtleties reveal themselves here. Paul now seeks solace in smoking, a habit he had until now totally despised. (Recall how he had haughtily rejected his teacher's proffering of a cigarette!). Even this actor's distinctive facial mole acquires significance. Devoid of any disguising make-up, it disturbs as an appalling disfigurement on an otherwise handsome face, a subtle symbol perhaps of the Great War's brutal despoiling of a whole generation of Europe's 'Golden Youth'. Most tellingly, the movie links the image of Paul's drawings as the metaphor for the idealism of the new generation, a hope that died with Paul in the mud of those hellish trenches.

If you enjoyed this excerpt, you may enjoy the entire film.

The horror of war during the great slaughter of World War I is illustrated by one of the most famous novels from the Great War; this is a film version of "All Quiet on the Western Front" (1979), 6:01.
A worksheet is available to:

guide your reading.

Tactics of Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare, 7:57

First part of a short film describing various aspects of trench warfare. Presented by Oxford University's First World War Poetry Digital Archive project.



Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml
GAMING WORLD WAR I

You can try your gaming luck during several front line missions with,

trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

Verdun

war of attrition, the Battle of Verdun, 3:58

This is a brief demo Eagle Films created for a War museum concerning the brutal and bloody WW-I battle of Verdun. It was one of about twenty multimedia projects that were to be produced under the supervision of Philip Cook of Eagle Films.



War in the Air
Interrupter gear, invented by the Frenchman Roland Garros but later perfected with deadly accuracy by Germany.

Diagram of German machine gun synchronisation gear.

To fire the gun,

1. The gun's crank is worked twice, once to load, once to cock.
2. The green handle is pulled
3. which lowers the red cam follower onto the cam wheel.
4. When the cam raises the follower, the blue rod is pushed against the spring.
5. When the pilot presses the purple firing button, inside the breech block the cable lowers the blue bridge piece
6. so that when the blue rod is activated by the cam, the yellow trigger bar is pushed
7. and the gun fires.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons
During World War I, advances in technology, such as the gasoline-powered engine, led the opposing forces to use tanks, airplanes, and submarines against each other. In 1916, Britain introduced the first armored tank. Mounted with machine guns, the tanks were designed to move across no man’s land. Still, the first tanks broke down often. They failed to break the stalemate.

Both sides also used aircraft. At first, planes were utilized simply to observe enemy troop movements. In 1915, Germany used zeppelins (zep uh linz), large gas-filled balloons, to bomb the English coast. Later, both sides equipped airplanes with machine guns. Pilots known as “flying aces” confronted each other in the skies. These “dogfights” were spectacular, but had little effect on the course of the war on the ground.
Captain Albert Ball before his death at 20 years of age.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons

Albert Ball, 1:40

The young Englishman's early career is profiled. Paying for his own lessons, Ball learns to fly and is approved for service in the Royal Flying Corps.



The Battle of The Somme begins and the early career of Albert Ball is profiled, 5:16

Albert Ball (14 August 1896 – 7 May 1917) was an English First World War fighter pilot and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British or Commonwealth armed forces. At the time of his death, he was twenty years old and he was the leading Allied ace with 44 victories, second only to German ace Manfred Von Richthofen. By the end of the war he was the United Kingdom's fourth top scoring ace.



Richthofen - A German Legend - The Red Baron, 1:46

Richthofen - The Red Baron
A German Legend
Footage & Soundtrack:
Der Rote Baron (Germany 2008)

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 - 21 April 1918) was a German fighter pilot known as the "Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace during World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. He served in the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte). Richthofen was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives.
Freiherr (literally "Free Lord") is not a given name but a German aristocratic title, equivalent to a baron in other countries and the origin of Richthofen's most famous nickname: "The Red Baron". Red was the colour of his plane. The German translation of The Red Baron is About this sound "Der Rote Baron" . Richthofen is today known by this nickname even in Germany, although during his lifetime he was more often described in German as Der Rote Kampfflieger, (variously translated as the The Red Battle Flyer or The Red Fighter Pilot). This name was used as the title of Richthofen's 1917 "autobiography."
Richthofen's other nicknames include "Le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil") or "Le Petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red Knight" in English.



World War 1 Aircraft - Sopwith Camel F.1, 1:16

The Sopwith Camel is probably one of the most famous British fighters of the war, in addition to the SE5a simply because it was one of their first superior fighters of the war. The Camel was dreaded by most Entente pilots, however. It was fast and maneuverable, but the upper wing had numerous problems and tendencies to shear off entirely and plunge the airframe into the ground (and this caused the death of many pilots), and torque was so great to the left side of the plane that it was sometimes rendered unable to fly altogether. It was dangerous for both novice and seasoned pilots to fly, any many died trying to tame the beast.



Cf. War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Explaining

Why were military leaders baffled by trench warfare?

Widening of the War

Though most of the fighting took place in Europe, World War I was a global conflict. Japan, allied with Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific.

Gallipoli

Because of its strategic location, the Ottoman empire was a desirable ally. If the Ottoman Turks had joined the Allies, the Central Powers would have been almost completely encircled. However, the Turks joined the Central Powers in late October 1914. The Turks then cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles, a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

In 1915, the Allies sent a massive force of British, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander troops to attempt to open up the strait. At the battle of Gallipoli (guh lip uh lee), Turkish troops trapped the Allies on the beaches of the Gallipoli peninsula. In January 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles.

Gallipoli trailer (Mel Gibson), 1:44



Lawrence of Arabia

Gene Siskel & Roger Ebert discuss the 1962 Oscar-winning First World War film Lawrence of Arabia, 4:45.



The Turks were harmed severely in the Middle East. The Ottoman empire included vast areas of Arab land. In 1916, Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali (hoo sayn ib un ah lee) declared a revolt against Ottoman rule. The British government sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence—later known as Lawrence of Arabia—to support the Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerrilla raids against the Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Eventually, the Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territory to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.
Entry of the United States

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Evaluating

Why did the Germans resort to unrestricted submarine use?

The Home Front: The Impact of Total War

On total war the best reference is:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot, pp. 198-201.

The broad impact of the Industrial Revolution resulted in both gains and losses. There was more food, medicine, clothing, more of everything, yet, the new technologies extinguished "life as effectively as they could be used to support it" (Boot, p. 198).

The Industrial Revolution did not cause WW I yet indirectly it "fostered the rise of Germany" (Boot, p. 198). "The figures boggle the mind:

from 1914 to 1918, sixty three million were seriously wounded or disabled.

Millions of civilians also died. . . . they were many orders of magnitude greater than those of any previous conflict. Pre-industrial states could not possibly have fed, clothed, equipped, moved--or slaughtered--so many individuals. Germany and France had 20 percent of their populations under arms. Britain mobilized only 13 percent, but this was still far higher than the 7 percent that Napoleon had been able to marshal with the levee en masse" (Boot, p. 198). Each soldier in addition had far more firepower than an entire regiment possessed a century earlier.

Increased Government Powers

Planned economies were necessary to fuel the increased demands of total war (Boot, p. 199). The pre-industrial state was not equal to the task of equipping and arming such large armies that were required in modern warfare. Governments nationalized industries along with the cooperation of major private companies. In Britain, France, and Germany, military spending shot up 2,000 percent (Boot, p. 199).

Manipulation of Public Opinion

Public dissent was not encouraged. A military dictatorship controlled Germany but even in the liberty-loving U.S. antiwar activists such as the socialist Eugene Debs was subject to arrest and confinement (Boot, p. 199).

Total war also meant controlling public opinion. Even in democratic countries, special boards censored the press. Their aim was to keep complete casualty figures and other discouraging news from reaching the public. Government censors also restricted popular literature, historical writings, motion pictures, and the arts.

Both sides waged a propaganda war. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. Governments used propaganda to motivate military mobilization, especially in Britain before conscription started in 1916. In France and Germany, propaganda urged civilians to loan money to the government. Later in the war, Allied propaganda played up the brutality of Germany’s invasion of Belgium. The British and French press circulated tales of atrocities, horrible acts against innocent people. Although some atrocities did occur, often the stories were distorted by exaggerations or completely made up.

Total War and Women

Women gained more rights as they took jobs previously open only to men (Boot, p. 200). It is not surprising that not long after the war women were granted the right of suffrage.

Women played a critical role in total war. As millions of men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national economies going. Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies. Others joined women’s branches of the armed forces. When food shortages threatened Britain, volunteers in the Women’s Land Army went to the fields to grow their nation’s food.

Nurses shared the dangers of the men whose wounds they tended. At aid stations close to the front lines, nurses often worked around the clock, especially after a big “push” brought a flood of casualties. In her diary, English nurse Vera Brittain describes sweating through 90-degree days in France, “stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, and draining and reinserting innumerable rubber tubes” with “gruesome human remnants heaped on the floor.”

War work gave women a new sense of pride and confidence. After the war, most women had to give up their jobs to men returning home. Still, they had challenged the idea that women could not handle demanding and dangerous jobs. In many countries, including Britain, Germany, and the United States, women’s support for the war effort helped them finally win the right to vote, after decades of struggle.

Laissez-faire economic structures did not survive World War I. Social hierarchies broke down under the transformation. Women were granted the right to vote. World War I is "a conflict that could never have been waged on such a titanic, transformative scale were it not for the changes in warfare that had occurred in the previous half-century. This was the bittersweet legacy of the Industrial Age (Boot, p. 201).
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Summarizing

What was the effect of total war on ordinary citizens?

People in History

Edith Cavell

Like most ordinary people caught up in war, Edith Cavell (1865–1915) did not plan on becoming a hero. An English nurse, she was in charge of a hospital in Belgium. After the German invasion, Cavell cared for wounded soldiers on both sides. She also helped Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands.

In 1915, the Germans arrested Cavell for spying. As she faced a firing squad, her last reported words were, “Standing as I do in view of God and Eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone.” Why do you think the British government spread the story of Edith Cavell?

The Lusitania

Germany used U-boats to create its own blockade. In 1915, Germany declared that it would sink all ships carrying goods to Britain. In May 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. Almost 1,200 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. Germany justified the attack, arguing that the Lusitania was carrying weapons. When American President Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany, though, Germany agreed to restrict its submarine campaign. Before attacking any ship, U-boats would surface and give warning, allowing neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats. Unrestricted submarine warfare stopped—for the moment.

Preview:

The Russian Revolution

Key Terms

soviets

war communism

Background to Revolution

“Mr. War Minister!

We, soldiers from various regiments,. . . ask you to end the war and its bloodshed at any cost…. If this is not done, then believe us when we say that we will take our weapons and head out for our own hearths to save our fathers, mothers, wives, and children from death by starvation (which is nigh). And if we cannot save them, then we’d rather die with them in our native lands then be killed, poisoned, or frozen to death somewhere and cast into the earth like a dog.”

—Letter from the front, 1917
Note Taking

Reading Skill: Summarize Copy the time line below and fill it in as you read this section. When you finish, write two sentences that summarize the information in your time line.
Beginnings of Upheaval

The year 1913 marked the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Everywhere, Russians honored the tsar and his family. Tsarina Alexandra felt confident that the people loved Nicholas too much to ever threaten him. “They are constantly frightening the emperor with threats of revolution,” she told a friend, “and here,—you see it yourself—we need merely to show ourselves and at once their hearts are ours.”

Appearances were deceiving. In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the Romanov dynasty and pave the way for even more radical changes.

The outbreak of war in 1914 fueled national pride and united Russians. Armies dashed to battle with enthusiasm. But like the Crimean and Russo-Japanese wars, World War I quickly strained Russian resources. Factories could not turn out enough supplies. The transportation system broke down, delivering only a trickle of crucial materials to the front. By 1915, many soldiers had no rifles and no ammunition. Badly equipped and poorly led, they died in staggering numbers. In 1915 alone, Russian casualties reached two million.

Vocabulary Builder

crucial—(kroo shul) adj. of vital importance

In a patriotic gesture, Nicholas II went to the front to take personal charge. The decision proved a disastrous blunder. The tsar was no more competent than many of his generals. Worse, he left domestic affairs to the tsarina, Alexandra. In Nicholas’ absence, Alexandra relied on the advice of Gregory Rasputin, an illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed “holy man.” The tsarina came to believe that Rasputin had miraculous powers after he helped her son, who suffered from hemophilia, a disorder in which any injury can result in uncontrollable bleeding.

Rasputin


By 1916, Rasputin’s influence over Alexandra had reached new heights and weakened confidence in the government. Fearing for the monarchy, a group of Russian nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916.

The March Revolution

By March 1917, disasters on the battlefield, combined with food and fuel shortages on the home front, brought the monarchy to collapse. In St. Petersburg (renamed Petrograd during the war), workers were going on strike. Marchers, mostly women, surged through the streets, shouting, “Bread! Bread!” Troops refused to fire on the demonstrators, leaving the government helpless. Finally, on the advice of military and political leaders, the tsar abdicated.

Duma politicians then set up a provisional, or temporary, government. Middle-class liberals in the government began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic. At the same time, they continued the war against Germany.

Outside the provisional government, revolutionary socialists plotted their own course. In Petrograd and other cities, they set up soviets, or councils of workers and soldiers. At first, the soviets worked democratically within the government. Before long, though, the Bolsheviks, a radical socialist group, took charge. The leader of the Bolsheviks was a determined revolutionary, V. I. Lenin.

The revolutions of March and November 1917 are known to Russians as the February and October revolutions. In 1917, Russia still used an old calendar, which was 13 days behind the one used in Western Europe. Russia adopted the Western calendar in 1918.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Identifying

Develop a sequence of events leading to the March Revolution.

The Rise of Lenin
Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (ool yahn uf) was born in 1870 to a middle-class family. He adopted the name Lenin when he became a revolutionary. When he was 17, his older brother was arrested and hanged for plotting to kill the tsar. The execution branded his family as a threat to the state and made the young Vladimir hate the tsarist government.

A Brilliant Revolutionary

As a young man, Lenin read the works of Karl Marx and participated in student demonstrations. He spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists, including Nadezhda Krupskaya (nah dyez duh kroop sky uh), the daughter of a poor noble family. In 1895, Lenin and Krupskaya were arrested and sent to Siberia. During their imprisonment, they were married. After their release, they went into exile in Switzerland. There they worked tirelessly to spread revolutionary ideas.

Lenin’s View of Marx

Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions. Marx had predicted that the industrial working class would rise spontaneously to overthrow capitalism. But Russia did not have a large urban proletariat. Instead, Lenin called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Though this elite revolutionary party represented a small percentage of socialists, Lenin gave them the name Bolsheviks, meaning “majority.”

In Western Europe, many leading socialists had come to think that socialism could be achieved through gradual and moderate reforms such as higher wages, increased suffrage, and social welfare programs. A group of socialists in Russia, the Mensheviks, favored this approach. The Bolsheviks rejected it. To Lenin, reforms of this nature were merely capitalist tricks to repress the masses. Only revolution, he said, could bring about needed changes.

In March 1917, Lenin was still in exile. As Russia stumbled into revolution, Germany saw a chance to weaken its enemy by helping Lenin return home. Lenin rushed across Germany to the Russian frontier in a special train. He greeted a crowd of fellow exiles and activists with this cry: “Long live the worldwide Socialist revolution!”

Biography
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Lenin (1870–1924) was the son of a teacher and his wife who lived in a little town on the Volga River. Vladimir lived with his parents and five siblings in a rented wing of a large house. By all accounts it was a happy home. Vladimir excelled at school and looked up to his older brother Alexander. But when Vladimir was 16, his father died. When he was 17, his beloved brother Alexander was hanged for plotting to kill the tsar.

Still reeling from the death of his brother, Vladimir enrolled at Kazan University. There he met other discontented young people. They united to protest the lack of student freedom in the university. Within three months, Vladimir was expelled for his part in the demonstrations. How do you think Lenin’s early life affected his later political ideas?
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Examining

What was Lenin's plan when he arrived in Russia?

The Bolsheviks Seize Power

Lenin threw himself into the work of furthering the revolution. Another dynamic Marxist revolutionary, Leon Trotsky, helped lead the fight. To the hungry, war-weary Russian people, Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.”

The Provisional Government’s Mistakes

Meanwhile, the provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform. Those decisions proved fatal. Most Russians were tired of war. Troops at the front were deserting in droves. Peasants wanted land, while city workers demanded an end to the desperate shortages. In July 1917, the government launched the disastrous Kerensky offensive against Germany. By November, according to one official report, the army was “a huge crowd of tired, poorly clad, poorly fed, embittered men.” Growing numbers of troops mutinied. Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.

The Bolshevik Takeover

Conditions were ripe for the Bolsheviks to make their move. In November 1917, squads of Red Guards—armed factory workers—joined mutinous sailors from the Russian fleet in attacking the provisional government. In just a matter of days, Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government without a struggle.

The Bolsheviks quickly seized power in other cities. In Moscow, it took a week of fighting to blast the local government out of the walled Kremlin, the former tsarist center of government. Moscow became the Bolsheviks’ capital, and the Kremlin their headquarters.

“We shall now occupy ourselves in Russia in building up a proletarian socialist state,” declared Lenin. The Bolsheviks ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants. Workers were given control of the factories and mines. A new red flag with an entwined hammer and sickle symbolized union between workers and peasants. Throughout the land, millions thought they had at last gained control over their own lives. In fact, the Bolsheviks—renamed Communists—would soon become their new masters.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Describing

What was the impact of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Russia?

Civil War in Russia

After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany. Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, giving up a huge chunk of its territory and its population. The cost of peace was extremely high, but the Communist leaders knew that they needed all their energy to defeat a collection of enemies at home. Russia’s withdrawal affected the hopes of both the Allies and the Central Powers, as you read in Section 3.
Vocabulary Builder

withdrawal—(with draw ul) n. the act of leaving

Opposing Forces

For three years, civil war raged between the “Reds,” as the Communists were known, and the counterrevolutionary “Whites.” The “White” armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, democrats, and others, all of whom were united only by their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Nationalist groups from many of the former empire’s non-Russian regions joined them in their fight. Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania broke free, but nationalists in Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Central Asia were eventually subdued.

The Allies intervened in the civil war. They hoped that the Whites might overthrow the Communists and support the fight against Germany. Britain, France, and the United States sent forces to help the Whites. Japan seized land in East Asia that tsarist Russia had once claimed. The Allied presence, however, did little to help the Whites. The Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners. In the long run, the Allied invasion fed Communist distrust of the West.

Brutality was common in the civil war. Counterrevolutionary forces slaughtered captured Communists and tried to assassinate Lenin. The Communists shot the former tsar and tsarina and their five children in July 1918 to keep them from becoming a rallying symbol for counterrevolutionary forces.

Identifying

Who opposed the new Bolshevik regime?

Triumph of the Communists

The Communists used terror not only against the Whites, but also to control their own people. They organized the Cheka, a secret police force much like the tsar’s. The Cheka executed ordinary citizens, even if they were only suspected of taking action against the revolution. The Communists also set up a network of forced-labor camps in 1919—which grew under Stalin into the dreaded Gulag.

The Communists adopted a policy known as “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads. Peasants in the countryside were forced to deliver almost all of their crops to feed the army and hungry people in the cities. Peasant laborers were drafted into the military or forced to work in factories.

Meanwhile, Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force. He used former tsarist officers under the close watch of commissars, Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty. Trotsky’s passionate speeches roused soldiers to fight. So did the order to shoot every tenth man if a unit performed poorly.

The Reds’ position in the center of Russia gave them a strategic advantage. The White armies were forced to attack separately from all sides. They were never able to cooperate effectively with one another. By 1921, the Communists had managed to defeat their scattered foes.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Contrasting

Why did the Red Army prevail over the White Army?

War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921 by Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml

End of the War

Tanks, 1:46



A LOST GENERATION AND A NEW IMAGINATION 1143

The social trauma caused by unprecedented rates of casualties manifested itself in different ways, which have been the subject of subsequent historical debate.[327]

The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed, and those who had fought in the war were referred to as the Lost Generation.[328] For years afterwards, people mourned the dead, the missing, and the many disabled.[329] Many soldiers returned with severe trauma, suffering from shell shock (also called neurasthenia, a condition related to posttraumatic stress disorder).[330] Many more returned home with few after-effects; however, their silence about the war contributed to the conflict's growing mythological status. Though many participants did not share in the experiences of combat or spend any significant time at the front, or had positive memories of their service, the images of suffering and trauma became the widely shared perception. Such historians as Dan Todman, Paul Fussell, and Samuel Heyns have all published works since the 1990s arguing that these common perceptions of the war are factually incorrect.

The "Lost Generation" was the generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron. This generation included artists and writers who came of age during the war such as F. Scott Fitzgerald,[1] T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Sherwood Anderson, John Dos Passos, John Steinbeck, William Faulkner, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, Franz Kafka, Henry Miller, Aldous Huxley, Malcolm Cowley, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Erich Maria Remarque and the composers Sergei Prokofiev, Paul Hindemith, George Gershwin, and Aaron Copland.

Literary Figures of the 1920s: The Lost Generation, 2:48

https://youtu.be/suEbG3vMm2U




Trench Warfare and the Literary Imagination 1145


Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. The most famous use of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. It has become a byword for stalemate, attrition, sieges and futility in conflict.[1]

Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility, resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held the advantage.[2] On the Western Front in 1914–18, both sides constructed elaborate trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, protected from assault by barbed wire, mines, and other obstacles. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man's land") was fully exposed to artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even if successful, often sustained severe casualties.

With the development of armoured warfare, emphasis on trench warfare has declined, but still occurs where battle-lines become static.

World War One Trench Warfare, 3:53

Here is the horror, savagery and pointlessness of trench warfare. Opening scene of All Quiet on the Western Front, 1979 version.

https://youtu.be/SXtsiqrhqsU


Conditions in Trenches - Dan Snow's Battle of the Somme, 3:19

Dan Snow visits a reconstruction of a first world war trench, and takes a look at the conditions in the trenches at the Battle of the Somme according to Malins' footage.

https://youtu.be/FvYIIuxh2kY



Literature in World War I is generally thought to include poems, novels and drama; diaries, letters, and memoirs are often included in this category as well. Although the canon continues to be challenged, the texts most frequently taught in schools and universities are lyrics by Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen; poems by Ivor Gurney, Edward Thomas, Charles Sorley, David Jones and Isaac Rosenberg are also widely anthologised. Many of the works during and about the war were written by men, because of the war's intense demand on the young men of that generation; however, a number of women (especially in the British tradition) created literature about the war, often observing the effects of the war on soldiers, domestic spaces, and the homefront more generally.

Wilfred Owen: “The Pity of War” 1146

Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier, one of the leading poets of the First World War. His shocking, realistic war poetry on the horrors of trenches and gas warfare was heavily influenced by his friend and mentor Siegfried Sassoon, and stood in stark contrast both to the public perception of war at the time and to the confidently patriotic verse written by earlier war poets such as Rupert Brooke. Among his best-known works – most of which were published posthumously – are "Dulce et Decorum est", "Insensibility", "Anthem for Doomed Youth", "Futility" and "Strange Meeting".

Wilfred Owen Remembered, 2:19

The anniversary of the death of one of our greatest war poets born and raised in Shropshire takes place this month. Wilfred Owen's life and works will be commemorated on Radio Three after Remembrance Day. Joanne Writtle reports. 7th November 2006.

https://youtu.be/ug-ztFYkHNQ



0:02 / 2:42

Jake Gyllenhaal read the poem "Dulce et Decorum Est," by Wilfred Owen

https://youtu.be/t-dpxgDoVUw



0:02 / 3:00 Muslim Disrespect of Remembrance Day : Poppy Burning

This video of the Muslims Against Crusaders group protesting by chanting "British Soldiers Go to Hell". . . "Burn, Burn, Burn in Hell. This video shows without doubt their their utter disrespect for English culture, for Britishness, for the memory of the dead, and for common decency.

https://youtu.be/8yBc-6Lu_B0



        In the Trenches: Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front 1146

All Quiet on the Western Front (German: Im Westen nichts Neues, lit. In the West Nothing New) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.

The novel was first published in November and December 1928 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung and in book form in late January 1929. The book and its sequel, The Road Back (1930), were among the books banned and burned in Nazi Germany. All Quiet on the Western Front sold 2.5 million copies in 22 languages in its first 18 months in print.[1]

In 1930, the book was adapted as an Academy-Award winning film of the same name, directed by Lewis Milestone.

All Quiet on the Western Front (1979) - Fatal distraction! 6:01

In the first scene, Paul Baumer (Richard Thomas) is chastised by his teacher (Donald Pleasence) for lack of attention in class, (specifically for furtively making a sketch of a small bird). He is ridiculed as an 'idealist' and a 'dreamer'. In the final trench scene, Paul sympathetically chivvies his exhausted soldiers into staying alert for their own safety. Yet moments later he himself becomes (fatally) distracted by a small bird, the same symbol of beauty that had so irritated his mentor three years previously. Other ironic subtleties reveal themselves here. Paul now seeks solace in smoking, a habit he had until now totally despised. (Recall how he had haughtily rejected his teacher's proffering of a cigarette!). Most tellingly, the movie links the image of Paul's drawings as the metaphor for the idealism of the new generation, a hope that died with Paul in the mud of those hellish trenches. If you enjoyed this excerpt, I recommend the complete film now superbly re-issued (with cuts restored) on blu-ray dvd.

https://youtu.be/7m8J_2KHV8w



        William Butler Yeats and the Specter of Collapse 1147

William Butler Yeats (/ˈjeɪts/; 13 June 1865 – 28 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of both the Irish and British literary establishments, in his later years he served as an Irish Senator for two terms. Yeats was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival and, along with Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn, and others, founded the Abbey Theatre, where he served as its chief during its early years. In 1923, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature as the first Irishman so honoured[1] for what the Nobel Committee described as "inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation". Yeats is considered to be one of the few writers who completed their greatest works after being awarded the Nobel Prize; such works include The Tower (1928) and The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1933).[2]

William Butler Yeats was born in Sandymount, Ireland and educated there and in London; he spent his childhood holidays in County Sligo. He studied poetry in his youth and from an early age was fascinated by both Irish legends and the occult. Those topics feature in the first phase of his work, which lasted roughly until the turn of the 20th century. His earliest volume of verse was published in 1889, and its slow-paced and lyrical poems display Yeats's debts to Edmund Spenser, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and the poets of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. From 1900, Yeats's poetry grew more physical and realistic. He largely renounced the transcendental beliefs of his youth, though he remained preoccupied with physical and spiritual masks, as well as with cyclical theories of life.

0:02 / 5:05 William Butler Yeats Biography
 
https://youtu.be/VI5GASSc6LY



        T.S. Eliot: The Landscape of Desolation 1148

Thomas Stearns Eliot OM (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), better known by his pen name T. S. Eliot, was an American-born British essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".[2] He moved to England in 1914 at age 25, settling, working and marrying there. He was eventually naturalised as a British subject in 1927 at age 39, renouncing his American citizenship.[3]

Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" (1915), which is seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement. It was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land (1922), "The Hollow Men" (1925), "Ash Wednesday" (1930) and Four Quartets (1945).[4] He is also known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral (1935). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry".[5][6]

T.S Eliot - A short biography, 6:00

T.S.Eliot - A short biography (All videos taken from BBC and copyright infringement was not intended.)

https://youtu.be/x87fqWlBATA



    Escape from Despair: Dada in the Capitals 1148

Dada (/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Dada in Zürich, Switzerland, began in 1916 at Cabaret Voltaire, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter, but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915.[1] The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 when he created his first readymades.[2] Dada, in addition to being anti-war, had political affinities with the radical left and was also anti-bourgeois.[3]

At least two works qualified as pre-Dadaist, a posteriori, had already sensitized the public and artists alike: Ubu Roi (1896) by Alfred Jarry, and the ballet Parade (1916–17) by Erik Satie.[4] The roots of Dada lay in pre-war avant-garde. Cubism and the development of collage, combined with Wassily Kandinsky's theoretical writings and abstraction, detached the movement from the constraints of reality and convention. The influence of French poets and the writings of German Expressionists liberated Dada from the tight correlation between words and meaning.[5] Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. They had seen (or participated in) Cubist exhibitions held at Galería Dalmau, Barcelona (1912), Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin (1912), the Armory show in New York (1913), SVU Mánes in Prague (1914), several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at De Moderne Kunstkring, Amsterdam (between 1911 and 1915). Futurism developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches.[6]

Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Richard Huelsenbeck, George Grosz, John Heartfield, Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, Hans Richter, and Max Ernst, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.

Dadaism - Art in 60 seconds, 1:06

https://youtu.be/c4U18MeACvg



    Russia: Art and Revolution 1152

"Russian Revolution" is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.

The February Revolution (March 1917) was a revolution focused around Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg), then capital of Russia. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament or Duma assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Nicholas' abdication. The Soviets (workers' councils), which were led by more radical socialist factions, initially permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias. The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War (1914–18), which left much of the Russian army in a state of mutiny.

A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the political left. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies, protests and many strikes. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions campaigned for stopping the conflict. The Bolsheviks turned workers militias under their control into the Red Guards (later the Red Army) over which they exerted substantial control.[1]

In the October Revolution (November in the Gregorian calendar), the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the workers' Soviets overthrew the Provisional Government in Petrograd and established the Russian SFSR, eventually shifting the capital to Moscow in 1918. The Bolsheviks appointed themselves as leaders of various government ministries and seized control of the countryside, establishing the Cheka to quash dissent. To end Russia’s participation in the First World War, the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918.

Civil war erupted among the "Reds" (Bolsheviks), the "Whites" (anti-socialist factions), and non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was also a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land.

The Russian Revolution of 1917, 4:56

An animated overview of events, mixing computer graphics, drawings, photographs and propaganda posters. Written and narrated by Betsy Ehlers for RUS 233: http://catalog.oregonstate.edu/Course...

https://youtu.be/22nzopiyWx0




        Vladimir Lenin and the Soviet State 1152

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, alias Lenin (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов; Ле́нин,[1] 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, his political theories are known as Leninism.

Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin became interested in revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's execution in 1887. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist regime, he devoted the following years to a law degree. In 1893, he moved to Saint Petersburg and became a senior figure in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). Arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, there he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent party theorist through his publications. In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he later campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to campaign for the new regime's replacement by a Bolshevik-led government of the soviets.

Lenin played a leading role in the October Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Provisional Government and established a one-party state under the new Communist Party. His government abolished Russia's elected Constituent Assembly, withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers, and granted temporary independence to non-Russian nations under Russian control. Ruling by decree, it redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalized banks and large-scale industry. Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign orchestrated by the state security services; tens of thousands were killed and many others interned in concentration camps. Lenin's government defeated anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922. Responding to famine and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin introduced a mixed economic system with the New Economic Policy. Creating the Communist International and waging the Polish–Soviet War to promote world revolution, Lenin's government also united Russia with neighboring territories to form the Soviet Union in 1922. In increasingly poor health, Lenin expressed opposition to the growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his dacha in Gorki.

Widely considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. He became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism-Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement. A controversial and highly divisive individual, Marxist-Leninists view Lenin as a champion of socialism and the working classes, while critics on both the left and right see him as the founder of a totalitarian dictatorship responsible for civil war and mass human rights abuses.

History vs. Vladimir Lenin - Alex Gendler, 6:42

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/history-vs-...

Vladimir Lenin overthrew Russian Czar Nicholas II and founded the Soviet Union, forever changing the course of Russian politics. But was he a hero who toppled an oppressive tyranny or a villain who replaced it with another? Alex Gendler puts this controversial figure on trial, exploring both sides of a nearly century-long debate.

Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Brett Underhill.

https://youtu.be/9N8hsXQapjY



In the Communist Party, there was dissent from the Group of Democratic Centralism and the Workers' Opposition, both of which criticized the Russian state as too centralised and bureaucratic.[345] The Workers' Opposition, who had connections to the official state trade unions, also expressed the concern that the government had lost the trust of the Russian working class.[346] The 'trade union discussion' preoccupied the party in this period; Trotsky angered the Workers' Opposition by suggesting that the trade unions be eliminated, seeing them as superfluous in a "workers' state", but Lenin disagreed, believing it best to allow them to exist and most of the Bolsheviks eventually embraced the latter view.[347] To deal with the dissent, at the Tenth Party Congress in February 1921, Lenin introduced a ban on factional activity within the party, under pain of expulsion.[348]

Caused in part by a drought,[349] the Russian famine of 1921 was the most severe that the country had experienced since that of 1891,[350] resulting in around five million deaths.[351] The famine was exacerbated by government requisitioning,[352] as well as the export of large quantities of Russian grain.[353] To aid the famine victims, the U.S. government established an American Relief Administration to distribute food,[354] although Lenin was suspicious of this aid, and had it closely monitored.[355] During the famine, Patriarch Tikhon called on Orthodox churches to sell unnecessary items to help feed the starving, an action endorsed by the government.[356] In February 1922 Sovnarkom went further by calling on all valuables belonging to religious institutions to be forcibly appropriated and sold.[357] Tikhon opposed the sale of any items used within the Eucharist and many clergy resisted the appropriations, resulting in violence.[358]

In 1920 and 1921, there were peasant uprisings against the government, sparked by local opposition to the requisitioning but these were suppressed.[359] Among the most significant was the Tambov Rebellion, which was put down by the Red Army.[360] In February 1921, workers went on strike in Petrograd, resulting in the government proclaiming martial law in the city and sending the Red Army to quell demonstrations.[361] In March, the Kronstadt rebellion began when sailors in Kronstadt revolted against the Bolshevik government, demanding that all socialists be given freedom of press, that independent trade unions be given freedom of assembly and that peasants be allowed free markets and not be the subject to requisitioning. Lenin declared that the mutineers had been misled by the Socialist Revolutionaries and foreign imperialists and called for violent reprisals.[362] Under Trotsky's leadership, the Red Army put down the rebellion on 17 March, with thousands dead and many survivors sent to labour camps.[363]

"[Y]ou must attempt first to build small bridges which shall lead to a land of small peasant holdings through State Capitalism to Socialism. Otherwise you will never lead tens of millions of people to Communism. This is what the objective forces of the development of the Revolution have taught." Lenin on the NEP, 1921.[364]

In February 1921, Lenin suggested the introduction of a New Economic Policy (NEP) to the Politburo, eventually convincing most senior Bolsheviks of its necessity, with it passing into law in April.[365] Lenin explained the policy in a booklet, On the Food Tax, in which he stated that the NEP represented a return to the original Bolshevik economic plans; he claimed that they had been derailed by the civil war, in which they had been forced to resort to the economic policies of "war communism".[366] The NEP allowed some private enterprise within Russia, permitting the reintroduction of the wage system and allowing peasants to sell produce on the open market and being taxed on their earnings.[367] The policy also allowed for a return to privately owned small industry, although basic industry, transport and foreign trade remained under state control.[368] Lenin termed this "state capitalism",[369] and many Bolsheviks thought it to be a betrayal of socialist principles.[370] Lenin biographers have often characterised the introduction of the NEP as one of his most significant achievements,[371] with Service suggesting that had it not been implemented then the Bolshevik government would have been quickly overthrown amid popular uprisings.[372]

In January 1920, the government brought in universal labour conscription, ensuring that all citizens aged between 16 and 50 had to work.[373] Lenin also called for a mass electrification project, the GOELRO plan, which began in February 1920; Lenin's declaration that "communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country" would be widely cited in later years.[374] Seeking to advance the Soviet economy through foreign trade, the Soviet Union sent delegates to the Genoa Conference; Lenin had hoped to attend but was prevented by ill health.[375] The conference resulted in a Russian agreement with Germany, the Treaty of Rapallo,[376] and the Anglo-Soviet Trade Agreement was negotiated.[377] Lenin hoped that by allowing foreign corporations to invest in Russia, it would exacerbate rivalries between the capitalist nations and hasten their downfall and tried to rent the oil fields of Kamchatka to an American corporation, to exacerbate tensions between the U.S. and Japan, who desired Kamchatka for their empire.[378]


        The Arts of the Revolution 1152

War Art 36: Russian Revolution, 4:48

The Russian Revolution of 1917 was actually Act Two of a long festering discontent with the autocratic treatment of Tsar Nicholas II and the corruption of some of his government members. The first act came in 1905 when 80,000 workers went on strike in St. Petersburg. It gained strength on Bloody Sunday when unarmed demonstrators were gunned down by Imperial troops. Eventually, 400,000 workers across the country were on strike, including a Naval mutiny among seamen of the Black Sea fleet. The 1905 uprising was not successful, but it left much bitterness. That, coupled with military disasters against Germans in the first world war, plus the royal interference of an monk called Rasputin, and the return of an exiled Bolshevic named Vladimir Lenin, led to the overthrow of the Provisonal Government in St. Petersburg. The tsar and his family were arrested and eventually murdered. Civil war raged for a time between the Bolshevic Red Army and the loyalist White Army. But the world had changed significantly. For music, we get a minute of the traditional "God Save the Tsar," interrupted by an explosion, then the Soviet National Anthem "The Internationale," sung by The Red Army Choir.

https://youtu.be/eEluD83DlxE



    Freud, Jung, and the Art of the Unconscious 1154

Sigmund Freud (/ˈfrɔɪd/ FROYD;[2] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.[3] Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[4][5] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[6] Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.

In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.[7] His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious.[8] Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.[9] In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.[10] Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."[11]

Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory - The Big Idea in under 3 Minutes, 2:51

Hi there! I'm Dr. Sean, a San Francisco-based a psychologist who teaches the online science-based steps to consistently feeling and performing your best so you can be your purpose. The fun, easy to follow steps are at http://www.beyourpurpose.com

If you want, you can read the Introduction the Be Your Purpose book right here: http://beyourpurpose.com/new/get-star...

I wrote this video from inside Dr. Freud’s home office in Vienna, Austria when I was writing the book, Be Your Purpose. The entire home that Freud lived in has been made into a very cool museum in Vienna.
Sigmund Freud taught us that our behaviors are driven by all sorts of things that happened to us in the past but that we are often not at all aware of in the present moment. Many of the important things that influence your life today originated when you were very young — sometimes, before you even knew how to speak.
http://www.BeYourPurpose.com teaches you the steps to knowing the important events, memories and influences in your life so you can discover your life purpose, and then strategically move toward your personal goals using the powerful tools of psychology like meditating and "Mind Exercising."

Mind Exercising is a form of mediation that sharpens your attention, strengthens your memory and measurably improves other mental abilities. Mind Exercise also teaches you to more clearly hear the inner dialogue that is occurring inside your brain. When you can hear your inner voice clearly, you become much more effective when making changes that you want to make to achieve your personal goals and discover and live out your life purpose.

That’s why Be Your Purpose teaches you how to meditate and Mind Exercise right from the first step you take in your inner life training. You can try 30 days of free at http://www.BeYourPurpose.com anytime.

Why Mind Exercise? You can watch a detailed talk I gave to answer that question right here: https://youtu.be/d5V46IyNKVg

Imagine knowing your own psychology well enough to know exactly how and when you feel and perform at your best. And imagine having the ability to conjure a state of being on demand—infusing yourself with meaning, direction, motivation, and empathy whenever you choose—to know the next best step to take in your life. What kind of change would that mean for you?

Now stop imagining, and join me on a journey where you actually find your life purpose, connect to it at will, and live it out. There are no bounds to what that can mean. As a performance psychologist, I work with Olympic athletes to win gold. I work with couples to recapture harmony and joy. I work with artists and actors to access vast creativity. I work with business leaders to “make it rain.” And I work with people feeling sad, anxious, frustrated, heartbroken, or numb to feel fulfilled.

Regardless of the goal, our journey to mastery always begins with Be Your Purpose. Now, with direct delivery to your inbox you can complete the steps from wherever you are. Master the same world-class psychology and brain science process that teaches you how to connect to your unique life purpose and chart a strategic, scientifically based path to your personal goals—whatever they may be, whatever you want to become.

Let’s begin this new adventure together. Try it free for 30 days at http://www.BeYourPurpose.com.

Dr. Sean Sullivan

https://youtu.be/XCtm0FSGZus



Heinrich Wölfflin was not the only scholar to invoke psychological theories in the study of art. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinci, in which he used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual.

Though the use of posthumous material to perform psychoanalysis is controversial among art historians, especially since the sexual mores of Leonardo's time and Freud's are different, it is often attempted. One of the best-known psychoanalytic scholars is Laurie Schneider Adams, who wrote a popular textbook, Art Across Time, and a book Art and Psychoanalysis.

An unsuspecting turn for the history of art criticism came in 1914 when Sigmund Freud published a psychoanalytical interpretation of Michelangelo’s Moses titled Der Moses des Michelangelo as one of the first psychology based analyses on a work of art.[11] Freud first published this work shortly after reading Vasari’s Lives. For unknown purposes, Freud originally published the article anonymously.

Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. C.G. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype, the collective unconscious, and his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic.[12] He argued that a collective unconscious and archetypal imagery were detectable in art. His ideas were particularly popular among American Abstract expressionists in the 1940s and 1950s.[13] His work inspired the surrealist concept of drawing imagery from dreams and the unconscious.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. His work not only triggered analytical work by art historians, but it became an integral part of art-making. Jackson Pollock, for example, famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr. Joseph Henderson. Henderson who later published the drawings in a text devoted to Pollock's sessions realized how powerful the drawings were as a therapeutic tool.[14]
The legacy of psychoanalysis in art history has been profound, and extends beyond Freud and Jung. The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock, for example, draws upon psychoanalysis both in her reading into contemporary art and in her rereading of modernist art. With Griselda Pollock's reading of French feminist psychoanalysis and in particular the writings of Julia Kristeva and Bracha L. Ettinger, as with Rosalind Krauss readings of Jacques Lacan and Jean-François Lyotard and Catherine de Zegher's curatorial rereading of art, Feminist theory written in the fields of French feminism and Psychoanalysis has strongly informed the reframing of both men and women artists in art history.

Difference Between Freud and Jung, 1:39

https://youtu.be/ygcI8jqyfTw



        Freud’s Civilization and Its Discontents 1155

Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. Written in 1929, and first published in German in 1930 as Das Unbehagen in der Kultur ("The Uneasiness in Civilization"). It is considered one of Freud's most important and widely read works.[1]

In this seminal book, Sigmund Freud enumerates what he sees as the fundamental tensions between civilization and the individual. The primary friction, he asserts, stems from the individual's quest for instinctive freedom and civilization's contrary demand for conformity and instinctive repression. Freud states that when any situation that is desired by the pleasure principle is prolonged, it creates a feeling of mild contentment. Many of humankind's primitive instincts (for example, the desire to kill and the insatiable craving for sexual gratification) are clearly harmful to the well-being of a human community. As a result, civilization creates laws that prohibit killing, rape, and adultery, and it implements severe punishments if these rules are broken. Thus our possibilities for happiness are restricted by the law. This process, argues Freud, is an inherent quality of civilization that gives rise to perpetual feelings of discontent among its citizens.

Freud's theory is based on the notion that humans have certain characteristic instincts that are immutable[citation needed]. Most notably, the desires for sex, and the predisposition to violent aggression towards authority figures and sexual competitors, who obstruct the individual's path to gratification.
This work should be understood in the context of contemporary events: World War I undoubtedly influenced Freud and had an impact on his central observation about the tension between the individual and civilization. In a nation still recovering from a particularly brutal war, Freud developed thoughts published two years earlier in The Future of an Illusion (1927), wherein he criticized organized religion as a collective neurosis. Freud, an avowed atheist, argued that religion has tamed asocial instincts and created a sense of community around a shared set of beliefs, thus helping a civilization. Yet at the same time, organized religion exacts an enormous psychological cost on the individual by making him or her perpetually subordinate to the primal father figure embodied by God.[9]


        The Jungian Archetype 1155

In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious. Being unconscious, the existence of archetypes can only be deduced indirectly by examining behavior, images, art, myths, religions, or dreams. Carl Jung understood archetypes as universal, archaic patterns and images that derive from the collective unconscious and are the psychic counterpart of instinct.[1] They are inherited potentials which are actualized when they enter consciousness as images or manifest in behavior on interaction with the outside world.[2] They are autonomous and hidden forms which are transformed once they enter consciousness and are given particular expression by individuals and their cultures.

Strictly speaking, Jungian archetypes refer to unclear underlying forms or the archetypes-as-such from which emerge images and motifs such as the mother, the child, the trickster, and the flood among others. It is history, culture and personal context that shape these manifest representations thereby giving them their specific content. These images and motifs are more precisely called archetypal images. However it is common for the term archetype to be used interchangeably to refer to both archetypes-as-such and archetypal images.[2]

Archetypes, 3:13

Jungian archetypes in pop culture.

https://youtu.be/HaivpNssqVA




        The Dreamwork of Surrealism 1155

Surrealism was a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality". Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.[1]
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement.

Surrealism developed largely out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.

What Is Surrealism? 2:25

What Is Surrealism?. Part of the series: Modern Art History. Surrealism began in the early 20th century and was made famous by Salvador Dali, who created fantasy-like dreamscapes that were technically perfect, but often troubling. Discover the origin of surrealism, which also has roots in the work of Sigmund Freud, with information from an art historian, critic and curator in this free video on art. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/video_4755768_wha...

https://youtu.be/oI0gGEjY-GY






Experimentation and the Literary Life: The Stream-of-Consciousness Novel 1163
In literary criticism, stream of consciousness, also known as interior monologue, is a narrative mode or device that depicts the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind.[1] The term was coined by William James in 1890 in his The Principles of Psychology, and in 1918 May Sinclair first applied the term stream of consciousness, in a literary context, when discussing Dorothy Richardson's novels.

How to Use Stream of Consciousness, 2:41

http://www.helpingwritersbecomeauthor... http://www.kmweiland.com

Answers a viewer's question about the uses and practicality of stream of consciousness. Historical and speculative novelist K.M. Weiland offers tips and essays about the writing life to help other writers understand the ins and outs of the craft and the psychology behind the inspiration.
Intro music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com/

Video Transcript: One of you asked that I do a video on the technique of stream of consciousness and its best applications. "Stream of consciousness" is the term applied to a form of narrative that's found in deep POVs. In fact, it allows authors to delve deeper into their narrators' minds than just about any other technique. Stream of consciousness indicates a progression of internal narrative that tries to mimic real-life thought patterns: rapid-fire delivery, jumps in association and logic, that sort of thing. It's often portrayed on the page with very little punctuation or even capitalization. In other words, you're pretty much just letting your character's thoughts flood onto the page without imposing any structure on them.

Stream of consciousness had a brief stint of popularity in the first half of the 20th century. Classic authors such as James Joyce and William Faulkner are known for their use of the technique. But is it something that's useful to modern writers? The answer to that is, yes and no. The advantage of stream of consciousness is three-fold:

1. It pulls readers deep into the narrator's mind.

2. It can be used to lend a breathless, poetic rhythm to your story.

3. It can create an interesting verisimilitude by mimicking real-life thought patterns.

But stream of consciousness also comes packed with lots of disadvantages. The biggest one is simply that it can end up being pretty darn near incomprehensible to readers. Joyce and Faulkner might have been able to overcome a small stumbling block like that, but most of us can't, particularly in popular genre fiction. Stream of consciousness is pretty much relegated to literary fiction these days. However, you can use it to good effect in small doses to convey harried, detached, or delirious mindsets in your character. Don't be afraid to play with it, but always be aware of the ramifications of the effect you're trying to create.

https://youtu.be/w8gOWtSWR_8



    Joyce, Ulysses, and Sylvia Beach 1164

James Augustine[1] Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde, and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the twentieth century.

Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in an array of contrasting literary styles, perhaps most prominent among these the stream of consciousness technique he utilized. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, occasional journalism, and his published letters.
Joyce was born in 41 Brighton Square, Rathgar, Dublin—about half a mile from his mother's birthplace in Terenure—into a middle-class family on the way down. A brilliant student, he excelled at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances. He went on to attend University College Dublin.

In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated permanently to continental Europe with his partner (and later wife) Nora Barnacle. They lived in Trieste, Paris, and Zurich. Though most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin, and is populated largely by characters who closely resemble family members, enemies and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the streets and alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal."

Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach in February 1922, in Paris. It is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature,[1] and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement".[2] According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking."[3]
Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904.[4] Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem Odyssey, and the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, and Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early twentieth century context of modernism, Dublin, and Ireland's relationship to Britain. The novel imitates registers of centuries of English literature and is highly allusive.

Ulysses is approximately 265,000 words in length[5] and is divided into eighteen episodes. Since publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from early obscenity trials to protracted textual "Joyce Wars". Ulysses' stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, and experimental prose — full of puns, parodies, and allusions — as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour, made the book a highly regarded novel in the modernist pantheon. Joyce fans worldwide now celebrate 16 June as Bloomsday. In 1998, the American publishing firm Modern Library ranked Ulysses first on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.[6]

James Joyce - Ulysses: Molly Bloom's Soliloquy, The Last 50 Lines, 3:06

Angeline Ball in her IFTA Award winning role as Molly Bloom from the film Bloom. Official site of the film is www.ulysses.ie

Joycean scholar David Norris said that she "is quite the best of all the myriad of Molly Blooms that I have seen." While Charles Byrne of the Royal Television Society declared that, "This Molly Bloom would even make Sharon Stone blush. Angeline Ball was born to play the role. She is voluptuous and earthy and, in short, she is every living man's fantasy."

https://youtu.be/ii_aZ6djNkM



    Virginia Woolf: In the Mind of Mrs. Dalloway 1165

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English writer and one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century.

During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a central figure in the influential Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. Her most famous works include the novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929), with its famous dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction."
Woolf suffered from severe bouts of mental illness throughout her life, thought to have been what is now termed bipolar disorder,[1] and committed suicide by drowning in 1941 at the age of 59.

0:02 / 2:18 Mrs Dalloway Trailer 1997

In 1923 London, socialite Clarissa Dalloway's well-planned party is overshadowed by the return of an old suitor she had known 33 years earlier. Cast: Vanessa Redgrave, Michael Kitchen, Natascha McElhone, Alan Cox, Rupert Graves. Director: Marleen Gorris Writers: Eileen Atkins (screenplay), Virginia Woolf (novel) No Copyright Intended. I own nothing, this is just uploaded for fans, made by a fan.


https://youtu.be/p6Iv7r-aRWs



    Marcel Proust and the Novel of Memory 1166

Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (/pruːst/;[1] French: [maʁsɛl pʁust]; 10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922) was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier translated as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest authors.[2][3]

Marcel Proust: A Writer's Life - Documentary Clip, 2:31

This engrossing documentary traces the life of French writer Marcel Proust, considered by many to be the greatest novelist of the 20th century. Filmed on location in France, the film depicts Proust's struggle to create his 3,000-page masterpiece, "Remembrance of Things Past", the groundbreaking novel that has come to epitomize a genre. With dramatic re-enactments of key scenes from Proust's life, and with rare archival footage that brings to life the rich period of French history from 1870 to 1925, A WRITER'S LIFE shows how, after years of failure and bad luck, Proust finally found the key to his art - and the will to undertake what is perhaps the most ambitious novel ever conceived.

Clip from Marcel Proust: A Writer's Life; promotional release for the 100th anniversary publication of In Search of Lost Time, Volume 1, used with permission.

https://youtu.be/_B99TZblScA



READINGS

    35.1 from Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Charge of the Light Brigade” (1854) 1145

    35.2 Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est” (1918) 1146

    35.3 from Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front (1928) 1146

    35.4 William Butler Yeats, “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” (1893) 1147

    35.5 William Butler Yeats, “The Second Coming” (1919) 1147

    35.6 from T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land, Part 3, “The Fire Sermon” (1921) 1169

    35.6a from T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land (1921) 1148

    35.7 Tristan Tzara, “Dada Manifesto 1918” (1918) 1148

    35.8 Tristan Tzara, “Monsieur Antipyrine’s Manifesto” (1916) 1149

        35.9 from Hugo Ball, “Gadji beri bimba” (1916) 1149

        35.10 from Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) 1169

        35.11 from André Breton, “Surrealist Manifesto” (1924) 1158

        35.12 from James Joyce, Ulysses (1922) 1164

        35.13 from Virginia Woolf, “A Room of One’s Own” (1929) 1171

        35.14 from Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway (1925) 1165

        35.15 from Marcel Proust, Swann’s Way (1913) 1166

    FEATURES

        CLOSER LOOK Eisenstein’s The Battleship Potemkin, “Odessa Steps Sequence” 1156

        CONTINUITY & CHANGE Harlem and the Great Migration 1167

36 New York, Skyscraper Culture, and the Jazz Age

A Short History of the Highrise: Part 1 | Op-Docs | The New York Times, 4:30

In the first episode of a four-part series, "Mud" traces the roots of the residential highrise, from the biblical Tower of Babel to New York's tenement buildings. Click here for the interactive documentary: http://nyti.ms/17DuB6Y Subscribe to the Times Video newsletter for free and get a handpicked selection of the best videos from The New York Times every week: http://bit.ly/timesvideonewsletter Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n Watch more videos at: http://nytimes.com/video

https://youtu.be/rr9Y0C3pPxk



MAKING IT NEW 1173

    The Harlem Renaissance 1174

History Brief: The Harlem Renaissance, 3:20

Check out our 1920s workbook here: http://www.amazon.com/Roaring-Twentie... The following video provides a brief description of the Harlem Renaissance and the impact it had on society. Throughout the 1920s, Harlem experienced a cultural and intellectual explosion that became known as the Harlem Renaissance. Who was involved in the Harlem Renaissance? What was its ultimate impact?

https://youtu.be/90PTxdsqfsA



        “The New Negro” 1175

The New negro movement (Harlem Renaissance), 6:46

This video is about the new negro movment of the 1920s. It is commonly called The Harlem Renaissance. It was based out of Harlem New York, in New York City, USA. This was a project done for Mrs. Lewis's 4th period poetry slam class. It was done so that we can share with the world a short documentary that makes sense.

https://youtu.be/rig-nPIM9ko



        Langston Hughes and the Poetry of Jazz 1176

Mini Bio: Langston Hughes, 3:35

Langston Hughes was the leading voice of the Harlem Renaissance, whose poetry showcased the dignity and beauty in ordinary black life. The hours he spent in Harlem clubs affected his work, making him one of the innovators of Jazz Poetry. Subscribe for more Mini Bios: http://bit.ly/1avbyjK Find out why the pen is mightier than the sword in our Writers playlist: http://bit.ly/1kj7GYl From pianists to presidents, learn it all in our Mini Bios playlist: http://bit.ly/1dM6ts3 Check out more bios and full episodes: http://bit.ly/1ebOUOC Like the official Biography Channel Facebook page: http://on.fb.me/1g3yj3U Follow Biography Channel on Twitter: http://bit.ly/1ar0RNv Check out exclusive content on Google : http://bit.ly/163BpLz Don't miss out on great merchandise: http://bit.ly/GIrftp Biography bio.® believes that the truth is more entertaining than fiction. True stories matter more to us because they happen to real people. We dig deep to find the most gripping, surprising and amazing stories. Whether it's a biopic, documentary, talk show or non-fiction series, BIO. delivers an honest portrayal of stories that will leave you amazed. BIO. True Story.™

https://youtu.be/inP76rkYUso



        Zora Neale Hurston and the Voices of Folklore 1176

Zora Neale Hurston: Jump at the Sun, 2:29

To watch the entire documentary, to read background information and to order DVDs, visit:

http://newsreel.org/video/ZORA-NEALE-... This definitive film biography portrays Zora Neale Hurston in all her complexity: gifted, flamboyant, and controversial but always fiercely original.

https://youtu.be/PANwrq_OuPM



    The Quilts of Gee’s Bend 1177

    All That Jazz 1177

Music of the Harlem Renaissance, 4:27

https://youtu.be/rEwCrRFNCtM



    The Visual Arts in Harlem 1179

0:02 / 3:52 Harlem Renaissance Visual Art Presentation

https://youtu.be/hNy_9GdS8YA



Skyscraper and Machine: Architecture in New York 1181

New York City's Skyscrapers | Building America, 2:33

Manhattan: A city confined to an island. The only way to build out, was to build up. Hear the story of how New York City's skyscrapers were born on Building America, narrated by Mike Rowe, 12/4, 8PM ET. Watch here http://www.theblaze.com/tv

https://youtu.be/ArX2SB8hHeA



    The Machine Aesthetic 1182

    The International Style 1184

Making It New: The Art of Place 1187

    The New American Novel and Its Tragic Sense of Place 1187

The Lost Generation: Literature of the 1920s, 4:20

https://youtu.be/aGRRb7lbZkw



    The New American Poetry and the Machine Aesthetic 1190

    The New American Painting: “That, Madam … is paint.” 1194

    The American Stage: Eugene O’Neill 1199

Eugene O'Neill - his life, work and legacy, 5:14

This short documentary looks at the life and work of Eugene O'Neill, and why he is one of the most celebrated playwrights of the 20th century. Featured in this video: Professor Sarah Churchwell (American Literature, University of East Anglia), Dr Adriano Rabelo (Lecturer in Brazilian Portugese Language and Culture) Music by Michael Bruce Find out more about the National Theatre's current production of Eugene O'Neill's Strange Interlude: http://bit.ly/12MR8S1 Discover more about the art of making theatre with the National Theatre: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/dis... Bookshop: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/boo... Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nationaltheatre Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/national.thea... iTunes: http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/itunes TES: http://www.tes.co.uk/nationaltheatre SoundCloud: http://www.soundcloud.com/nationalthe..

https://youtu.be/tmjj5gqkfw0



The Golden Age of Silent Film 1199

0:02 / 3:20 Charlie Chaplin - Factory Work
 
The Factory Scene From Chaplin's Last Silent Film "Modern Times".

https://youtu.be/DfGs2Y5WJ14



History

Early history and development

In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.
There are differing opinions as to the true origin of the name "Hollywood." According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood", meaning 'hauling wood.' HJ Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States. [5][6] The name is also a reference to the Toyon, a native plant with bright red winter berries that resemble holly.[7] Originally the name "Figwood" was to be used to name the area due to the surrounding number of fig trees. Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre (2.0 km2) E.C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a later date. Before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurd's wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others.
An alternate derivation for the name comes from histories on Hollywood, Illinois (now part of Brookfield, IL) and Hollywood, Florida. Mrs. Wilcox was said to have met a woman on a train trip to the East. The woman told Mrs. Wilcox about her lovely ranch in Hollywood, Illinois. Mrs. Wilcox was said to be so enamored of the name that she appropriated it for the property she and her husband Harvey were planning in the Cahuenga Valley, as it was then known. Further research yielded that a parcel of land in Illinois was, in fact named Hollywood and was owned by John D. Rockefeller and his wife, Laura. When their fourth daughter Edith married Harold McCormick, heir to the farming equipment fortune in 1895, John D. and Laura Rockefeller gifted the ranch to her. The lower part of the area known as Hollywood was purchased by a Samuel Gross in 1893 who subdivided the property for housing and development. Mrs. McCormick donated her parcel of Hollywood to the Cook County Forest Preserve District for development as a zoological garden in 1919 and it is now the Brookfield Zoo. Often this story is repeated as Mrs. Wilcox having met Mrs. McCormick, but as the Wilcoxes filed the name with the City of Los Angeles in 1887. when Mrs. McCormick was but 15, the woman Mrs. Wilcox met was her mother, Mrs. Rockefeller, who owned the property with her husband, John D. Rockefeller.[8][9]

Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s.
Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's.[10][11] She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox. On August 1887, Wilcox filed a deed and parcel map of property he sold with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office, named "Hollywood, California." [12][13] Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that same year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth.
By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479[14] lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.

Hollywood Hotel, 1905

The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907

Newspaper advertisement for Hollywood land sales, 1908
The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.[15]
Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract.[16] Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue.[17][18]

Incorporation and merger

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals.[19]
In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were also changed.[20]

Motion picture industry


Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie studio, 1912
By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles.[21] In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west, where Edison's patents could not be enforced.[22] Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry.[23]

Hollywood movie studios, 1922
Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company.[24][25][26] Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction.[27] The first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911.[28] The Whitley home was used as its set, and the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard.[29]
The first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard (the corner of Gower), in October 1911.[30] Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth largest industry in the nation.[23]
Hollywood became known as Tinseltown[31] and Movie Biz City because of the glittering image of the movie industry. Hollywood has since become a major center for film study in the United States.
The name "Hollywood" is often applied to any film or TV production location within Greater Los Angeles, whether or not it is physically located within Hollywood. For example, from the time it relocated from New York in 1972 until its host retired in 1992, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was announced as being broadcast "from Hollywood" when in truth it originated from a studio facility in Burbank, California. Similarly, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's storied film studio facility, associated with the Golden Age of Hollywood (and today known as Sony Pictures Studios) is actually located in Culver City, a number of miles from Hollywood. Today, only two of the six major film studios are actually based in Los Angeles, and only one of them, Paramount, is still located in Hollywood.[citation needed]

Development


Capitol Records Tower

Hollywood Boulevard from the Dolby Theatre, before 2006
During the early 1950 the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.
The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960.[32][33]
The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).
The Dolby Theatre, which opened in 2001 as the Kodak Theatre at the Hollywood & Highland Center mall, is the home of the Oscars. The mall is located where the historic Hollywood Hotel once stood.
SILENT FILM

Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

The iconic clock scene from Safety Last! (1923)
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, mime and title cards. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the introduction of the Vitaphone system. (The term silent film is therefore a retronym, that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively – the descriptor silent used before the late 1920s would have been a redundancy.) After the release of The Jazz Singer in 1927, "talkies" became more and more commonplace. Within a decade, popular widespread production of silent films had ceased.
A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent films are believed to be completely lost.[1]

Elements (1894 – 1929)


Roundhay Garden Scene 1888, the first known celluloid film recorded.

Roundhay Garden Scene (1888) - World's Oldest Surviving Film - Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince, 1:05

https://youtu.be/nR2r__ZgO5g
The earliest celluloid film was shot by Louise Le Prince using the Le Prince single-lens camera made in 1888. It was taken in the garden of the Whitley family house in Oakwood Grange Road, Roundhay, a suburb of Leeds, Yorkshire, Great Britain, possibly on October 14, 1888. It shows Adolphe Le Prince (Le Prince's son), Mrs. Sarah Whitley, (Le Prince's mother-in-law), Joseph Whitley and Miss Harriet Hartley. The 'actors' are shown walking around in circles, laughing to themselves and keeping within the area framed by the camera.

The earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of an item known as the magic lantern. This utilized a lens, shutter and persistent light source to project images on glass slides. These slides used were originally painted, but photographs were used later on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century. Interestingly enough, the invention of a practical photography apparatus only precedes cinema by fifty years.[2]
The next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. Roget showed that when a series of still photographs are shown at a considerable speed in front of one's eye, the photographs merge into one registered image that appears to be moving. This experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a fairly high rate of speed.[2]
The first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge sometime between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop. The oldest surviving film (of the genera called pictorial realism) was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, entitled Roundhay Garden Scene.[3] The development of Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that capture sequential images, and his Kinetoscope, a viewing device for these photos, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison also made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. [2]
Due to Edison's lack of securing an international copyright on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. The Lumière brothers (Louis and Auguste Lumière), for example, created the Cinématographe in France. The Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.[2] In contrast to Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties. Their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture.[4]
From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era" (1894–1929) before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" in the late 1920s. Many film scholars and buffs argue that the aesthetic quality of cinema decreased for several years until directors, actors, and production staff adapted to the new "talkies".[5]
An early film, depicting a re-enactment of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Film produced in 1904 by Edison Studios)
The visual quality of silent movies—especially those produced in the 1920s—was often high. However, there is a widely held misconception that these films were primitive and barely watchable by modern standards.[6] This misconception comes as a result of silent films being played back at wrong speed and their deteriorated condition. Many silent films exist only in second- or third-generation copies, often copied from already damaged and neglected film stock.[5]
In addition, many prints may suffer from censorship cuts and missing frames and scenes, resulting in what may appear to be poor editing.

Intertitles


The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) used stylised intertitles.
Main article: Intertitle
As motion pictures eventually increased in length, a replacement was needed for the in-house interpreter who would explain parts of the film. Because silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience. The title writer became a key professional in silent film and was often separate from the scenario writer who created the story. Intertitles (or titles as they were generally called at the time) often became graphic elements themselves, featuring illustrations or abstract decoration that commented on the action.

Live music and sound

Showings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the guitarist, at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris. This was furthered in 1896 by the first motion picture exhibition in the United States at Koster and Bial's Music Hall in New York City. At this event, Edison set the precedent that all exhibitions should be accompanied by an orchestra. [7] From the beginning, music was recognized as essential, contributing to the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues. (Musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons.) However, depending on the size of the exhibition site, musical accompaniment could drastically change in size. [2] Small town and neighborhood movie theatres usually had a pianist. Beginning in the mid-1910s, large city theaters tended to have organists or ensembles of musicians. Massive theater organs were designed to fill a gap between a simple piano soloist and a larger orchestra. Theatre organs had a wide range of special effects; theatrical organs such as the famous "Mighty Wurlitzer" could simulate some orchestral sounds along with a number of percussion effects such as bass drums and cymbals and sound effects ranging from galloping horses to rolling rain.
Film scores for early silent films were either improvised or compiled of classical or theatrical repertory music. Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which included a cue sheet with the film. These sheets were often lengthy, with detailed notes about effects and moods to watch for. Starting with the mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D. W. Griffith's groundbreaking epic The Birth of a Nation (USA, 1915) it became relatively common for the biggest-budgeted films to arrive at the exhibiting theater with original, specially composed scores.[8] However, the first designated full blown scores were composed earlier, in 1908, by Camille Saint-Saëns, for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise,[9] and by Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, for Stenka Razin.
When organists or pianists used sheet music, they still might add improvisational flourishes to heighten the drama on screen. Even when special effects were not indicated in the score, if an organist was playing a theater organ capable of an unusual sound effect, such as a "galloping horses" effect, it would be used for dramatic horseback chases.
By the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians (at least in America). But the introduction of talkies, which happened simultaneously with the onset of the Great Depression, was devastating to many musicians.
Some countries devised other ways of bringing sound to silent films. The early cinema of Brazil featured fitas cantatas: filmed operettas with singers performing behind the screen.[10] In Japan, films had not only live music but also the benshi, a live narrator who provided commentary and character voices. The benshi became a central element in Japanese film, as well as providing translation for foreign (mostly American) movies.[11] The popularity of the benshi was one reason why silent films persisted well into the 1930s in Japan.


    The Americanization of a Medium 1200

    The Studios and the Star System 1201

    Audience and Expectation: Hollywood’s Genres 1202

    Cinema in Europe 1202

READINGS

    36.1 from W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (1903) 1174

    36.2 Claude McKay, “If We Must Die” (1919) 1174

    36.3 from Alain Leroy Locke, The New Negro (1925) 1175

    36.4 Countee Cullen, “Heritage” (1925) 1207

    36.5 Langston Hughes, Selected Poems 1208

    36.5a from Langston Hughes, “Jazz Band in a Parisian Cabaret” (1925) 1176

    36.6 from James Weldon Johnson, “The Prodigal Son” (1927) 1180

    36.7a–b from F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (1925) 1187–1188

    36.8 from Ernest Hemingway, “Big Two-Hearted River” (1925) 1188

    36.9 from William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury (1929) 1189

    36.10 William Carlos Williams, “The Red Wheelbarrow,” from Spring and All (1923) 1190

    36.11 E.E. Cummings, “she being Brand” (1926) 1191

    36.12 from Hart Crane, The Bridge, “To Brooklyn Bridge” (1930) 1191

    36.13 from William Carlos Williams, The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams (1948) 1195

FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK Williams’s “The Great Figure” and Demuth’s The Figure 5 in Gold 1192

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Rise of Fascism 1205

REVIEW

LECTURE

Literary Imagination, War Inspires Art, 2:32

Harlem Renaissance: Talkin' All That Jazz, 2:35

Skyscraper Culture: New York State of Mind, 2:32

Hollywood: The Golden Age of Silent Film, 2:27

Click the image below to learn more about Literary Imagination, Harlem Renaissance, Skyscraper Culture, and Hollywood.

 








Times of Despair and Rebirth: The birth of blues and jazz along with America being tried by fire.

The Harlem Renaissance! 2:05

https://youtu.be/JhPd1WY5cFs

A brief introduction on the Harlem Renaissance.

The song is Billie Holiday- What is this thing called love?



The Harlem Renaissance was a movement that spanned the 1920s. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration (African American),[1] of which Harlem was the largest. The Harlem Renaissance was considered to be a rebirth of African American arts.[2] Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, in addition, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance.[3][4][5][6]
The Harlem Renaissance is generally considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s.[7] Many of its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924 (when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance) and 1929 (the year of the stock market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression).

Background

Until the end of the Civil War, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. After the end of slavery, the emancipated African Americans, freedmen, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. Soon after the end of the Civil War the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 gave rise to speeches by African-American Congressmen addressing this Bill. By 1875 sixteen blacks had been elected and served in Congress and gave numerous speeches with their newfound civil empowerment. The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 was renounced by black Congressmen and resulted in the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1875, part of Reconstruction legislation by Republicans. By the late 1870s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From 1890 to 1908 they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most Negros and many poor whites, trapping them without representation. They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence[8] as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, and on public works projects such as roads and levees. Convict laborers were typically subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment, overwork, and disease from unsanitary conditions. Death rates were extraordinarily high.[9] While a small number of blacks were able to acquire land shortly after the Civil War, most were exploited as sharecroppers.[10] As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers.
Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had lived through the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the American Civil War. Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the Great Migration out of the South into the Negro neighborhoods of the North and Midwest. African–Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem.

Development

Contemporary silent black and white short documentary on the Negro Artist. Richmond Barthé working on Kalombwan, (1934).
During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for immigrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, and an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class. The district had originally been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes; its affluent beginnings led to the development of stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class amenities such as the Polo Grounds and the Harlem Opera House. During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved further north.
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African–Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor. The Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and New York.
Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism, often by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities, even in the North. After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens often did not respect their accomplishments. Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories.

Mainstream recognition of Harlem culture

The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. In 1917, the premiere of Three Plays for a Negro Theatre took place. These plays, written by white playwright Ridgely Torrence, featured African-American actors conveying complex human emotions and yearnings. They rejected the stereotypes of the blackface and minstrel show traditions. James Weldon Johnson in 1917 called the premieres of these plays "the most important single event in the entire history of the Negro in the American Theater".[11] Another landmark came in 1919, when the poet Claude McKay published his militant sonnet, "If We Must Die," which introduced a dramatically political dimension to the themes of African cultural inheritance and modern urban experience featured in his 1917 poems "Invocation" and "Harlem Dancer" (published under the pseudonym Eli Edwards, these were his first appearance in print in the United States after immigrating from Jamaica).[12] Although "If We Must Die" never alluded to race, African-American readers heard its note of defiance in the face of racism and the nationwide race riots and lynchings then taking place. By the end of the First World War, the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay were describing the reality of contemporary African-American life in America.
In 1917 Hubert Harrison, "The Father of Harlem Radicalism", founded the Liberty League and The Voice, the first organization and the first newspaper, respectively, of the "New Negro Movement". Harrison's organization and newspaper were political, but also emphasized the arts (his newspaper had "Poetry for the People" and book review sections). In 1927, in the Pittsburgh Courier, Harrison challenged the notion of the renaissance. He argued that the "Negro Literary Renaissance" notion overlooked "the stream of literary and artistic products which had flowed uninterruptedly from Negro writers from 1850 to the present", and said the so-called "renaissance" was largely a white invention.
The Harlem Renaissance grew out of the changes that had taken place in the African-American community since the abolition of slavery, as the expansion of communities in the North. These accelerated as a consequence of World War I and the great social and cultural changes in early 20th-century United States. Industrialization was attracting people to cities from rural areas and gave rise to a new mass culture. Contributing factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance were the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people. Factors leading to the decline of this era include the Great Depression.

Religion

Christianity played a major role in the Harlem Renaissance. Many of the writers and social critics discussed the role of Christianity in African–American lives. For example, a famous poem by Langston Hughes, "Madam and the Minister", reflects the temperature and mood towards religion in the Harlem Renaissance.[13] The cover story for the Crisis Magazine′s publication in May 1936 explains how important Christianity was regarding the proposed union of the three largest Methodist churches of 1936. This article shows the controversial question about the formation of a Union for these churches.[14] The article "The Catholic Church and the Negro Priest", also published in the Crisis Magazine, January 1920, demonstrates the obstacles African–American priests faced in the Catholic Church. The article confronts what it saw as policies based on race that excluded African–Americans from higher positions in the church.[15]

Discourse


Religion and Evolution Ad
Various forms of religious worship existed during this time of African–American intellectual reawakening. Although there were racist attitudes within the current Abrahamic religious arenas many African–Americans continued to push towards the practice of a more inclusive doctrine. For example, George Joseph MacWilliam presents various experiences, during his pursuit towards priesthood, of rejection on the basis of his color and race yet he shares his frustration in attempts to incite action on part of The Crisis Magazine community.[16]
There were other forms of spiritualism practiced among African–Americans during the Harlem Renaissance. Some of these religions and philosophies were inherited from African ancestry.
For example, the religion of Islam traded in slaves from Africa as early as the 8th century through the Trans-Saharan trade. Islam came to Harlem likely through the migration of members of the Moorish Science Temple of America, which was established in 1913 in New Jersey.
Various forms of Judaism were practiced, such as Orthodox Judaism and Masorti Judaism and even Reformed Judaism, but it was Black Hebrew Israelites that founded their religious belief system during the late 20th century in the Harlem Renaissance.
Traditional forms of religion acquired from various parts of Africa were inherited and practiced during this era. Some commons examples were Voodoo and Santeria.

Criticism


"An' the stars began to fall." by Aaron Douglas
Religious critique during this era was found in literature, art, and poetry. The Harlem Renaissance encouraged analytic dialogue that included the open critique and the adjustment of current religious ideas.
One of the major contributors to the discussion of African–American renaissance culture was Aaron Douglas who, with his artwork, also reflected the revisions African Americans were making to the Christian dogma. Douglas uses biblical imagery as inspiration to various pieces of art work but with the rebellious twist of an African influence.[17]
Countee Cullen’s poem “Heritage” expresses the inner struggle of an African American between his past African heritage and the new Christian culture.[18] A more severe criticism of the Christian religion can be found Langston Hughes’ poem “Merry Christmas", where he exposes the irony of religion as a symbol for good and yet a force for oppression and injustice.[19]

Music

A new way of playing the piano called the Harlem Stride style was created during the Harlem Renaissance, and helped blur the lines between the poor Negroes and socially elite Negroes. The traditional jazz band was composed primarily of brass instruments and was considered a symbol of the south, but the piano was considered an instrument of the wealthy. With this instrumental modification to the existing genre, the wealthy blacks now had more access to jazz music. Its popularity soon spread throughout the country and was consequently at an all-time high. Innovation and liveliness were important characteristics of performers in the beginnings of jazz. Jazz musicians at the time such as Fats Waller, Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton, and Willie "The Lion" Smith were very talented and competitive, and were considered to have laid the foundation for future musicians of their genre.[20][21] Duke Ellington gained popularity during the Harlem Renaissance. According to Charles Garrett, "The resulting portrait of Ellington reveals him to be not only the gifted composer, bandleader, and musician we have come to know, but also an earthly person with basic desires, weaknesses, and eccentricities." [22] Ellington didn't let his popularity get to him. He remained calm and focused on his music.
During this period, the musical style of blacks was becoming more and more attractive to whites. White novelists, dramatists and composers started to exploit the musical tendencies and themes of African–Americans in their works. Composers used poems written by African-American poets in their songs, and would implement the rhythms, harmonies and melodies of African-American music—such as blues, spirituals, and jazz—into their concert pieces. Negroes began to merge with Whites into the classical world of musical composition. The first Negro male to gain wide recognition as a concert artist in both his region and internationally was Roland Hayes. He trained with Arthur Calhoun in Chattanooga, and at Fisk University in Nashville. Later, he studied with Arthur Hubbard in Boston and with George Henschel and Amanda Ira Aldridge in London, England. He began singing in public as a student, and toured with the Fisk Jubilee Singers in 1911.[23]

Fashion

During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. Many young women preferred extreme versions of current white fashions - from short skirts and silk stockings to drop-waisted dresses and cloche hats.[24] The extraordinarily successful black dancer Josephine Baker, though performing in Paris during the height of the Renaissance, was a major fashion trendsetter for black and white women alike. Her gowns from the couturier Jean Patou were much copied, especially her stage costumes, which Vogue magazine called "startling." [25] Popular by the 1930s was a trendy, egret-trimmed beret. Men wore loose suits that led to the later style known as the "Zoot," which consisted of wide-legged, high-waisted, peg-top trousers, and a long coat with padded shoulders and wide lapels. Men also wore wide-brimmed hats, colored socks,[26] white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. During this period, African Americans expressed respect for their heritage through a fad for leopard-skin coats, indicating the power of the African animal.

Characteristics and themes

Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt racial pride that came to be represented in the idea of the New Negro, who through intellect and production of literature, art, and music could challenge the pervading racism and stereotypes to promote progressive or socialist politics, and racial and social integration. The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
There would be no uniting form singularly characterizing the art that emerged from the Harlem Renaissance. Rather, it encompassed a wide variety of cultural elements and styles, including a Pan-African perspective, "high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the new form of jazz poetry. This duality meant that numerous African-American artists came into conflict with conservatives in the black intelligentsia, who took issue with certain depictions of black life.
Some common themes represented during the Harlem Renaissance were the influence of the experience of slavery and emerging African-American folk traditions on black identity, the effects of institutional racism, the dilemmas inherent in performing and writing for elite white audiences, and the question of how to convey the experience of modern black life in the urban North.
The Harlem Renaissance was one of primarily African-American involvement. It rested on a support system of black patrons, black-owned businesses and publications. However, it also depended on the patronage of white Americans, such as Carl Van Vechten and Charlotte Osgood Mason, who provided various forms of assistance, opening doors which otherwise would have remained closed to the publication of work outside the black American community. This support often took the form of patronage or publication. Carl Van Vechten was one of the most notorious white Americans involved with the Harlem Renaissance. He allowed for assistance to the black American community because he wanted racial sameness.
There were other whites interested in so-called "primitive" cultures, as many whites viewed black American culture at that time, and wanted to see such "primitivism" in the work coming out of the Harlem Renaissance. As with most fads, some people may have been exploited in the rush for publicity.
Interest in African-American lives also generated experimental but lasting collaborative work, such as the all-black productions of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, and Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein's Four Saints in Three Acts. In both productions the choral conductor Eva Jessye was part of the creative team. Her choir was featured in Four Saints.[27] The music world also found white band leaders defying racist attitudes to include the best and the brightest African-American stars of music and song in their productions.
The African Americans used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality. The Harlem Renaissance led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses. Many authors began to publish novels, magazines and newspapers during this time. The new fiction attracted a great amount of attention from the nation at large. Among authors who became nationally known were Jean Toomer, Jessie Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Alain Locke, Omar Al Amiri, Eric D. Walrond and Langston Hughes.
The Harlem Renaissance helped lay the foundation for the post-World War II phase of the Civil Rights Movement. Moreover, many black artists who rose to creative maturity afterward were inspired by this literary movement.
The Renaissance was more than a literary or artistic movement, as it possessed a certain sociological development—particularly through a new racial consciousness—through ethnic pride, as seen in the Back to Africa movement led by Marcus Garvey. At the same time, a different expression of ethnic pride, promoted by W. E. B. Du Bois, introduced the notion of the "talented tenth": those Negroes who were fortunate enough to inherit money or property or obtain a college degree during the transition from Reconstruction to the Jim Crow period of the early twentieth century. These "talented tenth" were considered the finest examples of the worth of black Americans as a response to the rampant racism of the period. (No particular leadership was assigned to the talented tenth, but they were to be emulated.) In both literature and popular discussion, complex ideas such as Du Bois's concept of "twoness" (dualism) were introduced (seeThe Souls of Black Folk (1903).[28] Du Bois explored a divided awareness of one's identity that was a unique critique of the social ramifications of racial consciousness. This exploration was later revived during the Black Pride movement of the early 1970s.

Influence

A new Black identity


Langston Hughes, novelist and poet, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1936
"Sometimes I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can anyone deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It's beyond me." - Zora Neale Hurston[29]
The Harlem Renaissance was successful in that it brought the Black experience clearly within the corpus of American cultural history. Not only through an explosion of culture, but on a sociological level, the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance redefined how America, and the world, viewed African–Americans. The migration of southern Blacks to the north changed the image of the African–American from rural, undereducated peasants to one of urban, cosmopolitan sophistication. This new identity led to a greater social consciousness, and African–Americans became players on the world stage, expanding intellectual and social contacts internationally.
The progress—both symbolic and real—during this period became a point of reference from which the African-American community gained a spirit of self-determination that provided a growing sense of both Black urbanity and Black militancy, as well as a foundation for the community to build upon for the Civil Rights struggles in the 1950s and 1960s.
The urban setting of rapidly developing Harlem provided a venue for African Americans of all backgrounds to appreciate the variety of Black life and culture. Through this expression, the Harlem Renaissance encouraged the new appreciation of folk roots and culture. For instance, folk materials and spirituals provided a rich source for the artistic and intellectual imagination, which freed Blacks from the establishment of past condition. Through sharing in these cultural experiences, a consciousness sprung forth in the form of a united racial identity.

Criticism of the movement

Many critics point out that the Harlem Renaissance could not escape its history and culture in its attempt to create a new one, or sufficiently separate from the foundational elements of White, European culture. Often Harlem intellectuals, while proclaiming a new racial consciousness, resorted to mimicry of their white counterparts by adopting their clothing, sophisticated manners and etiquette. This "mimicry" may also be called assimilation, as that is typically what minority members of any social construct must do in order to fit social norms created by that construct's majority. This could be seen as a reason that the artistic and cultural products of the Harlem Renaissance did not overcome the presence of White-American values, and did not reject these values. In this regard, the creation of the "New Negro" as the Harlem intellectuals sought, was considered a success.
The Harlem Renaissance appealed to a mixed audience. The literature appealed to the African-American middle class and to whites. Magazines such as The Crisis, a monthly journal of the NAACP, and Opportunity, an official publication of the National Urban League, employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes. As important as these literary outlets were, however, the Renaissance relied heavily on white publishing houses and white-owned magazines. A major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. W. E. B. Du Bois did not oppose the relationship between black writers and white publishers, but he was critical of works such as Claude McKay's bestselling novel Home to Harlem (1928) for appealing to the "prurient demand[s]" of white readers and publishers for portrayals of black "licentiousness".[30] Langston Hughes spoke for most of the writers and artists when he wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (1926) that black artists intended to express themselves freely, no matter what the black public or white public thought.[31] In Langston Hughes' writings, he also returned to the theme of racial passing, but during the Harlem Renaissance, he began to explore the topic of homosexuality and homophobia. He began to use disruptive language in his writings. He explored this topic because it was a theme that during this time period was not discussed.[32]
African-American musicians and other performers also played to mixed audiences. Harlem's cabarets and clubs attracted both Harlem residents and white New Yorkers seeking out Harlem nightlife. Harlem's famous Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington performed, carried this to an extreme, by providing black entertainment for exclusively white audiences. Ultimately, the more successful black musicians and entertainers who appealed to a mainstream audience moved their performances downtown.
Certain aspects of the Harlem Renaissance were accepted without debate, and without scrutiny. One of these was the future of the "New Negro". Artists and intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance echoed American progressivism in its faith in democratic reform, in its belief in art and literature as agents of change, and in its almost uncritical belief in itself and its future. This progressivist worldview rendered Black intellectuals—just like their White counterparts—unprepared for the rude shock of the Great Depression, and the Harlem Renaissance ended abruptly because of naive assumptions about the centrality of culture, unrelated to economic and social realities.
Skyscraper Culture
SUPERTALL Introduction Video, 2:47
https://youtu.be/QLviFx0hvAw
The Burj Khalifa, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates), has been the tallest skyscraper in the world since 2010, with a height of 829.8 m.
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40-50 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses. A skyscraper can also be called a high-rise, but the term skyscraper is often used for buildings higher than 150 m (492 ft). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term Supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as Megatall.[1]
One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls. These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, etc.). To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure and to transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks.

History

Early history and development

In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera (Nopal field), named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished. The area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north.
There are differing opinions as to the true origin of the name "Hollywood." According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood", meaning 'hauling wood.' HJ Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood. Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States. [5][6] The name is also a reference to the Toyon, a native plant with bright red winter berries that resemble holly.[7] Originally the name "Figwood" was to be used to name the area due to the surrounding number of fig trees. Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre (2.0 km2) E.C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a later date. Before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurd's wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others.
An alternate derivation for the name comes from histories on Hollywood, Illinois (now part of Brookfield, IL) and Hollywood, Florida. Mrs. Wilcox was said to have met a woman on a train trip to the East. The woman told Mrs. Wilcox about her lovely ranch in Hollywood, Illinois. Mrs. Wilcox was said to be so enamored of the name that she appropriated it for the property she and her husband Harvey were planning in the Cahuenga Valley, as it was then known. Further research yielded that a parcel of land in Illinois was, in fact named Hollywood and was owned by John D. Rockefeller and his wife, Laura. When their fourth daughter Edith married Harold McCormick, heir to the farming equipment fortune in 1895, John D. and Laura Rockefeller gifted the ranch to her. The lower part of the area known as Hollywood was purchased by a Samuel Gross in 1893 who subdivided the property for housing and development. Mrs. McCormick donated her parcel of Hollywood to the Cook County Forest Preserve District for development as a zoological garden in 1919 and it is now the Brookfield Zoo. Often this story is repeated as Mrs. Wilcox having met Mrs. McCormick, but as the Wilcoxes filed the name with the City of Los Angeles in 1887. when Mrs. McCormick was but 15, the woman Mrs. Wilcox met was her mother, Mrs. Rockefeller, who owned the property with her husband, John D. Rockefeller.[8][9]

Glen-Holly Hotel, first hotel in Hollywood, at the corner of what is now Yucca Street. It was built in the 1890s.
Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon (now Lake Hollywood) and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's.[10][11] She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. H. Wilcox. On August 1887, Wilcox filed a deed and parcel map of property he sold with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office, named "Hollywood, California." [12][13] Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that same year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth.
By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479[14] lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.

Hollywood Hotel, 1905

The intersection of Hollywood and Highland, 1907

Newspaper advertisement for Hollywood land sales, 1908
The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, which, still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.[15]
Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract.[16] Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue.[17][18]

Incorporation and merger

Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals.[19]
In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were also changed.[20]

Motion picture industry


Nestor Studio, Hollywood's first movie studio, 1912
By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles.[21] In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west, where Edison's patents could not be enforced.[22] Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry.[23]

Hollywood movie studios, 1922
Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company.[24][25][26] Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction.[27] The first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911.[28] The Whitley home was used as its set, and the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard.[29]
The first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard (the corner of Gower), in October 1911.[30] Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth largest industry in the nation.[23]
Hollywood became known as Tinseltown[31] and Movie Biz City because of the glittering image of the movie industry. Hollywood has since become a major center for film study in the United States.
The name "Hollywood" is often applied to any film or TV production location within Greater Los Angeles, whether or not it is physically located within Hollywood. For example, from the time it relocated from New York in 1972 until its host retired in 1992, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was announced as being broadcast "from Hollywood" when in truth it originated from a studio facility in Burbank, California. Similarly, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's storied film studio facility, associated with the Golden Age of Hollywood (and today known as Sony Pictures Studios) is actually located in Culver City, a number of miles from Hollywood. Today, only two of the six major film studios are actually based in Los Angeles, and only one of them, Paramount, is still located in Hollywood.[citation needed]

Development


Capitol Records Tower

Hollywood Boulevard from the Dolby Theatre, before 2006
During the early 1950 the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.
The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960.[32][33]
The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).
The Dolby Theatre, which opened in 2001 as the Kodak Theatre at the Hollywood & Highland Center mall, is the home of the Oscars. The mall is located where the historic Hollywood Hotel once stood.
SILENT FILM

Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

The iconic clock scene from Safety Last! (1923)
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, mime and title cards. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the introduction of the Vitaphone system. (The term silent film is therefore a retronym, that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively – the descriptor silent used before the late 1920s would have been a redundancy.) After the release of The Jazz Singer in 1927, "talkies" became more and more commonplace. Within a decade, popular widespread production of silent films had ceased.
A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent films are believed to be completely lost.[1]

Elements (1894 – 1929)


Roundhay Garden Scene 1888, the first known celluloid film recorded.

Roundhay Garden Scene (1888) - World's Oldest Surviving Film - Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince, 1:05

https://youtu.be/nR2r__ZgO5g
The earliest celluloid film was shot by Louise Le Prince using the Le Prince single-lens camera made in 1888. It was taken in the garden of the Whitley family house in Oakwood Grange Road, Roundhay, a suburb of Leeds, Yorkshire, Great Britain, possibly on October 14, 1888. It shows Adolphe Le Prince (Le Prince's son), Mrs. Sarah Whitley, (Le Prince's mother-in-law), Joseph Whitley and Miss Harriet Hartley. The 'actors' are shown walking around in circles, laughing to themselves and keeping within the area framed by the camera.

The earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of an item known as the magic lantern. This utilized a lens, shutter and persistent light source to project images on glass slides. These slides used were originally painted, but photographs were used later on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century. Interestingly enough, the invention of a practical photography apparatus only precedes cinema by fifty years.[2]
The next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. Roget showed that when a series of still photographs are shown at a considerable speed in front of one's eye, the photographs merge into one registered image that appears to be moving. This experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a fairly high rate of speed.[2]
The first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge sometime between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop. The oldest surviving film (of the genera called pictorial realism) was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, entitled Roundhay Garden Scene.[3] The development of Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that capture sequential images, and his Kinetoscope, a viewing device for these photos, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison also made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. [2]
Due to Edison's lack of securing an international copyright on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. The Lumière brothers (Louis and Auguste Lumière), for example, created the Cinématographe in France. The Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.[2] In contrast to Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties. Their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture.[4]
From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era" (1894–1929) before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" in the late 1920s. Many film scholars and buffs argue that the aesthetic quality of cinema decreased for several years until directors, actors, and production staff adapted to the new "talkies".[5]
An early film, depicting a re-enactment of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Film produced in 1904 by Edison Studios)
The visual quality of silent movies—especially those produced in the 1920s—was often high. However, there is a widely held misconception that these films were primitive and barely watchable by modern standards.[6] This misconception comes as a result of silent films being played back at wrong speed and their deteriorated condition. Many silent films exist only in second- or third-generation copies, often copied from already damaged and neglected film stock.[5]
In addition, many prints may suffer from censorship cuts and missing frames and scenes, resulting in what may appear to be poor editing.

Intertitles


The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) used stylised intertitles.
Main article: Intertitle
As motion pictures eventually increased in length, a replacement was needed for the in-house interpreter who would explain parts of the film. Because silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience. The title writer became a key professional in silent film and was often separate from the scenario writer who created the story. Intertitles (or titles as they were generally called at the time) often became graphic elements themselves, featuring illustrations or abstract decoration that commented on the action.

Live music and sound

Showings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the guitarist, at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris. This was furthered in 1896 by the first motion picture exhibition in the United States at Koster and Bial's Music Hall in New York City. At this event, Edison set the precedent that all exhibitions should be accompanied by an orchestra. [7] From the beginning, music was recognized as essential, contributing to the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues. (Musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons.) However, depending on the size of the exhibition site, musical accompaniment could drastically change in size. [2] Small town and neighborhood movie theatres usually had a pianist. Beginning in the mid-1910s, large city theaters tended to have organists or ensembles of musicians. Massive theater organs were designed to fill a gap between a simple piano soloist and a larger orchestra. Theatre organs had a wide range of special effects; theatrical organs such as the famous "Mighty Wurlitzer" could simulate some orchestral sounds along with a number of percussion effects such as bass drums and cymbals and sound effects ranging from galloping horses to rolling rain.
Film scores for early silent films were either improvised or compiled of classical or theatrical repertory music. Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which included a cue sheet with the film. These sheets were often lengthy, with detailed notes about effects and moods to watch for. Starting with the mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D. W. Griffith's groundbreaking epic The Birth of a Nation (USA, 1915) it became relatively common for the biggest-budgeted films to arrive at the exhibiting theater with original, specially composed scores.[8] However, the first designated full blown scores were composed earlier, in 1908, by Camille Saint-Saëns, for The Assassination of the Duke of Guise,[9] and by Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, for Stenka Razin.
When organists or pianists used sheet music, they still might add improvisational flourishes to heighten the drama on screen. Even when special effects were not indicated in the score, if an organist was playing a theater organ capable of an unusual sound effect, such as a "galloping horses" effect, it would be used for dramatic horseback chases.
By the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians (at least in America). But the introduction of talkies, which happened simultaneously with the onset of the Great Depression, was devastating to many musicians.
Some countries devised other ways of bringing sound to silent films. The early cinema of Brazil featured fitas cantatas: filmed operettas with singers performing behind the screen.[10] In Japan, films had not only live music but also the benshi, a live narrator who provided commentary and character voices. The benshi became a central element in Japanese film, as well as providing translation for foreign (mostly American) movies.[11] The popularity of the benshi was one reason why silent films persisted well into the 1930s in Japan.
THE GREAT WAR AND ITS IMPACT
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NEW YORK, SKYSCRAPER CULTURE, AND THE JAZZ AGE
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EXPLORE ACTIVITY
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Harlem Renaissance
MUSIC FOLDER
Bessie Smith, Mini Bio, 3:20

A short biography of Bessie Smith, the blues singer who hit the theater circuit at the age of 18, touring in minstrel shows and cabarets. She eventually started her own revue, which showcased her distinctive voice and established Smith as one of the greatest female blues singer to ever live.
https://youtu.be/CT4z847-hyc
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https://youtu.be/CT4z847-hyc

Bessie Smith
Bessiesmith.jpg
Smith in 1936. (photograph by Carl Van Vechten)
Background information
Birth name Bessie Smith
Also known as The Empress of the Blues
Born April 15, 1894
Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.
Died September 26, 1937 (aged 43)
Clarksdale, Mississippi, U.S.
Genres Blues, Jazz blues
Occupation(s) Singer, Actress
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1912–1937
Labels Columbia
Associated acts Ma Rainey, Alberta Hunter, Ethel Waters
Bessie Smith - Mini Bio, 3:20
A short biography of Bessie Smith, the blues singer who hit the theater circuit at the age of 18, touring in minstrel shows and cabarets. She eventually started her own revue, which showcased her distinctive voice and established Smith as one of the greatest female blues singer to ever live. Subscribe for more Mini Bios: http://bit.ly/1avbyjK From pianists to presidents, learn it all in our Mini Bios playlist: http://bit.ly/1dM6ts3 Learn about more sultry singers in our Musicians playlist: http://bit.ly/1dM104s
Bessie Smith (April 15, 1894 – September 26, 1937) was an American blues singer.
Nicknamed The Empress of the Blues, Smith was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920s and 1930s.[1] She is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era and, along with Louis Armstrong, a major influence on other jazz vocalists.[2]

Life

Portrait of Bessie Smith, 1936
Portrait of Bessie Smith, 1936
The 1900 census indicates that Bessie Smith was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in July 1892, a date provided by her mother. However, the 1910 census recorded her birthday as April 15, 1894, a date that appears on all subsequent documents and was observed by the entire Smith family. Census data also contribute to controversy about the size of her family. The 1870 and 1880 censuses report three older half-siblings, while later interviews with Smith's family and contemporaries did not include these individuals among her siblings.
Bessie Smith was the daughter of Laura (née Owens) and William Smith. William Smith was a laborer and part-time Baptist preacher (he was listed in the 1870 census as a "minister of the gospel", in Moulton, Lawrence, Alabama.) He died before his daughter could remember him. By the time she was nine, she had lost her mother and a brother as well. Her older sister Viola took charge of caring for her siblings.[3]
To earn money for their impoverished household, Bessie Smith and her brother Andrew began busking on the streets of Chattanooga as a duet: she singing and dancing, he accompanying her on guitar. Their favorite location was in front of the White Elephant Saloon at Thirteenth and Elm streets in the heart of the city's African-American community.
In 1904, her oldest brother, Clarence, covertly left home, joining a small traveling troupe owned by Moses Stokes. "If Bessie had been old enough, she would have gone with him," said Clarence's widow, Maud. "That's why he left without telling her, but Clarence told me she was ready, even then. Of course, she was only a child."[4]
In 1912, Clarence returned to Chattanooga with the Stokes troupe. He arranged for its managers, Lonnie and Cora Fisher, to give Smith an audition. She was hired as a dancer rather than a singer, because the company also included the unknown singer, Ma Rainey. Smith eventually moved on to performing in various chorus lines, making the "81" Theater in Atlanta her home base. There were times when she worked in shows on the black-owned T.O.B.A. (Theater Owners Booking Association) circuit. She would rise to become its biggest star after signing with Columbia Records.
By 1923, when she began her recording career, Smith had taken up residence in Philadelphia. There she met and fell in love with Jack Gee, a security guard whom she married on June 7, 1923, just as her first record was released. During the marriage—a stormy one, with infidelity on both sides—Smith became the highest paid black entertainer of the day, heading her own shows, which sometimes featured as many as 40 troupers, and touring in her own railroad car. Gee was impressed by the money, but never adjusted to show business life, or to Smith's bisexuality. In 1929, when she learned of his affair with another singer, Gertrude Saunders, Bessie Smith ended the relationship, although neither of them sought a divorce.
Smith eventually found a common-law husband in an old friend, Richard Morgan, who was Lionel Hampton's uncle and the antithesis of her husband. She stayed with him until her death.[3]

Career


Portrait of Bessie Smith by Carl Van Vechten
All contemporary accounts indicate that while Rainey did not teach Smith to sing, she probably helped her develop a stage presence.[5] Smith began forming her own act around 1913, at Atlanta's "81" Theater. By 1920, Smith had established a reputation in the South and along the Eastern Seaboard.
In 1920, sales figures of over 100,000 copies for "Crazy Blues," an Okeh Records recording by singer Mamie Smith (no relation) pointed to a new market. The recording industry had not directed its product to blacks, but the success of the record led to a search for female blues singers. Bessie Smith was signed to Columbia Records in 1923 by Frank Walker, a talent agent who had seen her perform years earlier. Her first session for Columbia was February 15, 1923. For most of 1923, her records were issued on Columbia's regular A- series; when the label decided to establish a "race records" series, Smith's "Cemetery Blues" (September 26, 1923) was the first issued.
She scored a big hit with her first release, a coupling of "Gulf Coast Blues" and "Downhearted Blues", which its composer Alberta Hunter had already turned into a hit on the Paramount label. Smith became a headliner on the black T.O.B.A. circuit and rose to become its top attraction in the 1920s.[6] Working a heavy theater schedule during the winter months and doing tent tours the rest of the year (eventually traveling in her own railroad car), Smith became the highest-paid black entertainer of her day.[7] Columbia nicknamed her "Queen of the Blues," but a PR-minded press soon upgraded her title to "Empress".
Smith had a powerfully strong voice that recorded very well from her first record, made during the time when recordings were made acoustically. With the coming of electrical recording (her first electrical recording was "Cake Walking Babies (From Home)" recorded Tuesday, May 5, 1925),[8] the sheer power of her voice was even more evident. She was also able to benefit from the new technology of radio broadcasting, even on stations that were in the segregated south. For example, after giving a concert for a white-only audience at a local theater in Memphis, Tennessee, in October 1923, she then performed a late night concert on station WMC, where her songs were very well received by the radio audience.[9]
She made 160 recordings for Columbia, often accompanied by the finest musicians of the day, most notably Louis Armstrong, Coleman Hawkins, Fletcher Henderson, James P. Johnson, Joe Smith, and Charlie Green.

Broadway

Smith's career was cut short by a combination of the Great Depression, which nearly put the recording industry out of business, and the advent of "talkies", which spelled the end for vaudeville. She never stopped performing, however. While the days of elaborate vaudeville shows were over, Smith continued touring and occasionally singing in clubs. In 1929, she appeared in a Broadway flop called Pansy, a musical in which top critics said she was the only asset.

Film

In 1929, Smith made her only film appearance, starring in a two-reeler titled St. Louis Blues, based on W. C. Handy's song of the same name. In the film, directed by Dudley Murphy and shot in Astoria, she sings the title song accompanied by members of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra, the Hall Johnson Choir, pianist James P. Johnson and a string section—a musical environment radically different from any found on her recordings.

Swing era

In 1933, John Hammond, who also mentored Billie Holiday, asked Smith to record four sides for Okeh (which had been acquired by Columbia Records in 1925). He claimed to have found her in semi-obscurity, working as a hostess in a speakeasy on Philadelphia's Ridge Avenue.[10] Bessie Smith worked at Art's Cafe on Ridge Avenue, but not as a hostess and not until the summer of 1936. In 1933, when she made the Okeh sides, Bessie was still touring. Hammond was known for his selective memory and gratuitous embellishments.[11]
Bessie Smith was paid a non-royalty fee of $37.50 for each selection and these Okeh sides, which were her last recordings. Made on November 24, 1933, they serve as a hint of the transformation she made in her performances as she shifted her blues artistry into something that fit the "swing era". The relatively modern accompaniment is notable. The band included such swing era musicians as trombonist Jack Teagarden, trumpeter Frankie Newton, tenor saxophonist Chu Berry, pianist Buck Washington, guitarist Bobby Johnson, and bassist Billy Taylor. Benny Goodman, who happened to be recording with Ethel Waters in the adjoining studio, dropped by and is barely audible on one selection. Hammond was not entirely pleased with the results, preferring to have Smith revisit her old blues groove. "Take Me for a Buggy Ride" and "Gimme a Pigfoot (And a Bottle of Beer)", both written by Wesley Wilson, continue to be ranked among her most popular recordings.[3] Billie Holiday, who credited Smith as her major influence along with Louis Armstrong, would go on to record her first record for Columbia three days later with the same band personnel.

Death

On September 26, 1937, Smith was critically injured in a car accident while traveling along U.S. Route 61 between Memphis, Tennessee, and Clarksdale, Mississippi. Her lover, Richard Morgan, was driving and misjudged the speed of a slow-moving truck ahead of him. Tire marks at the scene suggested that Morgan tried to avoid the truck by driving around its left side, but he hit the rear of the truck side-on at high speed. The tailgate of the truck sheared off the wooden roof of Smith's old Packard. Smith, who was in the passenger seat, probably with her right arm or elbow out the window, took the full brunt of the impact. Morgan escaped without injuries.
The first people on the scene were a Memphis surgeon, Dr. Hugh Smith (no relation), and his fishing partner Henry Broughton. In the early 1970s, Dr. Smith gave a detailed account of his experience to Bessie's biographer Chris Albertson. This is the most reliable eyewitness testimony about the events surrounding Bessie Smith's death.
After stopping at the accident scene, Dr. Smith examined Bessie Smith, who was lying in the middle of the road with obviously severe injuries. He estimated she had lost about a half-pint of blood, and immediately noted a major traumatic injury to her right arm; it had been almost completely severed at the elbow.[12] But Dr. Smith was emphatic that this arm injury alone did not cause her death. Although the light was poor, he observed only minor head injuries. He attributed her death to extensive and severe crush injuries to the entire right side of her body, consistent with a "sideswipe" collision.[13]
Broughton and Dr. Smith moved the singer to the shoulder of the road. Dr. Smith dressed her arm injury with a clean handkerchief and asked Broughton to go to a house about 500 feet off the road to call an ambulance.
By the time Broughton returned approximately 25 minutes later, Bessie Smith was in shock. Time passed with no sign of the ambulance, so Dr. Smith suggested that they take her into Clarksdale in his car. He and Broughton had almost finished clearing the back seat when they heard the sound of a car approaching at high speed. Dr. Smith flashed his lights in warning, but the oncoming car failed to stop and plowed into the doctor's car at full speed. It sent his car careening into Bessie Smith's overturned Packard, completely wrecking it. The oncoming car ricocheted off Dr. Smith's car into the ditch on the right, barely missing Broughton and Bessie Smith.[14]
The young couple in the new car did not have life-threatening injuries. Two ambulances arrived on the scene from Clarksdale; one from the black hospital, summoned by Mr. Broughton, the other from the white hospital, acting on a report from the truck driver, who had not seen the accident victims.
Bessie Smith was taken to Clarksdale's G. T. Thomas Afro-American Hospital, where her right arm was amputated. She died that morning without regaining consciousness. After Smith's death, an often repeated but now discredited story emerged about the circumstances; namely, that she had died as a result of having been refused admission to a "whites only" hospital in Clarksdale. Jazz writer/producer John Hammond gave this account in an article in the November 1937 issue of Down Beat magazine. The circumstances of Smith's death and the rumor promoted by Hammond formed the basis for Edward Albee's 1959 one-act play The Death of Bessie Smith.[15]
"The Bessie Smith ambulance would not have gone to a white hospital, you can forget that." Dr. Smith told Albertson. "Down in the Deep South cotton country, no ambulance driver, or white driver, would even have thought of putting a colored person off in a hospital for white folks."[16]

Smith's death certificate
Smith's funeral was held in Philadelphia a little over a week later on October 4, 1937. Her body was originally laid out at Upshur's funeral home. As word of her death spread through Philadelphia's black community, the body had to be moved to the O.V. Catto Elks Lodge to accommodate the estimated 10,000 mourners who filed past her coffin on Sunday, October 3.[17] Contemporary newspapers reported that her funeral was attended by about seven thousand people. Far fewer mourners attended the burial at Mount Lawn Cemetery, in nearby Sharon Hill. Gee thwarted all efforts to purchase a stone for his estranged wife, once or twice pocketing money raised for that purpose.[18]
The grave remained unmarked until August 7, 1970, when a tombstone—paid for by singer Janis Joplin and Juanita Green, who as a child had done housework for Smith—was erected.[19]
Dory Previn wrote a song of Janis Joplin and the tombstone called "Stone for Bessie Smith" on her album Mythical Kings and Iguanas.
The Afro-American Hospital, now the Riverside Hotel in Clarksdale, was the site of the dedication of the fourth historic marker on the Mississippi Blues Trail.[20]



Louis Armstrong

Future Shorts presents Music Matters - Louis Armstrong, 1:33

Louis Armstrong gave the world songs full of hope.

http://whymusicmatters.org/
Music Matters is a collective of people across the music industry, including artists, retailers, songwriters, labels and managers, formed to remind listeners of the significance and value of music.

Words from the filmmaker:
"Music has been my closest ally for as long as I can remember. When none of my friends cared to hear about my messy prolonged break ups any more, Jeff Buckley still listened. More importantly he still spoke to me, even though he was dead. Similarly, Louis Armstrong and I are best friends now despite the fact that neither of us was ever alive at the same time. Thanks to his music he means more to me than most of my 'friends' on Facebook. I feel I know more about his history than that of my own family and the way he blows that horn makes me feel as though he understands me better than I understand myself.

I felt that these sentiments were perhaps a bit much for the purposes of my animated film. Instead I focused on Louis' essence as conveyed through his own words. The text in my short film is taken from Louis introduction 'What A Wonderful World' for a live recording of the song."
https://youtu.be/E8HpLq3BVtc


Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong restored.jpg
Louis Armstrong's stage personality matched his cornet and trumpet playing.
Background information
Born August 4, 1901
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Died July 6, 1971 (aged 69)
Corona, Queens, New York City, U.S.
Genres Dixieland, jazz, swing, traditional pop, scat
Occupation(s) Musician
Instruments Trumpet, cornet, vocals
Years active c. 1914–1971
Associated acts Joe "King" Oliver, Ella Fitzgerald, Kid Ory
Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971),[1] nicknamed Satchmo[2] or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and an influential figure in jazz music.
Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. With his instantly recognizable gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes. He was also skilled at scat singing (vocalizing using sounds and syllables instead of actual lyrics).
Renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice almost as much as for his trumpet-playing, Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz music, and by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was widely regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first truly popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", whose skin color was secondary to his music in an America that was severely racially divided. He rarely publicly politicized his race, often to the dismay of fellow African-Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation during the Little Rock Crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him socially acceptable access to the upper echelons of American society that were highly restricted for black men.

Early life


Handcolored etching Louis Armstrong by Adi Holzer 2002
Armstrong often stated that he was born on July 4, 1900,[3][4] a date that has been noted in many biographies. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date of August 4, 1901 was discovered by researcher Tad Jones through the examination of baptismal records.[5] Armstrong was born into a very poor family in New Orleans, Louisiana, the grandson of slaves. He spent his youth in poverty, in a rough neighborhood, known as “the Battlefield”, which was part of the Storyville legal prostitution district. His father, William Armstrong (1881–1922), abandoned the family when Louis was an infant and took up with another woman. His mother, Mary "Mayann" Albert (1886–1927), then left Louis and his younger sister, Beatrice Armstrong Collins (1903–1987), in the care of his grandmother, Josephine Armstrong, and at times, his Uncle Isaac. At five, he moved back to live with his mother and her relatives, and saw his father only in parades. He attended the Fisk School for Boys, where he likely had early exposure to music. He brought in some money as a paperboy and also by finding discarded food and selling it to restaurants, but it was not enough to keep his mother from prostitution. He hung out in dance halls close to home, where he observed everything from licentious dancing to the quadrille. For extra money he also hauled coal to Storyville, the famed red-light district, and listened to the bands playing in the brothels and dance halls, especially Pete Lala's where Joe "King" Oliver performed and other famous musicians would drop in to jam.
After dropping out of the Fisk School at age eleven, Armstrong joined a quartet of boys who sang in the streets for money. But he also started to get into trouble. Cornet player Bunk Johnson said he taught Armstrong (then 11) to play by ear at Dago Tony's Tonk in New Orleans,[6] although in his later years Armstrong gave the credit to Oliver. Armstrong hardly looked back at his youth as the worst of times but instead drew inspiration from it, “Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for.”[7]
He also worked for a Lithuanian-Jewish immigrant family, the Karnofskys, who had a junk hauling business and gave him odd jobs. They took him in and treated him as almost a family member, knowing he lived without a father, and would feed and nurture him.[8] He later wrote a memoir of his relationship with the Karnofskys titled, Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La., the Year of 1907. In it he describes his discovery that this family was also subject to discrimination by "other white folks' nationalities who felt that they were better than the Jewish race... I was only seven years old but I could easily see the ungodly treatment that the White Folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."[9] Armstrong wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination."[10] The influence of Karnofsky is remembered in New Orleans by the Karnofsky Project, a non-profit organization dedicated to accepting donated musical instruments to "put them into the hands of an eager child who could not otherwise take part in a wonderful learning experience."[11]

Armstrong with his first trumpet instructor, Peter Davis, in 1965
Armstrong developed his cornet playing skills by playing in the band of the New Orleans Home for Colored Waifs, where he had been sent multiple times for general delinquency, most notably for a long term after firing his stepfather's pistol into the air at a New Year's Eve celebration, as police records confirm. Professor Peter Davis (who frequently appeared at the Home at the request of its administrator, Captain Joseph Jones)[12] instilled discipline in and provided musical training to the otherwise self-taught Armstrong. Eventually, Davis made Armstrong the band leader. The Home band played around New Orleans and the thirteen-year-old Louis began to draw attention by his cornet playing, starting him on a musical career.[13] At fourteen he was released from the Home, living again with his father and new stepmother and then back with his mother and also back to the streets and their temptations. Armstrong got his first dance hall job at Henry Ponce’s where Black Benny became his protector and guide. He hauled coal by day and played his cornet at night.
He played in the city's frequent brass band parades and listened to older musicians every chance he got, learning from Bunk Johnson, Buddy Petit, Kid Ory, and above all, Joe "King" Oliver, who acted as a mentor and father figure to the young musician. Later, he played in the brass bands and riverboats of New Orleans, and began traveling with the well-regarded band of Fate Marable, which toured on a steamboat up and down the Mississippi River. He described his time with Marable as "going to the University," since it gave him a much wider experience working with written arrangements.
In 1919, Joe Oliver decided to go north and resigned his position in Kid Ory's band; Armstrong replaced him. He also became second trumpet for the Tuxedo Brass Band, a society band.[14]

Career


“Heebie Jeebies” by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five

"Muggles"(1938 reissue pressing)
"Heebie Jeebies," 2:57
https://youtu.be/0EL7XyME-k8
"Muggles," 2:52
https://youtu.be/qY6Yo6lE-Jg
"Skokiaan," 4:55

https://youtu.be/6YTS9jFB084

"Mack the Knife, 3:28
https://youtu.be/6YTS9jFB084
Through all his riverboat experience Armstrong’s musicianship began to mature and expand. At twenty, he could read music and he started to be featured in extended trumpet solos, one of the first jazzmen to do this, injecting his own personality and style into his solo turns. He had learned how to create a unique sound and also started using singing and patter in his performances.[15] In 1922, Armstrong joined the exodus to Chicago, where he had been invited by his mentor, Joe "King" Oliver, to join his Creole Jazz Band and where he could make a sufficient income so that he no longer needed to supplement his music with day labor jobs. It was a boom time in Chicago and though race relations were poor, the “Windy City” was teeming with jobs for black people, who were making good wages in factories and had plenty to spend on entertainment.
Oliver's band was the best and most influential hot jazz band in Chicago in the early 1920s, at a time when Chicago was the center of the jazz universe. Armstrong lived luxuriously in Chicago, in his own apartment with his own private bath (his first). Excited as he was to be in Chicago, he began his career-long pastime of writing nostalgic letters to friends in New Orleans. As Armstrong’s reputation grew, he was challenged to “cutting contests” by hornmen trying to displace the new phenom, who could blow two hundred high C’s in a row.[16] Armstrong made his first recordings on the Gennett and Okeh labels (jazz records were starting to boom across the country), including taking some solos and breaks, while playing second cornet in Oliver's band in 1923. At this time, he met Hoagy Carmichael (with whom he would collaborate later) who was introduced by friend Bix Beiderbecke, who now had his own Chicago band.
Armstrong enjoyed working with Oliver, but Louis' second wife, pianist Lil Hardin Armstrong, urged him to seek more prominent billing and develop his newer style away from the influence of Oliver. Armstrong took the advice of his wife and left Oliver's band. For a year Armstrong played in Fletcher Henderson's band in New York on many recordings. After playing in New York, Armstrong returned to Chicago, playing in large orchestras; there he created his most important early recordings.[17] Lil had her husband play classical music in church concerts to broaden his skill and improve his solo play and she prodded him into wearing more stylish attire to make him look sharp and to better offset his growing girth. Lil’s influence eventually undermined Armstrong’s relationship with his mentor, especially concerning his salary and additional moneys that Oliver held back from Armstrong and other band members. Armstrong and Oliver parted amicably in 1924. Shortly afterward, Armstrong received an invitation to go to New York City to play with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra, the top African-American band of the day. Armstrong switched to the trumpet to blend in better with the other musicians in his section. His influence upon Henderson's tenor sax soloist, Coleman Hawkins, can be judged by listening to the records made by the band during this period.
Armstrong quickly adapted to the more tightly controlled style of Henderson, playing trumpet and even experimenting with the trombone and the other members quickly took up Armstrong’s emotional, expressive pulse. Soon his act included singing and telling tales of New Orleans characters, especially preachers.[18] The Henderson Orchestra was playing in the best venues for white-only patrons, including the famed Roseland Ballroom, featuring the classy arrangements of Don Redman. Duke Ellington’s orchestra would go to Roseland to catch Armstrong’s performances and young hornmen around town tried in vain to outplay him, splitting their lips in their attempts.
During this time, Armstrong made many recordings on the side, arranged by an old friend from New Orleans, pianist Clarence Williams; these included small jazz band sides with the Williams Blue Five (some of the best pairing Armstrong with one of Armstrong's few rivals in fiery technique and ideas, Sidney Bechet) and a series of accompaniments with blues singers, including Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and Alberta Hunter.
Armstrong returned to Chicago in 1925 due mostly to the urging of his wife, who wanted to pump up Armstrong’s career and income. He was content in New York but later would concede that she was right and that the Henderson Orchestra was limiting his artistic growth. In publicity, much to his chagrin, she billed him as “the World’s Greatest Trumpet Player”. At first, he was actually a member of the Lil Hardin Armstrong Band and working for his wife.[19] He began recording under his own name for Okeh with his famous Hot Five and Hot Seven groups, producing hits such as "Potato Head Blues", "Muggles", (a reference to marijuana, for which Armstrong had a lifelong fondness), and "West End Blues", the music of which set the standard and the agenda for jazz for many years to come.
The group included Kid Ory (trombone), Johnny Dodds (clarinet), Johnny St. Cyr (banjo), wife Lil on piano, and usually no drummer. Armstrong’s bandleading style was easygoing, as St. Cyr noted, "One felt so relaxed working with him, and he was very broad-minded . . . always did his best to feature each individual."[20] His recordings soon after with pianist Earl "Fatha" Hines (most famously their 1928 Weatherbird duet) and Armstrong's trumpet introduction to "West End Blues" remain some of the most famous and influential improvisations in jazz history. Armstrong was now free to develop his personal style as he wished, which included a heavy dose of effervescent jive, such as "whip that thing, Miss Lil" and "Mr. Johnny Dodds, Aw, do that clarinet, boy!"[21]
Armstrong also played with Erskine Tate’s Little Symphony, actually a quintet, which played mostly at the Vendome Theatre. They furnished music for silent movies and live shows, including jazz versions of classical music, such as "Madame Butterfly," which gave Armstrong experience with longer forms of music and with hosting before a large audience. He began to scat sing (improvised vocal jazz using nonsensical words) and was among the first to record it, on "Heebie Jeebies" in 1926. The recording was so popular that the group became the most famous jazz band in the United States, even though they had not performed live to any great extent. Young musicians across the country, black or white, were turned on by Armstrong’s new type of jazz.[22]

With Jack Teagarden (left) and Barney Bigard (right), Armstrong plays the trumpet in Helsinki, Finland, October 1949
After separating from Lil, Armstrong started to play at the Sunset Café for Al Capone's associate Joe Glaser in the Carroll Dickerson Orchestra, with Earl Hines on piano, which was soon renamed Louis Armstrong and his Stompers,[23] though Hines was the music director and Glaser managed the orchestra. Hines and Armstrong became fast friends and successful collaborators.[24]
Armstrong returned to New York, in 1929, where he played in the pit orchestra of the successful musical Hot Chocolate, an all-black revue written by Andy Razaf and pianist/composer Fats Waller. He also made a cameo appearance as a vocalist, regularly stealing the show with his rendition of "Ain't Misbehavin'", his version of the song becoming his biggest selling record to date.[25]
Armstrong started to work at Connie's Inn in Harlem, chief rival to the Cotton Club, a venue for elaborately staged floor shows,[26] and a front for gangster Dutch Schultz. Armstrong also had considerable success with vocal recordings, including versions of famous songs composed by his old friend Hoagy Carmichael. His 1930s recordings took full advantage of the new RCA ribbon microphone, introduced in 1931, which imparted a characteristic warmth to vocals and immediately became an intrinsic part of the 'crooning' sound of artists like Bing Crosby. Armstrong's famous interpretation of Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust" became one of the most successful versions of this song ever recorded, showcasing Armstrong's unique vocal sound and style and his innovative approach to singing songs that had already become standards.
Armstrong's radical re-working of Sidney Arodin and Carmichael's "Lazy River" (recorded in 1931) encapsulated many features of his groundbreaking approach to melody and phrasing. The song begins with a brief trumpet solo, then the main melody is stated by sobbing horns, memorably punctuated by Armstrong's growling interjections at the end of each bar: "Yeah! ..."Uh-huh" ..."Sure" ... "Way down, way down." In the first verse, he ignores the notated melody entirely and sings as if playing a trumpet solo, pitching most of the first line on a single note and using strongly syncopated phrasing. In the second stanza he breaks into an almost fully improvised melody, which then evolves into a classic passage of Armstrong "scat singing".

Louis Armstrong in 1953
As with his trumpet playing, Armstrong's vocal innovations served as a foundation stone for the art of jazz vocal interpretation. The uniquely gritty coloration of his voice became a musical archetype that was much imitated and endlessly impersonated. His scat singing style was enriched by his matchless experience as a trumpet soloist. His resonant, velvety lower-register tone and bubbling cadences on sides such as "Lazy River" exerted a huge influence on younger white singers such as Bing Crosby.
The Great Depression of the early 1930s was especially hard on the jazz scene. The Cotton Club closed in 1936 after a long downward spiral, and many musicians stopped playing altogether as club dates evaporated. Bix Beiderbecke died and Fletcher Henderson’s band broke up. King Oliver made a few records but otherwise struggled. Sidney Bechet became a tailor and Kid Ory returned to New Orleans and raised chickens.[27]
Armstrong moved to Los Angeles in 1930 to seek new opportunities. He played at the New Cotton Club in Los Angeles with Lionel Hampton on drums. The band drew the Hollywood crowd, which could still afford a lavish night life, while radio broadcasts from the club connected with younger audiences at home. Bing Crosby and many other celebrities were regulars at the club. In 1931, Armstrong appeared in his first movie, Ex-Flame. Armstrong was convicted of marijuana possession but received a suspended sentence.[28] He returned to Chicago in late 1931 and played in bands more in the Guy Lombardo vein and he recorded more standards. When the mob insisted that he get out of town,[29] Armstrong visited New Orleans, got a hero’s welcome and saw old friends. He sponsored a local baseball team known as “Armstrong’s Secret Nine” and had a cigar named after him.[30] But soon he was on the road again and after a tour across the country shadowed by the mob, Armstrong decided to go to Europe to escape.
After returning to the United States, he undertook several exhausting tours. His agent Johnny Collins’ erratic behavior and his own spending ways left Armstrong short of cash. Breach of contract violations plagued him. Finally, he hired Joe Glaser as his new manager, a tough mob-connected wheeler-dealer, who began to straighten out his legal mess, his mob troubles, and his debts. Armstrong also began to experience problems with his fingers and lips, which were aggravated by his unorthodox playing style. As a result he branched out, developing his vocal style and making his first theatrical appearances. He appeared in movies again, including Crosby's 1936 hit Pennies from Heaven. In 1937, Armstrong substituted for Rudy Vallee on the CBS radio network and became the first African American to host a sponsored, national broadcast.[31]
After spending many years on the road, Armstrong settled permanently in Queens, New York in 1943 in contentment with his fourth wife, Lucille. Although subject to the vicissitudes of Tin Pan Alley and the gangster-ridden music business, as well as anti-black prejudice, he continued to develop his playing. He recorded Hoagy Carmichael's Rockin' Chair for Okeh Records.
During the subsequent thirty years, Armstrong played more than three hundred gigs a year. Bookings for big bands tapered off during the 1940s due to changes in public tastes: ballrooms closed, and there was competition from television and from other types of music becoming more popular than big band music. It became impossible under such circumstances to support and finance a 16-piece touring band.

The All Stars


Louis Armstrong in 1953
Following a highly successful small-group jazz concert at New York Town Hall on May 17, 1947, featuring Armstrong with trombonist/singer Jack Teagarden, Armstrong's manager Joe Glaser dissolved the Armstrong big band on August 13, 1947 and established a six-piece small group featuring Armstrong with (initially) Teagarden, Earl Hines and other top swing and dixieland musicians, most of them ex-big band leaders. The new group was announced at the opening of Billy Berg's Supper Club.
This group was called Louis Armstrong and his All Stars and included at various times Earl "Fatha" Hines, Barney Bigard, Edmond Hall, Jack Teagarden, Trummy Young, Arvell Shaw, Billy Kyle, Marty Napoleon, Big Sid Catlett, Cozy Cole, Tyree Glenn, Barrett Deems, Joe Darensbourg and the Filipino-American percussionist Danny Barcelona. During this period, Armstrong made many recordings and appeared in over thirty films. He was the first jazz musician to appear on the cover of Time Magazine on February 21, 1949.)
In 1948, he participated in the Nice Jazz Festival where Suzy Delair sings for the first time in public C'est si bon by Henri Betti and André Hornez. Love this song, Armstrong asked the editor if he can make a recording in America what the publisher allows it. Armstrong recorded the first American version of C'est si bon June 26, 1950 in New York with English lyrics by Jerry Seelen. On its release, the disc becomes a worldwide success.
In 1964, he recorded his biggest-selling record, "Hello, Dolly!", a song by Jerry Herman, originally sung by Carol Channing. Armstrong's cover of the song, which lasted 22 weeks on the Hot 100, longer than any other record that year, went to No. 1 on the pop chart, making Armstrong (age 62 years, 9 months, 5 days) the oldest person to date to ever accomplish that feat. In the process, Armstrong dislodged The Beatles from the No. 1 position they had occupied for 14 consecutive weeks with three different songs.[32]
Armstrong kept up his busy tour schedule until a few years before his death in 1971. In his later years he would sometimes play some of his numerous gigs by rote, but other times would enliven the most mundane gig with his vigorous playing, often to the astonishment of his band. He also toured Africa, Europe, and Asia under sponsorship of the US State Department with great success, earning the nickname "Ambassador Satch " and inspiring Dave Brubeck to compose his jazz musical The Real Ambassadors [33]
While failing health restricted his schedule in his last years, within those limitations he continued playing until the day he died.

Death

Armstrong died of a heart attack in his sleep on July 6, 1971, a month before his 70th birthday,[34] 11 months after playing a famous show at the Waldorf-Astoria's Empire Room.[35] He was residing in Corona, Queens, New York City, at the time of his death.[36] He was interred in Flushing Cemetery, Flushing, in Queens, New York City.[37] His honorary pallbearers included Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Pearl Bailey, Count Basie, Harry James, Frank Sinatra, Ed Sullivan, Earl Wilson, Alan King, Johnny Carson and David Frost.[38] Peggy Lee sang The Lord's Prayer at the services while Al Hibbler sang "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen" and Fred Robbins, a long-time friend, gave the eulogy.[39]

Personal life

Pronunciation of name

The Louis Armstrong House Museum website states:
Judging from home recorded tapes now in our Museum Collections, Louis pronounced his own name as “Lewis.” On his 1964 record “Hello, Dolly,” he sings, “This is Lewis, Dolly” but in 1933 he made a record called “Laughin’ Louie.” Many broadcast announcers, fans, and acquaintances called him “Louie” and in a videotaped interview from 1983 Lucille Armstrong calls her late husband “Louie” as well. Musicians and close friends usually called him “Pops.”[40]
In a memoir written for Robert Goffin between 1943 and 1944, Armstrong states, "All white folks call me Louie," suggesting that he himself did not.[41] That said, Armstrong was registered as "Lewie" for the 1920 U.S. Census. On various live records he's called "Louie" on stage, such as on the 1952 "Can Anyone Explain?" from the live album In Scandinavia vol.1. It should also be noted that "Lewie" is the French pronunciation of "Louis" and is commonly used in Louisiana.

Family

On March 19, 1918, Louis married Daisy Parker, a prostitute from Gretna, Louisiana.[42] They adopted a 3-year-old boy, Clarence Armstrong, whose mother, Louis' cousin Flora, died soon after giving birth. Clarence Armstrong was mentally disabled (the result of a head injury at an early age) and Louis would spend the rest of his life taking care of him.[43] Louis' marriage to Parker failed quickly and they separated in 1923.

Armstrong with Lucille Wilson (c. 1960s)
On February 4, 1924, Louis married Lil Hardin Armstrong, who was Oliver's pianist and had also divorced her first spouse only a few years earlier. His second wife was instrumental in developing his career, but in the late 1920s Hardin and Louis grew apart. They separated in 1931 and divorced in 1938, after which Louis married longtime girlfriend Alpha Smith.[44] His marriage to his third wife lasted four years, and they divorced in 1942. Louis then married Lucille Wilson, a singer at the Cotton Club, to whom he was married until his death in 1971.[45]
Armstrong's marriages never produced any offspring, though he loved children.[46] However, in December 2012, 57-year-old Sharon Preston-Folta claimed to be his daughter, from a 1950s affair between Armstrong and Lucille "Sweets" Preston, a dancer at the Cotton Club.[47] In a 1955 letter to his manager, Joe Glaser, Armstrong affirmed his belief that Preston's newborn baby was his daughter, and ordered Glaser to pay a monthly allowance of $400 to mother and child.[48]

Personality

Armstrong was noted for his colorful and charismatic personality. His own biography vexed some biographers and historians, as he had a habit of telling tales, particularly of his early childhood, when he was less scrutinized, and his embellishments of his history often lack consistency.
He was not only an entertainer, Armstrong was also a leading personality of the day. He was beloved by an American public that gave even the greatest African American performers little access beyond their public celebrity, and he was able to live a private life of access and privilege accorded to few other African Americans during that era.
He generally remained politically neutral, which at times alienated him from members of the black community who looked to him to use his prominence with white America to become more of an outspoken figure during the Civil Rights Era of U.S. history.

Nicknames


Autograph of Armstrong on the muretto of Alassio
The nicknames Satchmo and Satch are short for Satchelmouth. Like many things in Armstrong's life, which was filled with colorful stories both real and imagined, many of his own telling, the nickname has many possible origins.
The most common tale that biographers tell is the story of Armstrong as a young boy dancing for pennies in the streets of New Orleans, who would scoop up the coins off of the streets and stick them into his mouth to avoid having the bigger children steal them from him. Someone dubbed him "satchel mouth" for his mouth acting as a satchel. Another tale is that because of his large mouth, he was nicknamed "satchel mouth" which became shortened to Satchmo.
Early on he was also known as Dipper, short for Dippermouth, a reference to the piece Dippermouth Blues.[49] and something of a riff on his unusual embouchure.
The nickname Pops came from Armstrong's own tendency to forget people's names and simply call them "pops" instead. The nickname was soon turned on Armstrong himself. It was used as the title of a 2010 biography of Armstrong by Terry Teachout.They also called him the king of jazz.

Armstrong's autograph from the 1960s

Armstrong and race

Armstrong was largely accepted into white society, both on stage and off, a privilege reserved for very few African-American public figures, and usually those of either exceptional talent or fair skin tone. As his fame grew, so did his access to the finer things in life usually denied to a black man, even a famous one. His renown was such that he dined in the best restaurants and stayed in hotels usually exclusively for whites.[50]
It was a power and privilege that he enjoyed, although he was very careful not to flaunt it with fellow performers of color, and privately, he shared what access that he could with friends and fellow musicians.
That still did not prevent members of the African-American community, particularly in the late 1950s to the early 1970s, from calling him an Uncle Tom, a black-on-black racial epithet for someone who kowtowed to white society at the expense of their own racial identity. Billie Holiday countered, however, "Of course Pops toms, but he toms from the heart."[51]
He was criticized for accepting the title of "King of The Zulus" for Mardi Gras in 1949. In the New Orleans African-American community it is an honored role as the head of leading black Carnival Krewe, but bewildering or offensive to outsiders with their traditional costume of grass-skirts and blackface makeup satirizing southern white attitudes.
Some musicians criticized Armstrong for playing in front of segregated audiences, and for not taking a strong enough stand in the civil rights movement.[52]
The few exceptions made it more effective when he did speak out. Armstrong's criticism of President Eisenhower, calling him "two-faced" and "gutless" because of his inaction during the conflict over school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957 made national news.
As a protest, Armstrong canceled a planned tour of the Soviet Union on behalf of the State Department saying "The way they're treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell" and that he could not represent his government abroad when it was in conflict with its own people.[53] Six days after Armstrong's comments, Eisenhower ordered Federal troops to Little Rock to escort students into the school.[54]
The FBI kept a file on Armstrong, for his outspokenness about integration.[55]

Religion

When asked about his religion, Armstrong would answer that he was raised a Baptist, always wore a Star of David, and was friends with the Pope.[56] Armstrong wore the Star of David in honor of the Karnofsky family, who took him in as a child and lent him the money to buy his first cornet. Louis Armstrong was, in fact, baptized as a Catholic at the Sacred Heart of Jesus Church in New Orleans,[56] and he met popes Pius XII and Paul VI, though there is no evidence that he considered himself Catholic. Armstrong seems to have been tolerant towards various religions, but also found humor in them.

Personal habits

Purging

Armstrong was also greatly concerned with his health. He made frequent use of laxatives as a means of controlling his weight, a practice he advocated both to personal acquaintances and in the diet plans he published under the title Lose Weight the Satchmo Way. Armstrong's laxative of preference in his younger days was Pluto Water, but he then became an enthusiastic convert when he discovered the herbal remedy Swiss Kriss. He would extol its virtues to anyone who would listen and pass out packets to everyone he encountered, including members of the British Royal Family. (Armstrong also appeared in humorous, albeit risqué, cards that he had printed to send out to friends; the cards bore a picture of him sitting on a toilet—as viewed through a keyhole—with the slogan "Satch says, 'Leave it all behind ya!'")[57] The cards have sometimes been incorrectly described as ads for Swiss Kriss.[58]
In a live recording of "Baby, It's Cold Outside" with Velma Middleton, he changes the lyric from "Put another record on while I pour" to "Take some Swiss Kriss while I pour."[59]

Love of food

The concern with his health and weight was balanced by his love of food, reflected in such songs as "Cheesecake", "Cornet Chop Suey,"[60] though "Struttin’ with Some Barbecue" was written about a fine-looking companion, not about food.[61] He kept a strong connection throughout his life to the cooking of New Orleans, always signing his letters, "Red beans and ricely yours..."[62]

Writings

Armstrong’s gregariousness extended to writing. On the road, he wrote constantly, sharing favorite themes of his life with correspondents around the world. He avidly typed or wrote on whatever stationery was at hand, recording instant takes on music, sex, food, childhood memories, his heavy "medicinal" marijuana use—and even his bowel movements, which he gleefully described.[63] He had a fondness for lewd jokes and dirty limericks as well.

Social organizations

Louis Armstrong was not, as is often claimed, a Freemason. Although he is usually listed as being a member of Montgomery Lodge No. 18 (Prince Hall) in New York, no such lodge has ever existed. Armstrong states in his autobiography, however, that he was a member of the Knights of Pythias, which is not a Masonic group.[64]

Music

Horn playing and early jazz


Selmer trumpet, given as a gift by King George V of the United Kingdom to Louis Armstrong in 1933
In his early years, Armstrong was best known for his virtuosity with the cornet and trumpet. The greatest trumpet playing of his early years can be heard on his Hot Five and Hot Seven records, as well as the Red Onion Jazz Babies. Armstrong's improvisations were daring and sophisticated for the time, while often subtle and melodic.
He often essentially re-composed pop-tunes he played, making them more interesting. Armstrong's playing is filled with original melodies, creative leaps, and subtle relaxed or driving rhythms. Armstrong's playing technique, honed by constant practice, extended the range, tone and capabilities of the trumpet. In these records, Armstrong almost single-handedly created the role of the jazz soloist, taking what was essentially a collective folk music and turning it into an art form with tremendous possibilities for individual expression.
Armstrong's work in the 1920s shows him playing at the outer limits of his abilities. The Hot Five records, especially, often have minor flubs and missed notes, which do little to detract from listening enjoyment since the energy of the spontaneous performance comes through. By the mid-1930s, Armstrong achieved a smooth assurance, knowing exactly what he could do and carrying out his ideas to perfection.
He was one of the first artists to use recordings of his performances to improve himself. Armstrong was an avid audiophile. He had a large collection of recordings, including reel-to-reel tapes, which he took on the road with him in a trunk during his later career. He enjoyed listening to his own recordings, and comparing his performances musically. In the den of his home, he had the latest audio equipment and would sometimes rehearse and record along with his older recordings or the radio.[65]

Vocal popularity

As his music progressed and popularity grew, his singing also became very important. Armstrong was not the first to record scat singing, but he was masterful at it and helped popularize it. He had a hit with his playing and scat singing on "Heebie Jeebies" when, according to some legends, the sheet music fell on the floor and he simply started singing nonsense syllables. Armstrong stated in his memoirs that this actually occurred. He also sang out "I done forgot the words" in the middle of recording "I'm A Ding Dong Daddy From Dumas."
Such records were hits and scat singing became a major part of his performances. Long before this, however, Armstrong was playing around with his vocals, shortening and lengthening phrases, interjecting improvisations, using his voice as creatively as his trumpet.

Colleagues and followers

During his long career he played and sang with some of the most important instrumentalists and vocalists of the time; among them were Bing Crosby, Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, the singing brakeman Jimmie Rodgers, Bessie Smith and perhaps most famously Ella Fitzgerald.
His influence upon Bing Crosby is particularly important with regard to the subsequent development of popular music: Crosby admired and copied Armstrong, as is evident on many of his early recordings, notably "Just One More Chance" (1931). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz describes Crosby's debt to Armstrong in precise detail, although it does not acknowledge Armstrong by name:
Crosby... was important in introducing into the mainstream of popular singing an Afro-American concept of song as a lyrical extension of speech... His techniques—easing the weight of the breath on the vocal cords, passing into a head voice at a low register, using forward production to aid distinct enunciation, singing on consonants (a practice of black singers), and making discreet use of appoggiaturas, mordents, and slurs to emphasize the text—were emulated by nearly all later popular singers.
Armstrong recorded two albums with Ella Fitzgerald: Ella and Louis, and Ella and Louis Again for Verve Records, with the sessions featuring the backing musicianship of the Oscar Peterson Trio and drummers Buddy Rich (on the first album), and Louie Bellson (on the second). Norman Granz then had the vision for Ella and Louis to record Porgy and Bess which is the most famous and critically acclaimed version of the Gerswhin brothers' masterpiece.
His recordings for Columbia Records, Louis Armstrong Plays W.C. Handy (1954) and Satch Plays Fats (all Fats Waller tunes) (1955) were both being considered masterpieces, as well as moderately well selling. In 1961 the All Stars participated in two albums - "The Great Summit" and "The Great Reunion" (now together as a single disc) with Duke Ellington. The albums feature many of Ellington's most famous compositions (as well as two exclusive cuts) with Duke sitting in on piano. His participation in Dave Brubeck's high-concept jazz musical The Real Ambassadors (1963) was critically acclaimed, and features "Summer Song," one of Armstrong's most popular vocal efforts.

Louis Armstrong in 1966
In 1964 his recording of the song "Hello Dolly" went to number one. An album of the same title was quickly created around the song, and also shot to number one (knocking The Beatles off the top of the chart). The album sold very well for the rest of the year, quickly going "Gold" (500,000). His performance of "Hello Dolly" won for best male pop vocal performance at the 1964 Grammy Awards.

Hits and later career

Armstrong had many hit records including "Stardust", "What a Wonderful World", "When The Saints Go Marching In", "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Ain't Misbehavin'", "You Rascal You", and "Stompin' at the Savoy". "We Have All the Time in the World" was featured on the soundtrack of the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service, and enjoyed renewed popularity in the UK in 1994 when it featured on a Guinness advert. It reached number 3 in the charts on being re-released.
In 1964, Armstrong knocked The Beatles off the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart with "Hello, Dolly!", which gave the 63-year-old performer a U.S. record as the oldest artist to have a number one song. His 1964 song "Bout Time" was later featured in the film Bewitched.
Armstrong performed in Italy at the 1968 Sanremo Music Festival where he sang "Mi Va di Cantare"[66] alongside his friend, the Eritrean-born Italian singer Lara Saint Paul.[67] In February 1968, he also appeared with Lara Saint Paul on the Italian RAI television channel where he performed "Grassa e Bella," a track he sang in Italian for the Italian market and C.D.I. label.[68]
In 1968, Armstrong scored one last popular hit in the United Kingdom with "What a Wonderful World", which topped the British charts for a month; however, the single did not chart at all in America. The song gained greater currency in the popular consciousness when it was used in the 1987 movie Good Morning, Vietnam, its subsequent re-release topping many charts around the world. Armstrong even appeared on the October 28, 1970, Johnny Cash Show, where he sang Nat King Cole's hit "Rambling Rose" and joined Cash to re-create his performance backing Jimmie Rodgers on "Blue Yodel No. 9".

Stylistic range

Armstrong enjoyed many types of music, from blues to the arrangements of Guy Lombardo, to Latin American folksongs, to classical symphonies and opera. Armstrong incorporated influences from all these sources into his performances, sometimes to the bewilderment of fans who wanted him to stay in convenient narrow categories. Armstrong was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as an early influence. Some of his solos from the 1950s, such as the hard rocking version of "St. Louis Blues" from the WC Handy album, show that the influence went in both directions.

Literature, radio, films and TV

Armstrong appeared in more than a dozen Hollywood films, usually playing a band leader or musician. His most familiar role was as the bandleader cum narrator in the 1956 musical, High Society, in which he sang the title song and performed a duet with Bing Crosby on "Now You Has Jazz". In 1947, he played himself in the movie New Orleans opposite Billie Holiday, which chronicled the demise of the Storyville district and the ensuing exodus of musicians from New Orleans to Chicago.[69] In the 1959 film, The Five Pennies (the story of the cornetist Red Nichols), Armstrong played himself as well as singing and playing several classic numbers. With Danny Kaye Armstrong performed a duet of "When the Saints Go Marching In" during which Kaye impersonated Armstrong. Armstrong also had a part in the film alongside James Stewart in The Glenn Miller Story in which Glenn (played by Stewart) jammed with Armstrong and a few other noted musicians of the time.
He was the first African American to host a nationally broadcast radio show in the 1930s. In 1969, Armstrong had a cameo role in the film version of Hello, Dolly! as the bandleader, Louis, to which he sang the title song with actress Barbra Streisand. His solo recording of "Hello, Dolly!" is one of his most recognizable performances.

Armstrong played a bandleader in the television production "The Lord Don't Play Favorites" on Producers' Showcase in 1956
He was heard on such radio programs as The Story of Swing (1937) and This Is Jazz (1947), and he also made countless television appearances, especially in the 1950s and 1960s, including appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
Many of Armstrong's recordings remain popular. More than four decades since his death, a larger number of his recordings from all periods of his career are more widely available than at any time during his lifetime. His songs are broadcast and listened to every day throughout the world, and are honored in various movies, TV series, commercials, and even anime and video games. "A Kiss to Build a Dream On" was included in the video game Fallout 2, accompanying the intro cinematic. It was also used in the 1993 film Sleepless in Seattle and the 2005 film Lord of War. "Melancholy Blues," performed by Armstrong and his Hot Seven was included on the Voyager Golden Record sent into outer space to represent one of the greatest achievements of humanity. Most familiar to modern listeners is his ubiquitous rendition of "What a Wonderful World". In 2008, Armstrong's recording of Edith Piaf's famous "La Vie En Rose" was used in a scene of the popular Disney/Pixar film WALL-E. The song was also used in parts, especially the opening trumpets, in the French film Jeux d'enfants (Love Me If You Dare.)
Argentine writer Julio Cortázar, a self-described Armstrong admirer, asserted that a 1952 Louis Armstrong concert at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris played a significant role in inspiring him to create the fictional creatures called Cronopios that are the subject of a number of Cortázar's short stories. Cortázar once called Armstrong himself "Grandísimo Cronopio" (The Great Cronopio).
Armstrong appears as a minor fictionalized character in Harry Turtledove's Southern Victory Series. When he and his band escape from a Nazi-like Confederacy, they enhance the insipid mainstream music of the North. A young Armstrong also appears as a minor fictionalized character in Patrick Neate's 2001 novel Twelve Bar Blues, part of which is set in New Orleans, and which was a winner at that year's Whitbread Book Awards.
There is a pivotal scene in Stardust Memories (1980) in which Woody Allen is overwhelmed by a recording of Armstrong's "Stardust" and experiences a nostalgic epiphany.[70] The combination of the music and the perfect moment is the catalyst for much of the film's action, prompting the protagonist to fall in love with an ill-advised woman.[71]
Terry Teachout wrote a one-man play about Armstrong called Satchmo at the Waldorf that was premiered in 2011 in Orlando, Fla., and has since been produced by Shakespeare & Company, Long Wharf Theater, and the Wilma Theater. The production ran off Broadway in 2014.

Legacy


Louis Armstrong and Grace Kelly on the set of High Society, 1956
The influence of Armstrong on the development of jazz is virtually immeasurable. Yet, his irrepressible personality both as a performer, and as a public figure later in his career, was so strong that to some it sometimes overshadowed his contributions as a musician and singer.
As a virtuoso trumpet player, Armstrong had a unique tone and an extraordinary talent for melodic improvisation. Through his playing, the trumpet emerged as a solo instrument in jazz and is used widely today. He was a masterful accompanist and ensemble player in addition to his extraordinary skills as a soloist. With his innovations, he raised the bar musically for all who came after him.
Though Armstrong is widely recognized as a pioneer of scat singing, Ethel Waters precedes his scatting on record in the 1930s according to Gary Giddins and others.[77] Billie Holiday and Frank Sinatra are just two singers who were greatly indebted to him. Holiday said that she always wanted Bessie Smith's 'big' sound and Armstrong's feeling in her singing. Even special musicians like Duke Ellington have praised Armstrong through strong testimonials. Duke Ellington said, "If anybody was a master, it was Louis Armstrong." In 1950, Bing Crosby, the most successful vocalist of the first half of the 20th century, said, "He is the beginning and the end of music in America."
In the summer of 2001, in commemoration of the centennial of Armstrong's birth, New Orleans's main airport was renamed Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport.
In 2002, the Louis Armstrong's Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings (1925–1928) were preserved in the United States National Recording Registry, a registry of recordings selected yearly by the National Recording Preservation Board for preservation in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress.[78]
The US Open tennis tournament's former main stadium was named Louis Armstrong Stadium in honor of Armstrong who had lived a few blocks from the site.[79]
Today, there are many bands worldwide dedicated to preserving and honoring the music and style of Satchmo, including the Louis Armstrong Society located in New Orleans, Louisiana.

House

The house where Armstrong lived for almost 28 years was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1977 and is now a museum. The Louis Armstrong House Museum, at 34-56 107th Street (between 34th and 37th Avenues) in Corona, Queens, presents concerts and educational programs, operates as a historic house museum and makes materials in its archives of writings, books, recordings and memorabilia available to the public for research. The museum is operated by the City University of New York's Queens College, following the dictates of Lucille Armstrong's will. The museum opened to the public on October 15, 2003. A new visitors center is planned.[80]


Duke Ellington

American Hustle - Jeep's blues - Duke Ellington, 2:35

https://youtu.be/vSRdnxTFIoU


Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington - publicity.JPG
Ellington c. 1940s
Background information
Birth name Edward Kennedy Ellington
Born April 29, 1899
Washington, D.C., United States
Died May 24, 1974 (aged 75)
New York City, New York, United States
Genres Orchestral jazz, swing, big band
Occupation(s) Bandleader, pianist, composer
Instruments Piano
Years active 1914–1974
Website www .dukeellington .com
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist and bandleader of jazz orchestras. He led his orchestra from 1923 until his death, his career spanning over 50 years.[1]
Born in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s onward, and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. In the 1930s, his orchestra toured in Europe. Though widely considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a "liberating principle", and referred to his music as part of the more general category of "American Music", rather than to a musical genre such as "jazz".[2]
Some of the musicians who were members of Ellington's orchestra, such as saxophonist Johnny Hodges, are considered to be among the best players in jazz. Ellington melded them into the best-known orchestral unit in the history of jazz. Some members stayed with the orchestra for several decades. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington often composed specifically to feature the style and skills of his individual musicians, such as "Jeep's Blues" for Hodges, and "Concerto for Cootie" for trumpeter Cootie Williams, which later became "Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me" with Bob Russell's lyrics.
Often collaborating with others, Ellington wrote more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, with many of his extant works having become standards. Ellington also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, for example Juan Tizol's "Caravan", and "Perdido", which brought a Spanish tinge to big-band jazz.
After 1941, Ellington collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his "writing and arranging companion".[3] With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or "suites", as well as additional short pieces. Following an appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, Rhode Island, in July 1956, Ellington and his orchestra enjoyed a major career revival and embarked on world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era; performed in several films, scoring several; and composed stage musicals.
Due to his inventive use of the orchestra, or big band, and thanks to his eloquence and charisma, Ellington is generally considered to have elevated the perception of jazz to an art form on a par with other traditional musical genres. His reputation continued to rise after his death, and he was awarded a special Pulitzer Prize for music in 1999.[4]
Gunther Schuller wrote in 1989
Ellington composed incessantly to the very last days of his life. Music was indeed his mistress; it was his total life and his commitment to it was incomparable and unalterable. In jazz he was a giant among giants. And in twentieth century music, he may yet one day be recognized as one of the half-dozen greatest masters of our time.[5]

Early life

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was born on April 29, 1899, to James Edward Ellington and Daisy (Kennedy) Ellington in Washington, DC. Both his parents were pianists. Daisy primarily played parlor songs and J.E. preferred operatic arias. They lived with his maternal grandparents at 2129 Ida Place (now Ward Place), NW in the West End neighborhood of Washington, D.C.[6] Duke's father was born in Lincolnton, North Carolina, on April 15, 1879, and moved to Washington, D.C. in 1886 with his parents.[7] Daisy Kennedy was born in Washington, D.C. on January 4, 1879, the daughter of a former American slave .[6][8] James Ellington made blueprints for the United States Navy. When Ellington was a child, his family showed racial pride and support in their home, as did many other families. African Americans in D.C. worked to protect their children from the era's Jim Crow laws.[9]
At the age of seven, Ellington began taking piano lessons from Marietta Clinkscales. Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women to reinforce his manners and teach him to live elegantly. Ellington’s childhood friends noticed that "his casual, offhand manner, his easy grace, and his dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman",[10] and began calling him "Duke." Ellington credited his "chum" Edgar McEntree for the nickname. "I think he felt that in order for me to be eligible for his constant companionship, I should have a title. So he called me Duke."[11]
Though Ellington took piano lessons, he was more interested in baseball. "President Roosevelt (Teddy) would come by on his horse sometimes, and stop and watch us play", he recalled.[12] Ellington went to Armstrong Technical High School in Washington, D.C. He got his first job selling peanuts at Washington Senators baseball games.
In the summer of 1914, while working as a soda jerk at the Poodle Dog Café, Ellington wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" (also known as the "Poodle Dog Rag"). He created the piece by ear, as he had not yet learned to read and write music. "I would play the 'Soda Fountain Rag' as a one-step, two-step, waltz, tango, and fox trot", Ellington recalled. "Listeners never knew it was the same piece. I was established as having my own repertoire."[13] In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress (1973), Ellington wrote that he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that playing the piano was not his talent.
Ellington started sneaking into Frank Holiday's Poolroom at the age of fourteen. Hearing the poolroom pianists play ignited Ellington's love for the instrument, and he began to take his piano studies seriously. Among the many piano players he listened to were Doc Perry, Lester Dishman, Louis Brown, Turner Layton, Gertie Wells, Clarence Bowser, Sticky Mack, Blind Johnny, Cliff Jackson, Claude Hopkins, Phil Wurd, Caroline Thornton, Luckey Roberts, Eubie Blake, Joe Rochester, and Harvey Brooks.[14]
Ellington began listening to, watching, and imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D.C., but in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with his mother during the summer months.[13] Dunbar High School music teacher Henry Lee Grant gave him private lessons in harmony. With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver "Doc" Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, and improve his technique. Ellington was also inspired by his first encounters with stride pianists James P. Johnson and Luckey Roberts. Later in New York he took advice from Will Marion Cook, Fats Waller, and Sidney Bechet. Ellington started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and around Washington, D.C. His attachment to music was so strong that in 1916 he turned down an art scholarship to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. Three months before graduating he dropped out of Armstrong Manual Training School, where he was studying commercial art.[15]
Working as a freelance sign-painter from 1917, Ellington began assembling groups to play for dances. In 1919 he met drummer Sonny Greer from New Jersey, who encouraged Ellington's ambition to become a professional musician. Ellington built his music business through his day job: when a customer asked him to make a sign for a dance or party, he would ask if they had musical entertainment; if not, Ellington would offer to play for the occasion. He also had a messenger job with the U.S. Navy and State departments, where he made a wide range of contacts. Ellington moved out of his parents' home and bought his own as he became a successful pianist. At first, he played in other ensembles, and in late 1917 formed his first group, "The Duke's Serenaders" ("Colored Syncopators", his telephone directory advertising proclaimed).[15] He was also the group's booking agent. His first play date was at the True Reformer's Hall, where he took home 75 cents.[16]
Ellington played throughout the Washington, D.C. area and into Virginia for private society balls and embassy parties. The band included childhood friend Otto Hardwick, who started on string bass, then moved to C-melody sax and finally settled on alto saxophone; Arthur Whetsol on trumpet; Elmer Snowden on banjo; and Sonny Greer on drums. The band thrived, performing for both African-American and white audiences, a rarity in the segregated society of the time.[17]

Music career


"East St. Louis Toodle-Oo" (1927)

Early career

When his drummer Sonny Greer was invited to join the Wilber Sweatman Orchestra in New York City, Ellington made the fateful decision to leave behind his successful career in Washington, D.C., and move to Harlem, ultimately becoming part of the Harlem Renaissance. New dance crazes such as the Charleston emerged in Harlem, as well as African-American musical theater, including Eubie Blake's Shuffle Along. After the young musicians left the Sweatman Orchestra to strike out on their own, they found an emerging jazz scene that was highly competitive and hard to crack. They hustled pool by day and played whatever gigs they could find. The young band met stride pianist Willie "The Lion" Smith, who introduced them to the scene and gave them some money. They played at rent-house parties for income. After a few months, the young musicians returned to Washington, D.C., feeling discouraged.
In June 1923, a gig in Atlantic City, New Jersey, led to a play date at the prestigious Exclusive Club in Harlem. This was followed in September 1923 by a move to the Hollywood Club – 49th and Broadway – and a four-year engagement, which gave Ellington a solid artistic base. He was known to play the bugle at the end of each performance. The group was initially called Elmer Snowden and his Black Sox Orchestra and had seven members, including trumpeter James "Bubber" Miley. They renamed themselves "The Washingtonians". Snowden left the group in early 1924 and Ellington took over as bandleader. After a fire, the club was re-opened as the Club Kentucky (often referred to as the "Kentucky Club").
Ellington made eight records in 1924, receiving composing credit on three including "Choo Choo".[18] In 1925, Ellington contributed four songs to Chocolate Kiddies starring Lottie Gee and Adelaide Hall,[19] an all-African-American revue which introduced European audiences to African-American styles and performers. Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra grew to a group of ten players; they developed their own sound by displaying the non-traditional expression of Ellington’s arrangements, the street rhythms of Harlem, and the exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, high-squealing trumpets, and sultry saxophone blues licks of the band members. For a short time soprano saxophonist Sidney Bechet played with them, imparting his propulsive swing and superior musicianship to the young band members.

Cotton Club engagement

In October 1926, Ellington made a career-advancing agreement with agent-publisher Irving Mills,[20] giving Mills a 45% interest in Ellington's future.[21] Mills had an eye for new talent and early on published compositions by Hoagy Carmichael, Dorothy Fields, and Harold Arlen. After recording a handful of acoustic titles during 1924-1926, Ellington's signing with Mills allowed him to record prolifically, although sometimes he recorded different versions of the same tune. Mills often took a co-composer credit. From the beginning of their relationship, Mills arranged recording sessions on nearly every label including Brunswick, Victor, Columbia, OKeh, Pathê (and its Perfect label), the ARC/Plaza group of labels (Oriole, Domino, Jewel, Banner) and their dime-store labels (Cameo, Lincoln, Romeo), Hit of the Week, and Columbia's cheaper labels (Harmony, Diva, Velvet Tone, Clarion) labels which gave Ellington popular recognition. On OKeh, his records were usually issued as "The Harlem Footwarmers", while the Brunswick's were usually issued as The Jungle Band. "Whoopee Makers" and the "Ten Black Berries" were other pseudonyms.
In September 1927, King Oliver turned down a regular booking for his group as the house band at Harlem's Cotton Club;[22] the offer passed to Ellington after Jimmy McHugh suggested him and Mills arranged an audition.[23] Ellington had to increase from a six to eleven-piece group to meet the requirements of the Cotton Club's management for the audition,[24] and the engagement finally began on December 4.[25] With a weekly radio broadcast, the Cotton Club's exclusively white and wealthy clientele poured in nightly to see them. At the Cotton Club, Ellington's group performed all the music for the revues, which mixed comedy, dance numbers, vaudeville, burlesque, music, and illegal alcohol. The musical numbers were composed by Jimmy McHugh and the lyrics by Dorothy Fields (later Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler), with some Ellington originals mixed in. (Here he moved in with a dancer, his second wife Mildred Dixon.) Weekly radio broadcasts from the club gave Ellington national exposure, while Ellington also recorded Fields-JMcHugh and Fats Waller-Andy Razaf songs.
Although trumpeter Bubber Miley was a member of the orchestra for only a short period, he had a major influence on Ellington's sound.[26] As an early exponent of growl trumpet, Miley changed the "sweet" dance band sound of the group to one that was hotter, which contemporaries termed "jungle" style. In October 1927, Ellington and his Orchestra recorded several compositions with Adelaide Hall. One side in particular, "Creole Love Call", became a worldwide sensation and gave both Ellington and Hall their first hit record.[27] Miley had composed most of "Creole Love Call" and "Black and Tan Fantasy". An alcoholic, Miley had to leave the band before they gained wider fame. He died in 1932 at the age of 29, but he was an important influence on Cootie Williams, who replaced him.
In 1929, the Cotton Club Orchestra appeared on stage for several months in Florenz Ziegfeld's Show Girl, along with vaudeville stars Jimmy Durante, Eddie Foy, Jr., Ruby Keeler, and with music and lyrics by George Gershwin and Gus Kahn. Will Vodery, Ziegfeld’s musical supervisor, recommended Ellington for the show, and, according to John Hasse's Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington, "Perhaps during the run of Show Girl, Ellington received what he later termed ' valuable lessons in orchestration from Will Vodery.' In his 1946 biography, Duke Ellington, Barry Ulanov wrote:
From Vodery, as he (Ellington) says himself, he drew his chromatic convictions, his uses of the tones ordinarily extraneous to the diatonic scale, with the consequent alteration of the harmonic character of his music, its broadening, The deepening of his resources. It has become customary to ascribe the classical influences upon Duke – Delius, Debussy and Ravel – to direct contact with their music. Actually his serious appreciation of those and other modern composers, came after his meeting with Vodery.[28]
Ellington's film work began with Black and Tan (1929), a nineteen-minute all-African-American RKO short[29] in which he played the hero "Duke". He also appeared in the Amos 'n' Andy film Check and Double Check released in 1930. That year, Ellington and his Orchestra connected with a whole different audience in a concert with Maurice Chevalier and they also performed at the Roseland Ballroom, "America's foremost ballroom". Australian-born composer Percy Grainger was an early admirer and supporter. He wrote "The three greatest composers who ever lived are Bach, Delius and Duke Ellington. Unfortunately Bach is dead, Delius is very ill but we are happy to have with us today The Duke".[30] Ellington's first period at the Cotton Club concluded in 1931.

The early 1930s

Ellington led the orchestra by conducting from the keyboard using piano cues and visual gestures; very rarely did he conduct using a baton. As a bandleader, Ellington was not a strict disciplinarian; he maintained control of his orchestra with a combination of charm, humor, flattery, and astute psychology. A complex, private person, he revealed his feelings to only his closest intimates and effectively used his public persona to deflect attention away from himself .
Ellington signed exclusively to Brunswick in 1932 and stayed with them through late 1936 (albeit with a short-lived 1933-34 switch to Victor when Irving Mills temporarily moved him and his other acts from Brunswick).
As the Depression worsened, the recording industry was in crisis, dropping over 90% of its artists by 1933.[31] Ivie Anderson was hired as their featured vocalist in 1931. She is the vocalist on "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)" (1932) among other recordings. Sonny Greer had been providing occasional vocals and continued to do in a cross-talk feature with Anderson. Radio exposure helped maintain popularity as Ellington and his orchestra began to tour. The other records of this era include: "Mood Indigo" (1930), "Sophisticated Lady" (1933), "Solitude" (1934), and "In a Sentimental Mood" (1935)
While the band's United States audience remained mainly African-American in this period, the Ellington orchestra had a huge following overseas, exemplified by the success of their trip to England in 1933 and their 1934 visit to the European mainland. The English visit saw Ellington win praise from members of the "serious" music community, including composer Constant Lambert, which gave a boost to Ellington's interest in composing longer works.
Those longer pieces had already begun to appear. He had composed and recorded Creole Rhapsody as early as 1931 (issued as both sides of a 12" record for Victor and both sides of a 10" record for Brunswick), and a tribute to his mother, "Reminiscing in Tempo", took four 10" record sides to record in 1935 after her death in that year. Symphony in Black (also 1935), a short film, featured his extended piece 'A Rhapsody of Negro Life'. It introduced Billie Holiday, and won an Academy Award as the best musical short subject.[32] Ellington and his Orchestra also appeared in the features Murder at the Vanities and Belle of the Nineties (both 1934),
For agent Mills the attention was a publicity triumph, as Ellington was now internationally known. On the band's tour through the segregated South in 1934, they avoided some of the traveling difficulties of African-Americans by touring in private railcars. These provided easy accommodations, dining, and storage for equipment while avoiding the indignities of segregated facilities.
Competition was intensifying though, as swing bands like Benny Goodman's, began to receive popular attention. Swing dancing became a youth phenomenon, particularly with white college audiences, and "danceability" drove record sales and bookings. Jukeboxes proliferated nationwide, spreading the gospel of "swing." Ellington's band could certainly swing, but their strengths were mood, nuance, and richness of composition, hence his statement "jazz is music, swing is business".[33]

The later 1930s

From 1936, Ellington began to make recordings of smaller groups (sextets, octets, and nonets) drawn from his then-15-man orchestra and he composed pieces intended to feature a specific instrumentalist, as with "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges, "Yearning for Love" for Lawrence Brown, "Trumpet in Spades" for Rex Stewart, "Echoes of Harlem" for Cootie Williams and "Clarinet Lament" for Barney Bigard. In 1937, Ellington returned to the Cotton Club which had relocated to the mid-town Theater District. In the summer of that year, his father died, and due to many expenses, Ellington's finances were tight, although his situation improved the following year.
After leaving agent Irving Mills, he signed on with the William Morris Agency. Mills though continued to record Ellington. After only a year, his Master and Variety labels, the small groups had recorded for the latter, collapsed in late 1937, Mills placed Ellington back on Brunswick and those small group units on Vocalion through to 1940. Well known sides continued to be recorded, "Caravan" in 1937, and "I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart" the following year.
Ellington in 1939
Billy Strayhorn, originally hired as a lyricist, began his association with Ellington in 1939.[34] Nicknamed "Swee' Pea" for his mild manner, Strayhorn soon became a vital member of the Ellington organization. Ellington showed great fondness for Strayhorn and never failed to speak glowingly of the man and their collaborative working relationship, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine".[35] Strayhorn, with his training in classical music, not only contributed his original lyrics and music, but also arranged and polished many of Ellington's works, becoming a second Ellington or "Duke's doppelganger". It was not uncommon for Strayhorn to fill in for Duke, whether in conducting or rehearsing the band, playing the piano, on stage, and in the recording studio.[36] The 1930s ended with a very successful European tour just as World War II loomed in Europe.

Ellington in the early to mid-1940s


Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club in New York, May 1943
Some of the musicians who joined Ellington at this time created a sensation in their own right. The short-lived Jimmy Blanton transformed the use of double bass in jazz, allowing it to function as a solo rather than a rhythm instrument alone. Terminal illness forced him to leave by late 1941 after only about two years. Ben Webster, the Orchestra's first regular tenor saxophonist, whose main tenure with Ellington spanned 1939 to 1943, started a rivalry with Johnny Hodges as the Orchestra's foremost voice in the sax section.
Trumpeter Ray Nance joined, replacing Cootie Williams who had "defected", contemporary wags claimed, to Benny Goodman. Additionally, Nance added violin to the instrumental colors Ellington had at his disposal. Recordings exist of Nance's first concert date on November 7, 1940, at Fargo, North Dakota. Privately made by Jack Towers and Dick Burris, these recordings were first legitimately issued in 1978 as Duke Ellington at Fargo, 1940 Live; they are among the earliest of innumerable live performances which survive. Nance was also an occasional vocalist, although Herb Jeffries was the main male vocalist in this era (until 1943) while Al Hibbler (who replaced Jeffries in 1943) continued until 1951. Ivie Anderson left in 1942 after eleven years: the longest term of any of Ellington's vocalists.[37]
Once again recording for Victor (from 1940), with the small groups recording for their Bluebird label, three-minute masterpieces on 78 rpm record sides continued to flow from Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Ellington's son Mercer Ellington, and members of the Orchestra. "Cotton Tail", "Main Stem", "Harlem Airshaft", "Jack the Bear", and dozens of others date from this period. Strayhorn's "Take the "A" Train" a hit in 1941, became the band's theme, replacing "East St. Louis Toodle-Oo". Ellington and his associates wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices who displayed tremendous creativity.[38] Mary Lou Williams, working as a staff arranger, would briefly join Ellington a few years later.
Ellington's long-term aim though was to extend the jazz form from that three-minute limit, of which he was an acknowledged master.[39] While he had composed and recorded some extended pieces before, such works now became a regular feature of Ellington's output. In this, he was helped by Strayhorn, who had enjoyed a more thorough training in the forms associated with classical music than Ellington. The first of these, "Black, Brown, and Beige" (1943), was dedicated to telling the story of African-Americans, and the place of slavery and the church in their history. Ellington debuted Black, Brown and Beige in Carnegie Hall on January 23, 1943, beginning an annual series of concerts there over the next four years. While some jazz musicians had played at Carnegie Hall before, none had performed anything as elaborate as Ellington’s work. Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington's longer works were generally not well received.
A partial exception was Jump for Joy, a full-length musical based on themes of African-American identity, debuted on July 10, 1941 at the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles. Hollywood luminaries like actors John Garfield and Mickey Rooney invested in the production, and Charlie Chaplin and Orson Welles offered to direct.[40] At one performance though, Garfield insisted Herb Jeffries, who was light skinned, should wear make-up. Ellington objected in the interval, and compared Jeffries to Al Jolson. The change was reverted, and the singer later commented that the audience must have thought he was an entirely different character in the second half of the show.[41]
Although it had sold-out performances, and received positive reviews,[42] it ran for only 122 performances until September 29, 1941, with a brief revival in November of that year. Its subject matter did not make it appealing to Broadway; Ellington had unfulfilled plans to take it there.[43] Despite this disappointment, a Broadway production of Ellington's Beggar's Holiday, his sole book musical, premiered on December 23, 1946[44] under the direction of Nicholas Ray.
The settlement of the first recording ban of 1942–43, leading to an increase in royalties paid to musicians, had a serious effect on the financial viability of the big bands, including Ellington's Orchestra. His income as a songwriter ultimately subsidized it. Although he always spent lavishly and drew a respectable income from the Orchestra's operations, the band's income often just covered expenses.[45]

Early post-war years

World War II brought about a swift end to the big band era as musicians went off to serve in the military and travel restrictions made touring difficult. When the war ended, the focus of popular music shifted towards crooners such as Frank Sinatra and Jo Stafford, so Ellington's wordless vocal feature "Transblucency" (1946) with Kay Davis was not going to have a similar reach. With inflation setting in after 1945, the cost of hiring big bands went up and club owners preferred smaller jazz groups who played in new styles such as bebop.

Ellington poses with his piano at the KFG Radio Studio November 3, 1954.
Ellington continued on his own course through these tectonic shifts. While Count Basie was forced to disband his whole ensemble and work as an octet for a time, Ellington was able to tour most of Western Europe between 6 April and 30 June 1950, with the orchestra playing 74 dates over 77 days.[46] During the tour, according to Sonny Greer, the newer works were not performed, though Ellington's extended composition, Harlem (1950) was in the process of being completed at this time. Ellington later presented its score to music-loving President Harry Truman. Also during his time in Europe, Ellington would compose the music for a stage production by Orson Welles. Titled Time Runs in Paris[47] and An Evening With Orson Welles in Frankfurt, the variety show also featured a newly discovered Eartha Kitt, who performed Ellington's original song "Hungry Little Trouble" as Helen of Troy.[48]
In 1951, Ellington suffered a significant loss of personnel: Sonny Greer, Lawrence Brown, and most importantly Johnny Hodges left to pursue other ventures, although only Greer was a permanent departee. Drummer Louie Bellson replaced Greer, and his "Skin Deep" was a hit for Ellington. Tenor player Paul Gonsalves had joined in December 1950[46] after periods with Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie and stayed for the rest of his life, while Clark Terry joined in November 1951.[49]
During the early 50s, Ellington's career was at a low point with his style being generally seen as outmoded, but his reputation did not suffer as badly as some artists. André Previn said in 1952: "You know, Stan Kenton can stand in front of a thousand fiddles and a thousand brass and make a dramatic gesture and every studio arranger can nod his head and say, ‘‘Oh, yes, that’s done like this.’’ But Duke merely lifts his finger, three horns make a sound, and I don’t know what it is!"[50] However by 1955, after three years of recording for Capitol, Ellington lacked a regular recording affiliation.

Career revival

Ellington's appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival on July 7, 1956 returned him to wider prominence and introduced him to a new generation of fans. The feature "Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue" comprised two tunes that had been in the band's book since 1937 but largely forgotten until Ellington, who had abruptly ended the band's scheduled set because of the late arrival of four key players, called the two tunes as the time was approaching midnight. Announcing that the two pieces would be separated by an "interlude" played by tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves, Ellington proceeded to lead the band through the two pieces, with Gonsalves' 27-chorus marathon solo whipping the crowd into a frenzy, leading the Maestro to play way beyond the curfew time despite urgent pleas from Festive organizer George Wein to bring the program to an end.
The concert made international headlines, led to one of only fiveTime magazine cover stories dedicated to a jazz musician [51] (Louis Armstrong, Thelonious Monk, Dave Brubeck, and Wynton Marsalis are the others) and resulted in an album produced by George Avakian[52] that would become the best-selling long-playing recording of Ellington's career.
Ironically though, much of the music on the vinyl LP was, in effect, "simulated", with only about 40% actually from the concert itself. According to Avakian, Ellington was dissatisfied with aspects of the performance and felt the musicians had been under rehearsed.[52] The band assembled the next day to re-record several of the numbers with the addition of artificial crowd noise, none of which was disclosed to purchasers of the album. Not until 1999 was the concert recording properly released for the first time. The revived attention brought about by the Newport appearance should not have surprised anyone, Johnny Hodges had returned the previous year, and Ellington's collaboration with Strayhorn had been renewed around the same time, under terms more amenable to the younger man.
The original Ellington at Newport album was the first release in a new recording contract with Columbia Records which yielded several years of recording stability, mainly under producer Irving Townsend, who coaxed both commercial and artistic productions from Ellington.[53]
In 1957, CBS (Columbia Records' parent corporation) aired a live television production of A Drum Is a Woman, an allegorical suite which received mixed reviews. His hope that television would provide a significant new outlet for his type of jazz was not fulfilled. Tastes and trends had moved on without him. Festival appearances at the new Monterey Jazz Festival and elsewhere provided venues for live exposure, and a European tour in 1958 was well received. Such Sweet Thunder (1957), based on Shakespeare's plays and characters, and The Queen's Suite (1958), dedicated to Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, were products of the renewed impetus which the Newport appearance helped to create, although the latter work was not commercially issued at the time. The late 1950s also saw Ella Fitzgerald record her Duke Ellington Songbook (Verve) with Ellington and his orchestra—a recognition that Ellington's songs had now become part of the cultural canon known as the 'Great American Songbook'.
Ellington at this time (with Strayhorn) began to work directly on scoring for film soundtracks, in particular Anatomy of a Murder (1959), with James Stewart, in which Ellington appeared fronting a roadhouse combo, and Paris Blues (1961), which featured Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier as jazz musicians. Detroit Free Press music critic Mark Stryker concludes that the work of Billy Strayhorn and Ellington in Anatomy of a Murder, a trial court drama film directed by Otto Preminger, is "indispensable, [although] . . . too sketchy to rank in the top echelon among Ellington-Strayhorn masterpiece suites like Such Sweet Thunder and The Far East Suite, but its most inspired moments are their equal."[54]
Film historians have recognized the soundtrack "as a landmark – the first significant Hollywood film music by African Americans comprising non-diegetic music, that is, music whose source is not visible or implied by action in the film, like an on-screen band." The score avoided the cultural stereotypes which previously characterized jazz scores and rejected a strict adherence to visuals in ways that presaged the New Wave cinema of the ’60s".[55] Ellington and Strayhorn, always looking for new musical territory, produced suites for John Steinbeck's novel Sweet Thursday, Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt.
In the early 1960s, Ellington embraced recording with artists who had been friendly rivals in the past, or were younger musicians who focused on later styles. The Ellington and Count Basie orchestras recorded together. During a period when he was between recording contracts, he made records with Louis Armstrong (Roulette), Coleman Hawkins, John Coltrane (both for Impulse) and participated in a session with Charles Mingus and Max Roach which produced the Money Jungle (United Artists) album. He signed to Frank Sinatra's new Reprise label, but the association with the label was short-lived.
Musicians who had previously worked with Ellington returned to the Orchestra as members: Lawrence Brown in 1960 and Cootie Williams in 1962.
"The writing and playing of music is a matter of intent.... You can't just throw a paint brush against the wall and call whatever happens art. My music fits the tonal personality of the player. I think too strongly in terms of altering my music to fit the performer to be impressed by accidental music. You can't take doodling seriously."[13]
He was now performing all over the world; a significant part of each year was spent on overseas tours. As a consequence, he formed new working relationships with artists from around the world, including the Swedish vocalist Alice Babs, and the South African musicians Dollar Brand and Sathima Bea Benjamin (A Morning in Paris, 1963/1997).
Ellington wrote an original score for director Michael Langham's production of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens at the Stratford Festival in Ontario, Canada which opened on July 29, 1963. Langham has used it for several subsequent productions, including a much later adaptation by Stanley Silverman which expands the score with some of Ellington's best-known works.

Last years


Ellington receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Nixon, 1969.
Ellington was a Pulitzer Prize for Music nominee in 1965 but another nominee was selected.[56] Then 66 years old, he said: "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."[57] In 1999 he was posthumously awarded a special Pulitzer Prize (not the Music prize), "commemorating the centennial year of his birth, in recognition of his musical genius, which evoked aesthetically the principles of democracy through the medium of jazz and thus made an indelible contribution to art and culture."[4][58]
In September 1965, he premiered the first of his Sacred Concerts. He created a jazz Christian liturgy. Although the work received mixed reviews, Ellington was proud of the composition and performed it dozens of times. This concert was followed by two others of the same type in 1968 and 1973, known as the Second and Third Sacred Concerts. These generated controversy in what was already a tumultuous time in the United States. Many saw the Sacred Music suites as an attempt to reinforce commercial support for organized religion, though Ellington simply said it was "the most important thing I've done".[59] The Steinway piano upon which the Sacred Concerts were composed is part of the collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. Like Haydn and Mozart, Ellington conducted his orchestra from the piano – he always played the keyboard parts when the Sacred Concerts were performed.[60]
Despite his advancing age (he turned 65 in the spring of 1964), Ellington showed no sign of slowing down as he continued to make vital and innovative recordings, including The Far East Suite (1966), New Orleans Suite (1970), Latin American Suite (1972) and The Afro-Eurasian Eclipse (1971), much of it inspired by his world tours. It was during this time that he recorded his only album with Frank Sinatra, entitled Francis A. & Edward K. (1967).
Although he made two more stage appearances before his death, Ellington performed what is considered his final "full" concert in a ballroom at Northern Illinois University on March 20, 1974.[61]
The last three shows Ellington and his orchestra performed were one on March 21, 1973 at Purdue University's Hall of Music and two on March 22, 1973 at the Sturges-Young Auditorium in Sturgis, Michigan.[62]

Personal life


Ellington in 1973
Ellington married his high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson (d. 1967), on July 2, 1918, when he was 19. The next spring, on March 11, 1919, Edna gave birth to their only son, Mercer Kennedy Ellington.
Ellington was joined in New York City by his wife and son in the late twenties, but the couple soon permanently separated.[63] According to her obituary in Jet magazine, she was "homesick for Washington" and returned (she died in 1967).[64] In 1928, Ellington became the companion of Mildred Dixon, who traveled with him, managed Tempo Music, inspired songs at the peak of his career, and reared his son Mercer.
In 1938 he left his family (his son was then 19) and moved in with Beatrice "Evie" Ellis, a Cotton Club employee. Their relationship, though stormy, continued after Ellington met and formed a relationship with Fernanda de Castro Monte in the early 1960s. Ellington supported both women for the rest of his life.[65]

Mildred Dixon - Ellington's companion; his son Mercer referred to her as his "mother"
Ellington's sister Ruth (1915–2004) later ran Tempo Music, his music publishing company. Ruth's second husband was the bass-baritone McHenry Boatwright, whom she met when he sang at her brother's funeral.
As an adult, son Mercer Ellington (d. 1996) played trumpet and piano, and led his own band. He also worked as his father's business manager, eventually taking full control of the band after Duke's death. He was an important archivist of his father's musical life.
Ellington died on May 24, 1974 of complications from lung cancer and pneumonia, a few weeks after his 75th birthday. His last words were, "Music is how I live, why I live and how I will be remembered."[66] At his funeral, attended by over 12,000 people at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Ella Fitzgerald summed up the occasion, "It's a very sad day. A genius has passed."[67] He was interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery, The Bronx, New York City.[68]
Following Duke's death, his son Mercer took over leadership of the orchestra, continuing until his own death in 1996. Like the Count Basie Orchestra, this group continued to release albums long after Duke Ellington's death. Digital Duke, credited to The Duke Ellington Orchestra, won the 1988 Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album. Mercer Ellington had been handling all administrative aspects of his father's business for several decades. Mercer's children continue a connection with their grandfather's work.

Legacy

Memorials


The grave of Duke Ellington
Numerous memorials have been dedicated to Duke Ellington, in cities from New York and Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles.
In Ellington's birthplace, Washington, D.C., the Duke Ellington School of the Arts educates talented students, who are considering careers in the arts, by providing intensive arts instruction and strong academic programs that prepare students for post-secondary education and professional careers. Originally built in 1935, the Calvert Street Bridge was renamed the Duke Ellington Bridge in 1974.
In 1989, a bronze plaque was attached to the newly named Duke Ellington Building at 2121 Ward Place, NW.[69] In 2012, the new owner of the building commissioned a mural by Aniekan Udofia that appears above the lettering "Duke Ellington".
In 2010 the triangular park, across the street from Duke Ellington's birth site, at the intersection of New Hampshire and M Streets, NW was named the Duke Ellington Park.[70] Ellington's residence at 2728 Sherman Avenue, NW, during the years 1919-1922,[71] is marked by a bronze plaque.
On February 24, 2009, the United States Mint launched a new coin featuring Duke Ellington, making him the first African American to appear by himself on a circulating U.S. coin.[72] Ellington appears on the reverse ("tails") side of the District of Columbia quarter.[72] The coin is part of the U.S. Mint's program honoring the District and the U.S. territories[73] and celebrates Ellington's birthplace in the District of Columbia.[72] Ellington is depicted on the quarter seated at a piano, sheet music in hand, along with the inscription "Justice for All", which is the District's motto.[73]

Ellington on the Washington, D.C. quarter released in 2009.
Ellington lived for years in a townhouse on the corner of Manhattan's Riverside Drive and West 106th Street. After his death, West 106th Street was officially renamed Duke Ellington Boulevard. A large memorial to Ellington, created by sculptor Robert Graham, was dedicated in 1997 in New York's Central Park, near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, an intersection named Duke Ellington Circle.
A statue of Ellington at a piano is featured at the entrance to UCLA's Schoenberg Hall. According to UCLA Magazine:
When UCLA students were entranced by Duke Ellington's provocative tunes at a Culver City club in 1937, they asked the budding musical great to play a free concert in Royce Hall. 'I've been waiting for someone to ask us!' Ellington exclaimed.
On the day of the concert, Ellington accidentally mixed up the venues and drove to USC instead. He eventually arrived at the UCLA campus and, to apologize for his tardiness, played to the packed crowd for more than four hours. And so, "Sir Duke" and his group played the first-ever jazz performance in a concert venue.[74]
The Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition and Festival is a nationally renowned annual competition for prestigious high school bands. Started in 1996 at Jazz at Lincoln Center, the festival is named after Ellington because of the large focus that the festival places on his works.

Tributes

Martin Williams said: "Duke Ellington lived long enough to hear himself named among our best composers. And since his death in 1974, it has become not at all uncommon to see him named, along with Charles Ives, as the greatest composer we have produced, regardless of category."[75]
In the opinion of Bob Blumenthal of The Boston Globe in 1999: "[i]n the century since his birth, there has been no greater composer, American or otherwise, than Edward Kennedy Ellington."[76]
In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Duke Ellington on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[77]

Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6535 Hollywood Blvd.
While his compositions are now the staple of the repertoire of music conservatories,[citation needed] they have been revisited by artists and musicians around the world both as a source of inspiration and a bedrock of their own performing careers.
There are hundreds of albums dedicated to the music of Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn by artists famous and obscure. The more notable artists include Sonny Stitt, Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, Billy Eckstine, Tony Bennett, Oscar Peterson, Toshiko Akiyoshi, Joe Pass, Milt Jackson, Earl Hines, Rahsaan Roland Kirk, McCoy Tyner, André Previn, World Saxophone Quartet, Ben Webster, Zoot Sims, Kenny Burrell, Lambert, Hendricks and Ross, Martial Solal, Clark Terry and Randy Weston.
Sophisticated Ladies, an award-winning 1981 musical revue, incorporated many tunes from Ellington's repertoire. A second Broadway musical interpolating Ellington's music, Play On!, debuted in 1997.

Hit records

Click the words "Music Folder" above to view materials relevant to the readings for this week.
Music Folder
This week's music clips relate to chapters 35 and 36. Chapter 35 covers no music, so all selections below are mentioned in Chapter 36. We pick up with early American Blues and Jazz.
  1. Bessie Smith, Florida-Bound Blues (chap. 36, pp. 1177-1178)
Read pp. 1177-1178 (in chap. 36) and then read the paragraph below. Bessie Smith (lived 1894-1937) recorded this blues song in the mid-1920s. See p. 1178, fig. 36.4 for a photo of her. She was known as the "Empress of the Blues" Read carefully on p. 1178 about her pioneering contributions to the blues when the genre was in its early stages.

  1. Louis Armstrong, Hotter Than That (chap. 36, pp. 1178-1179)
Read pp. 1178-1179 (in chap. 36) carefully and then read this paragraph. Note the reason that Armstrong and other Dixieland Jazz musicians left New Orleans for Chicago and other northern cities. Notice the scat singing and the "call-and-response".

2.b. Louis Armstrong, What a Wonderful World (not in book; Armstrong is on pp. 1178-9)
-------------------------------
  1. Duke Ellington, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) (chap. 36, p. 1179)
Read p. 1179 (in chap. 36) carefully and then read this paragraph. This was composed by Ellington in 1931; it is the song that introduced the term "swing" to the jazz world of the day. Ellington (1899-1974) was born in Washington DC and became famous at Harlem's Cotton Club.
-------------------------------
  1. Camilla Williams, Summertime (from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess) (Gershwin's Porgy and Bess is discussed in chap. 36, p. 1179)
From the Community Audio website at https://archive.org/details/GershwinPorgyAndBess1951 , one can listen to Gershwin's Porgy and Bess. In Act 1, Scene 1, Camilla Williams (from the 1:20 mark to the 3:30 mark) sings "Summertime". Then listen to more of this great American opera if you wish.
Gershwin and his work are well-known. But,Camilla Williams is one of those great artists and barrier breakers who has been unfortunately forgotten by most. Listen to this 10-minute biography of Camilla Williams (1919-2012), an African American from Danville VA who became an internationally renowned opera singer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSuMPY34KfE . In her own voice, see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mfy-SU80wzM . A New York Times tribute to her is at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/arts/music/camilla-williams-opera-singer-dies-at-92.html?pagewanted=1&_r=0 .
------------------------
The July Crisis: Can you stop the Great War? The July Crisis is our task this Friday.

 Task

The date is July 30, 1914 and the situation is critical when you receive the telegram. You are a diplomat for one of the countries involved in the origins of World War I. Austria-Hungary has already declared war on Serbia after receiving reassurance of full support from Germany. Because of the alliance system, this war is not destined to remain a small, regional flare up. Russia and Germany are about to declare war because the Russian army has been mobilized at the German border. Germany has plans to attack France through neutral Belgium, and Great Britain has sworn to protect Belgium's neutrality. Belgium is trying to make one last effort to bring the interested countries together to avoid war.

The Process

Step1: Your team is a diplomatic advisory group representing one of the following:

1) Austro-Hungarian Empire

2) Germany

3) France

4) Great Britain

5) Russia

6) Italy, and

7) the Ottoman Empire.

Each country's team of diplomats will meet in neutral Belgium on July 31, 1914. In order to prepare for the peace conference, you and your team must research and make an oral presentation with visuals on the following topics as stated in the telegram:

* Background about your country including: a brief history, geographic location, alliances, and leaders
* Long term reasons explaining why your country is willing to risk going to war (events more than a year ago)
* Short term reasons explaining why your country is willing to risk going to war (events within the last year)

All students should take notes on these three topics: background, long term reasons, and short term reasons.
Step 2: After your group has made a presentation representing your country's point of view on these topics and studied the information given by the other countries, you will prepare and present a proposal to prevent the war. Take into account all that you have learned from the presentations of other countries, and try to formulate an agreement that will prevent the war by presenting a valid compromise. This proposal should obtain for your country what it really wants and make some concessions to other countries

Step 3: After your country has presented its peace proposal, the class will divide up into 4 groups with at least one representative from each country in each group. In these new peace negotiation groups, start by voting on the proposals from each country. Because some countries are more powerful than others, some countries will receive more votes: Germany (3), Great Britain (3), France (2), Russia (2), Serbia (1), Ottoman Empire (1), Austro-Hungarian Empire (2), Italy (1). Any country may abstain from voting. Modify the proposal with the most votes until you reach a consensus. If you do not reach a consensus within the class session, you will write out a declaration of war stating the reasons why you are going to war.

Resources

Read the information that your textbook gives about the beginning of World War I. You should also read the following background information first:

Assassination in Sarajevo (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlsara.htm)

1879-1914: The Deadly Alliances (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlalli.htm)

The July Crisis (http://www.worldwar1.com/tlplot.htm)

Germany

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are your allies?
* Why does Germany support the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
* What are Germany's colonial interests?
* What are Germany's military interests, and how is Germany building up its military?
* Why is Germany an economic rival of Great Britain?
* How does Germany's competition to build up its navy put them into an arms race with
* Great Britain?
* What is the "Blank Check" that Germany gives the Austro-Hungarian Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Germany
http://www.worldwar1.com/atger.htm

May, 1882 - The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

The Daily Telegraph Affair 28 October, 1908
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/dailytel.html

8-12 February,1912The Haldane Mission
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/haldane.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

6 July, 1914-The 'Blank Check'
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/blankche.html

1914 The German White Book
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germbook.html

June-July, 1914 German Dispatches and the Kaiser's Notes
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/wilnotes.html

Autograph Letter of Franz Joseph to the Kaiser, Vienna, 2 July, 1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/frzwilly.html

29 July-1 August, 1914 The "Willy-Nicky" Telegrams in the original English
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/willynilly.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Kaiser Wilhelm II's Account of Events, July, 1914. From his Memoirs
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/kwiijuly.html

France

* Look for the answers to these questions:
* Who are your allies?
* What area did France have to give to Germany after the Franco-Prussian War?
* How does France plan to defend itself against Germany?
* What problem does France have with Germany in Morocco, a colony of France?
* How did France win Russia over as an ally from Germany?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-France
http://www.worldwar1.com/atfra.htm

18 August, 1892 The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/franruss.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

Great Britain

* Look for the answers to these questions:
* Who are Britain's allies?
* How does Germany's increase in battleships (Dreadnoughts) affect Britain?
* How does the industrial rivalry affect Britain's relationship with Germany?
* What treaty does Britain have to protect Belgium's neutrality?
* What imperial rivalries does Britain have with Germany in Africa?
* What are Britain's interests in the Middle East, and how does this conflict with the Ottoman Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Great Britain
http://www.worldwar1.com/ateng.htm

8-12 February, 1912 - The Haldane Mission
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/haldane.html

28 October, 1908 - The Daily Telegraph Affair
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/dailytel.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

31 July, 1914 Sir Edward Grey's Indecisiveness
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/greyegal.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Russia

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Russia's allies?
* Why is access to the Dardanelles from the Black Sea important to Russia?
* Why is Russia allied with Serbia?
* How did Germany lose Russia as an ally and how does this affect the German war plans?
* Why is it necessary for Russia to mobilize its army so much in advance and how does Germany react?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Russia
http://www.worldwar1.com/atrus.htm

October, 1909 - The Racconigi Bargain
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/racco.html

18 August, 1892 - The Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/franruss.html

1907 - The Anglo-Russian Entente
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/anglruss.html

1914 - The German White Book
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/germbook.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

28 July, 1914: The Pledge Plan
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/pledplan.html

29 July-1 August, 1914 - The "Willy-Nicky" Telegrams in the original English
http://www.lib.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/willynilly.html

July, 1914 Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Look for the answers to these questions:

* What countries is the Austro-Hungarian Empire allied with?
* What problems does the Austro-Hungarian Empire face?
* How is nationalism affecting the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
* What are the Austro-Hungarian Empireís goals in the Balkans?
* What happened in Sarajevo to bring events to a crisis and what did the Austro-Hungarian
* Empire demand of Serbia?
* Would the Austro-Hungarian Empire go to war without the help of Germany?
* How does the Austro-Hungarian Empire force Serbia into a war?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, War Atlas Austria
http://www.worldwar1.com/athng.htm

20 May, 1882 The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

6 July, 1914 - The 'Blank Check'
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/blankche.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

23 July, 1914: The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/austro-hungarian-ultimatum.html

25 July, 1914: The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/serbresponse.html

28 July, 1914: The Pledge Plan
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/pledplan.html

July 1914, Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Serbia (Everyone should review this material in addition to your assigned country)

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Serbia's allies?
* Why does Serbia object to the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria?
* What are the goals of the Serbian nationalist organizations?
* What is Pan-Slavism and what are its goals?
* What is Serbia's response to the ultimatum sent by the Austro-Hungarian Empire?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-Serbia
http://www.worldwar1.com/atserb.htm

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

1911 The Narodna Odbrana
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/odbrana.html

The Constitution of the Black Hand, 1911
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/blk-cons.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

23 July, 1914: The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/austro-hungarian-ultimatum.html

25 July, 1914 - The Serbian Response to the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/serbresponse.html

July 1914 - Prince Lichownowsky's Reply to Sir Edward Grey
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914/lichno.html

Italy

Look for the answers to these questions:

* Who are Italy's allies?
* Under what conditions will Italy go to war to aid its allies? Is the Triple Alliance an offensive or defensive alliance?
* What territorial and colonial interests does Italy have in Europe, and Africa and how might their decision to declare war be affected by this?
* In what ways is your ally in the Triple Alliance, Austria, also your rival?

The documents below will help you:

20 May, 1882 The Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripally.html

1914 - The Austro-Italian Naval Race
http://www.worldwar1.com/tlainr.htm

October, 1909 - The Racconigi Bargain
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/racco.html

5 December, 1912 Expanded Version of the Triple Alliance
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/tripall2.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html

Ottoman Empire

Look for the answers to these questions:

What is Ottoman Empire's relationship with Bosnia and other countries in the Balkans?

What strategic strait does Turkey control and why is it strategic?

What relationship does Turkey have with Great Britain in the Middle East?

The documents below will help you:

Trenches on the Web, the War Atlas-The Ottoman Empire
http://www.worldwar1.com/attur.htm

September-October, 1908 The Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/bosherz.html

British Imperial Connexions to the Arab Nationalist
Movement, Lord Kitchener and the Arab National Movement, 1912-1914
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/arabetuk.html

My Mission to London, 1912-14 by Prince Lichnowsky
http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1914m/lichnowy.html
Preview WW I
The Twentieth-Century Crisis 1914-1945

"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."

Winston Churchill

Americans engaged in trench warfare during World War I.

War and Revolution 1914-1919
Map of Europe

An assassination in the Balkans sparked the outbreak of World War I. Millions died during the war, which also led to a revolution and Communist rule in Russia. The war settlements redrew the map of Europe and imposed heavy penalties on Germany.

Military forces marched off to fight with stirring music such as the
United Forces March.

Yet, troops did not anticipate the carnage that they actually experienced on the battle field; this was not combat that they had learned about in school where brave, courageous young men went out to the battlefield to prove themselves.

Canadian John McCrae served as a military doctor on the Western Front in World War I. In 1915, McCrae wrote the following poem in the voice of those he had watched die.
“In Flanders fields the poppies blow

Between the crosses, row on row

That mark our place; and in the sky

The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago

We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,

Loved and were loved, and now we lie

In Flanders fields.”
—Dr. John McCrae, 1915

You can hear about McCrae’s experience during World War I.

The Battle of the Somme, 3:35

An Allied offensive at the Somme River (sum) was extremely costly. In a single grisly day, nearly 60,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded. In the five-month battle, more than one million soldiers were killed, without either side winning an advantage. Europe was to experience a new kind of war.

Features real footage from the Somme, including quotes and figures. Voted as one of the TEN BEST War Videos on WeShow Awards, 3:35.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the questions.
1. How many British troops were killed on the first day?
2. At the conclusion of the battle how many casualties were there?

Animated battle of the Somme

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml
Audio: Chapter 16 Section 1 The Road to World War I
The Road to World War I

Competition over trade and colonies led to the formation of two rival European alliances—the Triple Entente of Great Britain, France, and Russia; and the Triple Alliance, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Repeated crises over Serbian claims on the Austro-Hungarian region of Bosnia revealed the dangers inherent in these alliances. Austria-Hungary, as well as numerous other European governments, confronted challenges from minorities that wished to establish their own national states. Strikes and violent actions by Socialist labor movements also threatened European governments. Many states responded with increasing militarism. The assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary by a Bosnian Serb militant set off a chain of diplomatic and military decisions that led all of the great powers of Europe into World War I.

Key Terms

conscription
mobilization

Note Taking Reading Skill: Summarize As you read, use a chart to summarize the events that led up to the outbreak of World War I.
In-class assignment: with a partner, answer the questions.
This is a map for World War I: 1914-1918 Map, 6:41
Cf. http://ant.umn.edu/vav.php?pid=62159449393845


View the embedded player with the animated map content
WW I Map
1. Where did the spark occur?
2. Who was assassinated?
3. What were the two sides that formed?
4. What was the first country to mobilize?
5. In what year did the U.S. join the conflict?
6. Where did the Germans meet the Russians in the East?
7. In what month and year did the front line in the West stabilize?
8. In an attempt to knock Turkey out of the war where did the Allies attack?
9. Where did the Germans counterattack?
10. What was the one major naval battle of the war?
11. What British officer gained world wide fame in the Middle East?
12. What setback did the Allies suffer in 1917?
The Western Front and the Eastern Front, 1914–1918

For: Interactive map
Visit: PHSchool.com
Web Code: nap-2621

Map Skills

World War I was fought on several fronts in Europe. Despite huge loss of life and property, the two sides came to a stalemate on the Western and Eastern fronts in 1915 and 1916.

1. Locate

(a) Paris (b) Battle of the Marne (c) Verdun (d) Tannenberg

2. Movement

Using the scale, describe how the battle lines moved on the Western Front from 1914 to 1918.

3. Draw Inferences

Based on this map, why do you think many Russians were demoralized by the progress of the war?

The Human Cost To break the stalemate on the Western Front, both the Allies and the Central Powers launched massive offensives in 1916. German forces tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun (vur dun). The French defenders held firm, sending up the battle cry “They shall not pass.” The 11-month struggle cost more than a half a million casualties, or soldiers killed, wounded, or missing, on both sides.

Nationalism and the System of Alliances

Internal Dissent

Militarism

The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914
The Serbian Problem

A crisis began when Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announced that he would visit Sarajevo (sa ruh yay voh), the capital of Bosnia. Francis Ferdinand was the nephew and heir of the aging Austrian emperor, Francis Joseph. At the time of his visit, Bosnia was under the rule of Austria-Hungary. But it was also the home of many Serbs and other Slavs. News of the royal visit angered many Serbian nationalists. They viewed the Austrians as foreign oppressors. Some members of Unity or Death, a Serbian terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand, vowed to take action.

Assassination in Sarajevo
The assassin, Gavrilo Princip. Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

The spark for World War I was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep), a member of a Serbian terrorist group, killed Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.

The archduke ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo. On June 28, 1914, he and his wife, Sophie, rode through Sarajevo in an open car. As the car passed by, a conspirator named Gavrilo Princip (gav ree loh preen tseep) seized his chance and fired twice into the car. Moments later, the archduke and his wife were dead.

“The first [bullet] struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen. . . . She died instantly.

The second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered only one word, ’Sofia’—a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.”
—Borijove Jevtic, co-conspirator

The assassinations triggered World War I, called “The Great War” by people at the time.

Austria-Hungary Responds

The news of the assassination shocked Francis Joseph. Still, he was reluctant to go to war. The government in Vienna, however, saw the incident as an excuse to crush Serbia. In Berlin, Kaiser William II was horrified at the assassination of his ally’s heir. He wrote to Francis Joseph, advising him to take a firm stand toward Serbia. Instead of urging restraint, Germany gave Austria a “blank check,” or a promise of unconditional support no matter what the cost.

Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum, or final set of demands. To avoid war, said the ultimatum, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot. It must even let Austria join in the investigation. Serbia agreed to most, but not all, of the terms of Austria’s ultimatum. This partial refusal gave Austria the opportunity it was seeking. On July 28, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia.

Russia Mobilizes

After Austria’s declaration of war, Serbia turned to its ally, Russia, the champion of Slavic nations. From St. Petersburg, Nicholas II telegraphed William II. The tsar asked the kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands. When this plea failed, Russia began to mobilize, or prepare its military forces for war. On August 1, Germany responded by declaring war on Russia.

Russia, in turn, appealed to its ally France. In Paris, nationalists saw a chance to avenge France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Though French leaders had some doubts, they gave Russia the same kind of backing Germany offered to Austria. When Germany demanded that France keep out of the conflict, France refused. Germany then declared war on France.

The Conflict Broadens
Summary of the Conflict Broadening

The early part of the war in 1914 is largely the story of The Schlieffen (shlee fun) Plan.

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

The Germans’ Schlieffen (shlee fun) Plan failed for several reasons. First, Russia mobilized more quickly than expected. After a few small Russian victories, German generals hastily shifted some troops to the east, weakening their forces in the west. Then, in September 1914, British and French troops pushed back the German drive along the Marne River. The first battle of the Marne ended Germany’s hopes for a quick victory on the Western Front.

Reasons for the failure of the Schlieffen Plan: Belgium, Britain, and the Eastern Front. The video ends at the Battle of the Marne, 3:49.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check
Evaluating
What was the Schlieffen Plan and how did it complicate the events leading to World War I?
On "Big Bertha" (noted in the video), named after the daughter of the famous German gun manufacturer, Krupp, a word can be added. Although the super-heavy artillery was fearsome, and Parisian civilians were killed, the howitzer proved largely ineffective and played a smaller role in the Schlieffen advance than the Germans had hoped The Encyclopedia of Weaponry: The Development of Weaponry from Prehistory to 21st Century Warfare, Ian V. Hogg, p. 123.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons

The War

Most people in 1914 believed that the war would end quickly. The picture changed, though, as trench warfare between France and Germany turned into a stalemate and casualties mounted throughout Europe. Italy switched sides, and the Ottoman Empire joined the war on the side of the Triple Alliance. The war broadened further when German colonies came under attack and the British encouraged Ottoman provinces in the Middle East to revolt. The United States entered the war in 1917 in response to the German use of submarines against passenger ships. As the war dragged on, governments took control of national economies, censored the news media, and used propaganda to bolster public opinion. Women entered the workforce in large numbers. After the war, many lost their jobs to men but gained expanded rights and status. By 1921 women had the vote in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.
Key Terms

propaganda
trench warfare
war of attrition
total war
planned economies

1914 to 1915: Illusions and Stalemate

Propaganda of World War I, 2:35

These are some recruitment and propaganda posters from England and France during World War I. The song: "Boys in Khaki, Boys in Blue," means British and French soldiers.



WW 1 PROPAGANDA POSTERS(UK), 5:32
Each of the nations which participated in World War One from 1914-18 used propaganda posters not only as a means of justifying involvement to their own populace, but also as a means of procuring men, money and resources to sustain the military campaign.

In countries such as Britain the use of propaganda posters was readily understandable: in 1914 she only possessed a professional army and did not have in place a policy of national service, as was standard in other major nations such as France and Germany.


The Western Front
Cf. http://www.phschool.com/webcodes10/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.gotoWebCode&wcprefix=nap&wcsuffix=2621

American Battle Monuments Cemetery in Aisne Marne, France, 2:00
This video presents a brief narrated tour of Aisne-Marne American Cemetery's landscaped grounds, architecture, and works of art.

The 42.5-acre Aisne-Marne Cemetery and Memorial in France, its headstones lying in a sweeping curve, sits at the foot of the hill where stands Belleau Wood. The cemetery contains the graves of 2,289 war dead, most of whom fought in the vicinity and in the Marne valley in the summer of 1918. The memorial chapel sits on a hillside, decorated with sculptured and stained-glass details of wartime personnel, equipment and insignia. Inscribed on its interior wall are 1,060 names of the missing. Rosettes mark the names of those since recovered and identified. During World War II, the chapel was damaged slightly by an enemy shell.

Belleau Wood adjoins the cemetery and contains many vestiges of World War I. A monument at the flagpole commemorates the valor of the U.S. Marines who captured much of this ground in 1918.


The Eastern Front

On Europe’s Eastern Front, battle lines shifted back and forth, sometimes over large areas. Even though the armies were not mired in trench warfare, casualties rose even higher than on the Western Front. The results were just as indecisive.

In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany. Then, the Russians suffered a disastrous defeat at Tannenberg, causing them to retreat back into Russia. As the least industrialized of the great powers, Russia was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. Some troops even lacked rifles. Still, Russian commanders continued to send masses of soldiers into combat.

Battle of Tannenberg, 4:26



Battle of Masurian Lakes

1916 to 1917: The Great Slaughter

A film version of the novel "All Quiet on the Western Front illustrates the horror of trench warfare.

In the first scene, Paul Baumer (Richard Thomas) is chastised by his teacher (Donald Pleasence) for lack of attention in class, (specifically for furtively making a sketch of a small bird). He is ridiculed as an 'idealist' and a 'dreamer.'

In the final trench scene, Paul sympathetically chivvies his exhausted soldiers into staying alert for their own safety. Yet moments later he himself becomes (fatally) distracted by a small bird, the same symbol of beauty that had so irritated his mentor three years previously. Other ironic subtleties reveal themselves here. Paul now seeks solace in smoking, a habit he had until now totally despised. (Recall how he had haughtily rejected his teacher's proffering of a cigarette!). Even this actor's distinctive facial mole acquires significance. Devoid of any disguising make-up, it disturbs as an appalling disfigurement on an otherwise handsome face, a subtle symbol perhaps of the Great War's brutal despoiling of a whole generation of Europe's 'Golden Youth'. Most tellingly, the movie links the image of Paul's drawings as the metaphor for the idealism of the new generation, a hope that died with Paul in the mud of those hellish trenches.

If you enjoyed this excerpt, you may enjoy the entire film.

The horror of war during the great slaughter of World War I is illustrated by one of the most famous novels from the Great War; this is a film version of "All Quiet on the Western Front" (1979), 6:01.
A worksheet is available to:

guide your reading.

Tactics of Trench Warfare

Trench Warfare, 7:57

First part of a short film describing various aspects of trench warfare. Presented by Oxford University's First World War Poetry Digital Archive project.



Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

GAMING WORLD WAR I

You can try your gaming luck during several front line missions with,

trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

Verdun

war of attrition, the Battle of Verdun, 3:58

This is a brief demo Eagle Films created for a War museum concerning the brutal and bloody WW-I battle of Verdun. It was one of about twenty multimedia projects that were to be produced under the supervision of Philip Cook of Eagle Films.



War in the Air
Interrupter gear, invented by the Frenchman Roland Garros but later perfected with deadly accuracy by Germany.

Diagram of German machine gun synchronisation gear.

To fire the gun,

1. The gun's crank is worked twice, once to load, once to cock.
2. The green handle is pulled
3. which lowers the red cam follower onto the cam wheel.
4. When the cam raises the follower, the blue rod is pushed against the spring.
5. When the pilot presses the purple firing button, inside the breech block the cable lowers the blue bridge piece
6. so that when the blue rod is activated by the cam, the yellow trigger bar is pushed
7. and the gun fires.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons
During World War I, advances in technology, such as the gasoline-powered engine, led the opposing forces to use tanks, airplanes, and submarines against each other. In 1916, Britain introduced the first armored tank. Mounted with machine guns, the tanks were designed to move across no man’s land. Still, the first tanks broke down often. They failed to break the stalemate.

Both sides also used aircraft. At first, planes were utilized simply to observe enemy troop movements. In 1915, Germany used zeppelins (zep uh linz), large gas-filled balloons, to bomb the English coast. Later, both sides equipped airplanes with machine guns. Pilots known as “flying aces” confronted each other in the skies. These “dogfights” were spectacular, but had little effect on the course of the war on the ground.
Captain Albert Ball before his death at 20 years of age.
Graphic source: Wikipedia Commons

Albert Ball, 1:40

The young Englishman's early career is profiled. Paying for his own lessons, Ball learns to fly and is approved for service in the Royal Flying Corps.



The Battle of The Somme begins and the early career of Albert Ball is profiled, 5:16

Albert Ball (14 August 1896 – 7 May 1917) was an English First World War fighter pilot and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British or Commonwealth armed forces. At the time of his death, he was twenty years old and he was the leading Allied ace with 44 victories, second only to German ace Manfred Von Richthofen. By the end of the war he was the United Kingdom's fourth top scoring ace.



Richthofen - A German Legend - The Red Baron, 1:46

Richthofen - The Red Baron
A German Legend
Footage & Soundtrack:
Der Rote Baron (Germany 2008)

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 - 21 April 1918) was a German fighter pilot known as the "Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace during World War I, being officially credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories. He served in the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte). Richthofen was a member of an aristocratic family with many famous relatives.
Freiherr (literally "Free Lord") is not a given name but a German aristocratic title, equivalent to a baron in other countries and the origin of Richthofen's most famous nickname: "The Red Baron". Red was the colour of his plane. The German translation of The Red Baron is About this sound "Der Rote Baron" . Richthofen is today known by this nickname even in Germany, although during his lifetime he was more often described in German as Der Rote Kampfflieger, (variously translated as the The Red Battle Flyer or The Red Fighter Pilot). This name was used as the title of Richthofen's 1917 "autobiography."
Richthofen's other nicknames include "Le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil") or "Le Petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red Knight" in English.



World War 1 Aircraft - Sopwith Camel F.1, 1:16

The Sopwith Camel is probably one of the most famous British fighters of the war, in addition to the SE5a simply because it was one of their first superior fighters of the war. The Camel was dreaded by most Entente pilots, however. It was fast and maneuverable, but the upper wing had numerous problems and tendencies to shear off entirely and plunge the airframe into the ground (and this caused the death of many pilots), and torque was so great to the left side of the plane that it was sometimes rendered unable to fly altogether. It was dangerous for both novice and seasoned pilots to fly, any many died trying to tame the beast.



Cf. War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Explaining

Why were military leaders baffled by trench warfare?

Widening of the War

Though most of the fighting took place in Europe, World War I was a global conflict. Japan, allied with Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and islands in the Pacific.

Gallipoli

Because of its strategic location, the Ottoman empire was a desirable ally. If the Ottoman Turks had joined the Allies, the Central Powers would have been almost completely encircled. However, the Turks joined the Central Powers in late October 1914. The Turks then cut off crucial Allied supply lines to Russia through the Dardanelles, a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.

In 1915, the Allies sent a massive force of British, Indian, Australian, and New Zealander troops to attempt to open up the strait. At the battle of Gallipoli (guh lip uh lee), Turkish troops trapped the Allies on the beaches of the Gallipoli peninsula. In January 1916, after 10 months and more than 200,000 casualties, the Allies finally withdrew from the Dardanelles.

Gallipoli trailer (Mel Gibson), 1:44



Lawrence of Arabia

Gene Siskel & Roger Ebert discuss the 1962 Oscar-winning First World War film Lawrence of Arabia, 4:45.



The Turks were harmed severely in the Middle East. The Ottoman empire included vast areas of Arab land. In 1916, Arab nationalists led by Husayn ibn Ali (hoo sayn ib un ah lee) declared a revolt against Ottoman rule. The British government sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence—later known as Lawrence of Arabia—to support the Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerrilla raids against the Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Eventually, the Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territory to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.
Entry of the United States

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Evaluating

Why did the Germans resort to unrestricted submarine use?

The Home Front: The Impact of Total War

On total war the best reference is:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot, pp. 198-201.

The broad impact of the Industrial Revolution resulted in both gains and losses. There was more food, medicine, clothing, more of everything, yet, the new technologies extinguished "life as effectively as they could be used to support it" (Boot, p. 198).

The Industrial Revolution did not cause WW I yet indirectly it "fostered the rise of Germany" (Boot, p. 198). "The figures boggle the mind:

from 1914 to 1918, sixty three million were seriously wounded or disabled.

Millions of civilians also died. . . . they were many orders of magnitude greater than those of any previous conflict. Pre-industrial states could not possibly have fed, clothed, equipped, moved--or slaughtered--so many individuals. Germany and France had 20 percent of their populations under arms. Britain mobilized only 13 percent, but this was still far higher than the 7 percent that Napoleon had been able to marshal with the levee en masse" (Boot, p. 198). Each soldier in addition had far more firepower than an entire regiment possessed a century earlier.

Increased Government Powers

Planned economies were necessary to fuel the increased demands of total war (Boot, p. 199). The pre-industrial state was not equal to the task of equipping and arming such large armies that were required in modern warfare. Governments nationalized industries along with the cooperation of major private companies. In Britain, France, and Germany, military spending shot up 2,000 percent (Boot, p. 199).

Manipulation of Public Opinion

Public dissent was not encouraged. A military dictatorship controlled Germany but even in the liberty-loving U.S. antiwar activists such as the socialist Eugene Debs was subject to arrest and confinement (Boot, p. 199).

Total war also meant controlling public opinion. Even in democratic countries, special boards censored the press. Their aim was to keep complete casualty figures and other discouraging news from reaching the public. Government censors also restricted popular literature, historical writings, motion pictures, and the arts.

Both sides waged a propaganda war. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause. Governments used propaganda to motivate military mobilization, especially in Britain before conscription started in 1916. In France and Germany, propaganda urged civilians to loan money to the government. Later in the war, Allied propaganda played up the brutality of Germany’s invasion of Belgium. The British and French press circulated tales of atrocities, horrible acts against innocent people. Although some atrocities did occur, often the stories were distorted by exaggerations or completely made up.

Total War and Women

Women gained more rights as they took jobs previously open only to men (Boot, p. 200). It is not surprising that not long after the war women were granted the right of suffrage.

Women played a critical role in total war. As millions of men left to fight, women took over their jobs and kept national economies going. Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies. Others joined women’s branches of the armed forces. When food shortages threatened Britain, volunteers in the Women’s Land Army went to the fields to grow their nation’s food.

Nurses shared the dangers of the men whose wounds they tended. At aid stations close to the front lines, nurses often worked around the clock, especially after a big “push” brought a flood of casualties. In her diary, English nurse Vera Brittain describes sweating through 90-degree days in France, “stopping hemorrhages, replacing intestines, and draining and reinserting innumerable rubber tubes” with “gruesome human remnants heaped on the floor.”

War work gave women a new sense of pride and confidence. After the war, most women had to give up their jobs to men returning home. Still, they had challenged the idea that women could not handle demanding and dangerous jobs. In many countries, including Britain, Germany, and the United States, women’s support for the war effort helped them finally win the right to vote, after decades of struggle.

Laissez-faire economic structures did not survive World War I. Social hierarchies broke down under the transformation. Women were granted the right to vote. World War I is "a conflict that could never have been waged on such a titanic, transformative scale were it not for the changes in warfare that had occurred in the previous half-century. This was the bittersweet legacy of the Industrial Age (Boot, p. 201).
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Summarizing

What was the effect of total war on ordinary citizens?

People in History

Edith Cavell

Like most ordinary people caught up in war, Edith Cavell (1865–1915) did not plan on becoming a hero. An English nurse, she was in charge of a hospital in Belgium. After the German invasion, Cavell cared for wounded soldiers on both sides. She also helped Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands.

In 1915, the Germans arrested Cavell for spying. As she faced a firing squad, her last reported words were, “Standing as I do in view of God and Eternity, I realize that patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone.” Why do you think the British government spread the story of Edith Cavell?

The Lusitania

Germany used U-boats to create its own blockade. In 1915, Germany declared that it would sink all ships carrying goods to Britain. In May 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the British liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. Almost 1,200 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. Germany justified the attack, arguing that the Lusitania was carrying weapons. When American President Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off diplomatic relations with Germany, though, Germany agreed to restrict its submarine campaign. Before attacking any ship, U-boats would surface and give warning, allowing neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats. Unrestricted submarine warfare stopped—for the moment.

Preview:

The Russian Revolution

Key Terms

soviets

war communism

Background to Revolution

“Mr. War Minister!

We, soldiers from various regiments,. . . ask you to end the war and its bloodshed at any cost…. If this is not done, then believe us when we say that we will take our weapons and head out for our own hearths to save our fathers, mothers, wives, and children from death by starvation (which is nigh). And if we cannot save them, then we’d rather die with them in our native lands then be killed, poisoned, or frozen to death somewhere and cast into the earth like a dog.”

—Letter from the front, 1917
Note Taking

Reading Skill: Summarize Copy the time line below and fill it in as you read this section. When you finish, write two sentences that summarize the information in your time line.
Beginnings of Upheaval

The year 1913 marked the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Everywhere, Russians honored the tsar and his family. Tsarina Alexandra felt confident that the people loved Nicholas too much to ever threaten him. “They are constantly frightening the emperor with threats of revolution,” she told a friend, “and here,—you see it yourself—we need merely to show ourselves and at once their hearts are ours.”

Appearances were deceiving. In March 1917, the first of two revolutions would topple the Romanov dynasty and pave the way for even more radical changes.

The outbreak of war in 1914 fueled national pride and united Russians. Armies dashed to battle with enthusiasm. But like the Crimean and Russo-Japanese wars, World War I quickly strained Russian resources. Factories could not turn out enough supplies. The transportation system broke down, delivering only a trickle of crucial materials to the front. By 1915, many soldiers had no rifles and no ammunition. Badly equipped and poorly led, they died in staggering numbers. In 1915 alone, Russian casualties reached two million.

Vocabulary Builder

crucial—(kroo shul) adj. of vital importance

In a patriotic gesture, Nicholas II went to the front to take personal charge. The decision proved a disastrous blunder. The tsar was no more competent than many of his generals. Worse, he left domestic affairs to the tsarina, Alexandra. In Nicholas’ absence, Alexandra relied on the advice of Gregory Rasputin, an illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed “holy man.” The tsarina came to believe that Rasputin had miraculous powers after he helped her son, who suffered from hemophilia, a disorder in which any injury can result in uncontrollable bleeding.

Rasputin


By 1916, Rasputin’s influence over Alexandra had reached new heights and weakened confidence in the government. Fearing for the monarchy, a group of Russian nobles killed Rasputin on December 29, 1916.

The March Revolution

By March 1917, disasters on the battlefield, combined with food and fuel shortages on the home front, brought the monarchy to collapse. In St. Petersburg (renamed Petrograd during the war), workers were going on strike. Marchers, mostly women, surged through the streets, shouting, “Bread! Bread!” Troops refused to fire on the demonstrators, leaving the government helpless. Finally, on the advice of military and political leaders, the tsar abdicated.

Duma politicians then set up a provisional, or temporary, government. Middle-class liberals in the government began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic. At the same time, they continued the war against Germany.

Outside the provisional government, revolutionary socialists plotted their own course. In Petrograd and other cities, they set up soviets, or councils of workers and soldiers. At first, the soviets worked democratically within the government. Before long, though, the Bolsheviks, a radical socialist group, took charge. The leader of the Bolsheviks was a determined revolutionary, V. I. Lenin.

The revolutions of March and November 1917 are known to Russians as the February and October revolutions. In 1917, Russia still used an old calendar, which was 13 days behind the one used in Western Europe. Russia adopted the Western calendar in 1918.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Identifying

Develop a sequence of events leading to the March Revolution.

The Rise of Lenin
Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (ool yahn uf) was born in 1870 to a middle-class family. He adopted the name Lenin when he became a revolutionary. When he was 17, his older brother was arrested and hanged for plotting to kill the tsar. The execution branded his family as a threat to the state and made the young Vladimir hate the tsarist government.

A Brilliant Revolutionary

As a young man, Lenin read the works of Karl Marx and participated in student demonstrations. He spread Marxist ideas among factory workers along with other socialists, including Nadezhda Krupskaya (nah dyez duh kroop sky uh), the daughter of a poor noble family. In 1895, Lenin and Krupskaya were arrested and sent to Siberia. During their imprisonment, they were married. After their release, they went into exile in Switzerland. There they worked tirelessly to spread revolutionary ideas.

Lenin’s View of Marx

Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions. Marx had predicted that the industrial working class would rise spontaneously to overthrow capitalism. But Russia did not have a large urban proletariat. Instead, Lenin called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Though this elite revolutionary party represented a small percentage of socialists, Lenin gave them the name Bolsheviks, meaning “majority.”

In Western Europe, many leading socialists had come to think that socialism could be achieved through gradual and moderate reforms such as higher wages, increased suffrage, and social welfare programs. A group of socialists in Russia, the Mensheviks, favored this approach. The Bolsheviks rejected it. To Lenin, reforms of this nature were merely capitalist tricks to repress the masses. Only revolution, he said, could bring about needed changes.

In March 1917, Lenin was still in exile. As Russia stumbled into revolution, Germany saw a chance to weaken its enemy by helping Lenin return home. Lenin rushed across Germany to the Russian frontier in a special train. He greeted a crowd of fellow exiles and activists with this cry: “Long live the worldwide Socialist revolution!”

Biography
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Lenin (1870–1924) was the son of a teacher and his wife who lived in a little town on the Volga River. Vladimir lived with his parents and five siblings in a rented wing of a large house. By all accounts it was a happy home. Vladimir excelled at school and looked up to his older brother Alexander. But when Vladimir was 16, his father died. When he was 17, his beloved brother Alexander was hanged for plotting to kill the tsar.

Still reeling from the death of his brother, Vladimir enrolled at Kazan University. There he met other discontented young people. They united to protest the lack of student freedom in the university. Within three months, Vladimir was expelled for his part in the demonstrations. How do you think Lenin’s early life affected his later political ideas?
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Examining

What was Lenin's plan when he arrived in Russia?

The Bolsheviks Seize Power

Lenin threw himself into the work of furthering the revolution. Another dynamic Marxist revolutionary, Leon Trotsky, helped lead the fight. To the hungry, war-weary Russian people, Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.”

The Provisional Government’s Mistakes

Meanwhile, the provisional government, led by Alexander Kerensky, continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform. Those decisions proved fatal. Most Russians were tired of war. Troops at the front were deserting in droves. Peasants wanted land, while city workers demanded an end to the desperate shortages. In July 1917, the government launched the disastrous Kerensky offensive against Germany. By November, according to one official report, the army was “a huge crowd of tired, poorly clad, poorly fed, embittered men.” Growing numbers of troops mutinied. Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.

The Bolshevik Takeover

Conditions were ripe for the Bolsheviks to make their move. In November 1917, squads of Red Guards—armed factory workers—joined mutinous sailors from the Russian fleet in attacking the provisional government. In just a matter of days, Lenin’s forces overthrew the provisional government without a struggle.

The Bolsheviks quickly seized power in other cities. In Moscow, it took a week of fighting to blast the local government out of the walled Kremlin, the former tsarist center of government. Moscow became the Bolsheviks’ capital, and the Kremlin their headquarters.

“We shall now occupy ourselves in Russia in building up a proletarian socialist state,” declared Lenin. The Bolsheviks ended private ownership of land and distributed land to peasants. Workers were given control of the factories and mines. A new red flag with an entwined hammer and sickle symbolized union between workers and peasants. Throughout the land, millions thought they had at last gained control over their own lives. In fact, the Bolsheviks—renamed Communists—would soon become their new masters.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Describing

What was the impact of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Russia?

Civil War in Russia

After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin quickly sought peace with Germany. Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, giving up a huge chunk of its territory and its population. The cost of peace was extremely high, but the Communist leaders knew that they needed all their energy to defeat a collection of enemies at home. Russia’s withdrawal affected the hopes of both the Allies and the Central Powers, as you read in Section 3.
Vocabulary Builder

withdrawal—(with draw ul) n. the act of leaving

Opposing Forces

For three years, civil war raged between the “Reds,” as the Communists were known, and the counterrevolutionary “Whites.” The “White” armies were made up of tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, democrats, and others, all of whom were united only by their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. Nationalist groups from many of the former empire’s non-Russian regions joined them in their fight. Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania broke free, but nationalists in Ukraine, the Caucasus, and Central Asia were eventually subdued.

The Allies intervened in the civil war. They hoped that the Whites might overthrow the Communists and support the fight against Germany. Britain, France, and the United States sent forces to help the Whites. Japan seized land in East Asia that tsarist Russia had once claimed. The Allied presence, however, did little to help the Whites. The Reds appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners. In the long run, the Allied invasion fed Communist distrust of the West.

Brutality was common in the civil war. Counterrevolutionary forces slaughtered captured Communists and tried to assassinate Lenin. The Communists shot the former tsar and tsarina and their five children in July 1918 to keep them from becoming a rallying symbol for counterrevolutionary forces.

Identifying

Who opposed the new Bolshevik regime?

Triumph of the Communists

The Communists used terror not only against the Whites, but also to control their own people. They organized the Cheka, a secret police force much like the tsar’s. The Cheka executed ordinary citizens, even if they were only suspected of taking action against the revolution. The Communists also set up a network of forced-labor camps in 1919—which grew under Stalin into the dreaded Gulag.

The Communists adopted a policy known as “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads. Peasants in the countryside were forced to deliver almost all of their crops to feed the army and hungry people in the cities. Peasant laborers were drafted into the military or forced to work in factories.

Meanwhile, Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force. He used former tsarist officers under the close watch of commissars, Communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty. Trotsky’s passionate speeches roused soldiers to fight. So did the order to shoot every tenth man if a unit performed poorly.

The Reds’ position in the center of Russia gave them a strategic advantage. The White armies were forced to attack separately from all sides. They were never able to cooperate effectively with one another. By 1921, the Communists had managed to defeat their scattered foes.
In-class assignment, with a partner, answer the question.
Reading Check

Contrasting

Why did the Red Army prevail over the White Army?

War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921 by Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml

End of the War

Tanks, 1:46



Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett
References
One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Animated battle of the Somme

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_somme_map.shtml

Among other animations, you can view: Life in the Trenches

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwone_movies/index_embed.shtml

You can try your luck during several front line missions with

Trench warfare:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml

By the time the Yanks get involved there is a popular song which memorialized American involvement:

Cf. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/activities/songs/

American involvement in WW I, 4:11

The Great War #1, World War 1 Era Period Music and Pictures. WW 1 spanned from August of 1914 to November of 1918 and raged across the globe. The United States was officially involved in the war from April 1917 to the end.

The dough boys are nearly forgotten today in the shadow of World War 2, Vietnam and Iraq. Millions of American men and women, black and white, served our country in The Great War. This series of shorts shows the music of their time and photographs from the Great War.



Links

BBC Schools Links

GCSE Bitesize Revision - History
bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/
A secondary revision resource for GCSE exams covering the First World War.

The Bitesize series features audio clips from history and commentators:

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/

Standard Grade Bitesize Revision - History
bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/standard/history/
A secondary revision resource for Standard Grade covering the First World War.

BBC Sites

BBC History - World War One
bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/
This World War One site from BBC History features interactive movies, animations, feature articles and 3-d models.

One helpful animation is:

Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914 - 1918

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

History Trail – How to do History
bbc.co.uk/history/lj/how_to_do_historylj/preview.shtml
Follow in the footsteps of professional historians and find out how they do history. Discover how postcards, council records, tapestries and people's memories of the past are all valuable sources for the historian.

Other Sites

Learning Curve – The Great War
http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/greatwar
This is a comprehensive offering from the Public Records Office, which tells the story of the First World War through six different source based investigations. It aims to show how the War developed and includes teachers' notes.

Spartacus Educational – The First World War
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWW.htm
Spartacus' World War One website offers a growing encyclopaedia of entries about the war, as well as links to other websites.

First World War.com - The war to end all wars
http://www.firstworldwar.com
This site gives a general overview of the First World War. It offers a collection of insightful feature articles, photos and footage, memoirs and diaries.

Spark Notes – World War 1 (1914-1918)
http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww1/
Gives a summary and commentary on each main study area of the First World War.

Art of the First World War
http://www.art-ww1.com/gb/present.html
Presents 100 paintings from international collections from around the world to commemorate the First World War.

The World War One Document Archive
http://www.art-ww1.com/gb/present.html
The World War One Document Archive presents primary documents concerning the Great War.

World War 1 - Web Links
http://www.historyteacher.net/APEuroCourse/WebLinks/WebLinks-WorldWar1.htm
This site lists links to in-depth articles on all aspects of the First World War, including a large collection of links to primary source material.

National Curriculum Online: History
http://curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/key-stages-3-and-4/subjects/history/index.aspx?return=/key-stages-3-and-4/subjects/index.aspx
Information about the National Curriculum for History, QCDA and DfEE schemes of work, pupils' work and information about standards and support materials.

QCDA History
http://www.qcda.gov.uk/6354.aspx
The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Authority (QCDA) History section.

Examine key issues with the help of original documents.

Cf. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/greatwar/g1/

The best overall war reference for the entire modern period:

War Made New: Weapons, Warriors, and the Making of the Modern World by Max Boot

All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque

Cassell Military Classics: Iron Fist: Classic Armoured Warfare by Bryan Perrett

Day of the Assassins: A Jack Christie Novel by Johnny O'Brien

War in the Air 1914-45 (Smithsonian History of Warfare) by Williamson Murray
The Encyclopedia of Warfare: The Changing Nature of Warfare From Prehistory to Modern-day Armed Conflicts by Robin Cross, pp. 170-193.

The Encyclopedia of Weaponry: The Development of Weaponry from Prehistory to 21st Century Warfare, Ian V. Hogg, pp. 112-139.

Battles and Campaigns (Mapping History) by Malcolm Swanston

A documentary about the battle of the Somme 1916 part 1, 9:58

H. W. Brands on Woodrow Wilson and the First World War, 9:32


War and Revolution in Russia 1914 - 1921 by Dr Jonathan Smele

Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/eastern_front_01.shtml
Review the causes of the Revolution
Cf. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/russia/
Find out more about the last imperial family of Tsarist Russia.
Cf. http://www.nicholasandalexandra.com/virtual1999/sitemap.html
Photo album of Tsar Nicholas II's Romanov family
Cf. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/romalbum/index.html
A profile of Lenin
Cf. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSlenin.htm

World War I in Popular Culture

In 1966, the "Ace" was immortalized in song by the Royal Guardsmen with their hit, Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron. This was followed in 1967 by Return of the Red Baron, in which it is revealed that the Baron survived their previous encounter but runs away when Snoopy challenges him to a duel with pistols, and then by Snoopy's Christmas, in which the two foes temporarily set aside their differences for a Christmas toast, as per the Christmas Truces that occurred during World War I. Snoopy's Christmas continues to be played as a holiday favorite on many oldies radio stations.

During the 1968 U.S. Presidential election, the Guardsmen released two additional songs, "Snoopy for President", in which Snoopy's bid for the nomination of the Beagle party is tipped in his favor by the Red Baron, and "Down Behind the Lines", which does not mention Snoopy specifically but describes the attempts of a World War I pilot to fly his damaged Sopwith Camel back to friendly territory.
In 2006 the Guardsmen recorded a song called "Snoopy vs. Osama" in which Snoopy shifts his focus away from The Red Baron and captures Osama Bin Laden.

Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:08



1966, The Royal Guardsmen - Snoopy vs. The Red Baron, 2:40

The group from Ocala, FL with the British moniker rose to fame in 1966 with its single, “Snoopy Vs. The Red Baron,” which became the title track of its debut album. The album reached No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart and remained there for 12 weeks. It went on to sell one million copies, earning it gold certification from the R.I.A.A. in 1967.

https://youtu.be/Oxzg_iM-T4E




Reading Check

Identifying

Did the growth of nationalism in the first half of the nineteenth century lead to increased competition or increased cooperation among European nations?

Reading Check

Explaining

According to some historians, how might internal disorder have been one of the causes of World War I?
Test/Quiz Resources

Self-check Quiz on Chapter

Vocabulary eFlashcards

Academic Vocabulary

Combined

Content Vocabulary

People, Places and Events
Barry McGuire - Eve of Destruction 1965, 4:01
Eve of Destruction was written by 19-year-old songwriter P. F. Sloan in 1965 and eventually became Barry McGuire's one and only big Billboard chart hit song.
DISCUSSION
"Streaming Live and Harlem Renaissance" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
Write for one (1) minute using the stream of consciousness writing method (Note: You may also type it offline and copy it within this discussion thread). Describe your experience and your reaction to what you wrote. Of the samples of the stream of consciousness technique given in this week's chapters, determine which you prefer and explain the reasons why.
Of the various authors, artists, and musicians who participated in the Harlem Renaissance, identify the person whose autograph you would most want, and explain the reasons why. Provide one (1) example that illustrates the reason why you selected the person that you did.
Explore:
Streaming Live
Chapter 35 (pp. 1163-1166); Chapter 36 (p. 1189), stream of consciousness – background and samples
Method and exploration of stream-of-consciousness writing at http://dversepoets.com/2012/05/24/stream-of-conscousness-writing/
Writing a stream: http://thewritepractice.com/stream-of-consciousness/ and http://literarydevices.net/stream-of-consciousness/
Harlem Renaissance
Chapter 36 (pp. 1172-1180); review the Week 8 “Music Folder” Website and video at http://www.history.com/topics/harlem-renaissance




HUM 112 Week 8
Chapter 35: The Great War and Its Impact
Chapter 36: New York, Skyscraper Culture, and the Jazz Age
LECTURE
Literary Imagination, War Inspires Art
Harlem Renaissance: Talkin' All That Jazz
Skyscraper Culture: New York State of Mind
Hollywood: The Golden Age of Silent Film
All Quiet on the Western Front
Gaming World War I during front line missions.


HUM 112 Week 8 Sample Questions
What was an implication of Freud's theory of infantile sexuality?
Why did Virginia Woolf disapprove of Joyce's Ulysses?
Why did the exhibition committee for a 1917 New York show hide Duchamp's "ready-made" entry, Fountain, behind a curtain?
                What did the Surrealists attempt to capture in literature and art?
                How did Salvador Dali claim to have been inspired to paint such works as The Lugubrious Game and The Persistence of Memory?
                Why was Frank Lloyd Wright's inclusion in the International Style exhibition of 1922 ironic?
                Why were whites stunned during the 1919 "Red Summer" riotsBlacks fought back
                According to W. E. B. Du Bois, what major problem did African Americans face at the turn of the century?
                How did Bessie Smith distinguish her blues songs?
                Why were between 75 and 90 percent of the films shown in Europe made in America?
                In his Surrealist Girl Before a Mirror, what does Picasso portray in his mistress's reflected image?
                Why did Austria declare war on Serbia in 1914?
                According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did so many Southern African-Americans make the Great Migration to the north between  1915 and 1918?
                According to Freud, how have civilizations failed humans?
                Why does New York Coty's Chrysler Building have stainless steel eagle gargoyles?
    Why  is William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury considered one of the most  daring uses of stream of consciousness in modern fiction?
    Why was Ernest Hemingway judged unfit for military service in World War I?
                Why were male audiences drawn to the monstrous characters played by horror genre-actor Lon Chaney?
                How did Salvador Dali claim to have been inspired to paint such works as The Lugubrious Game and The Persistence of Memory?
                In "A Room of One's Own," what did Virginia Woolf claim women needed to reach their full potential?
                Why did the World War I soldiers so fear mustard gas?
                Who coined the phrase "Jazz Age" to describe 1920s America?
                Why was the white-audience-only club in Harlem named the Cotton Club?
                What characterized the new architecture known as the International Style?
                Why did Gertrude Stein declare of the World War I survivors, "You are all a lost generation"?
                As discussed in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did Harlem Renaissance poet Langston Hughes dislike Paris?
                In Remembrance of Things Past, how did Marcel Proust defy the constraints of linear time?
                In The Lugubrious Game, why does Dali position a grasshopper under his self-portrait's nose?
                What artistic movement do the quilts of Gee's Bend, AL, resemble?
               


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How did Salvador Dali claim to have been inspired to paint such works as The Lugubrious Game and The Persistence of Memory?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Self-hypnosis that led to hallucinations
    Correct Answer:
     
    Self-hypnosis that led to hallucinations

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Gertrude Stein declare of the World War I survivors, "You are all a lost generation"?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They were aimless
    Correct Answer:
     
    They were aimless

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In The Battleship Potemkin's Odessa Steps scene, how did Eisenstein heighten tension and emotional impact?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Using different rhythms of music
    Correct Answer:
     
    Using different rhythms of music

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What did one American critic call Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    "An explosion in a shingle factory"
    Correct Answer:
     
    "An explosion in a shingle factory"

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Whose utopian views influenced Vladimir Lenin?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Karl Marx
    Correct Answer:
     
    Karl Marx

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why does New York Coty's Chrysler Building have stainless steel eagle gargoyles?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Replicate Chrysler hood ornament
    Correct Answer:
     
    Replicate Chrysler hood ornament

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What label did her contemporary critics place on Georgia O'Keeffe's paintings?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feminine
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feminine

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was Frank Lloyd Wright's inclusion in the International Style exhibition of 1922 ironic?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He despised the International Style
    Correct Answer:
     
    He despised the International Style

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How did Bessie Smith distinguish her blues songs?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Adding a chromatic note before a line's last note
    Correct Answer:
     
    Adding a chromatic note before a line's last note

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
How did New York's white population support the Harlem cultural resurgence?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Buying blacks' art and frequenting the clubs
Correct Answer:
 
Buying blacks' art and frequenting the clubs


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did so much of Kasimir Malevich's Suprematist art depend on the square?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To free art from the weight of objectivity
    Correct Answer:
     
    To free art from the weight of objectivity

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Approximately how many casualties resulted from World War I?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Ten million
    Correct Answer:
     
    Ten million

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    With what did poet William Butler Yeats compare the postwar era?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Apocalypse
    Correct Answer:
     
    Apocalypse

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What did the Surrealists attempt to capture in literature and art?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Thought not controlled by reason
    Correct Answer:
     
    Thought not controlled by reason

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the Dada poets compose nonsensical sound poems?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To protest nationalism's empty rhetoric
    Correct Answer:
     
    To protest nationalism's empty rhetoric

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What types of subjects did William Carlos Williams use for his poems?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Commonplace, everyday
    Correct Answer:
     
    Commonplace, everyday

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to W. E. B. Du Bois, what major problem did African Americans face at the turn of the century?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Double-consciousness of self
    Correct Answer:
     
    Double-consciousness of self

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was Frank Lloyd Wright's inclusion in the International Style exhibition of 1922 ironic?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He despised the International Style
    Correct Answer:
     
    He despised the International Style

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How did Bessie Smith distinguish her blues songs?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Adding a chromatic note before a line's last note
    Correct Answer:
     
    Adding a chromatic note before a line's last note

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What artistic movement do the quilts of Gee's Bend, AL, resemble?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Modern abstract
    Correct Answer:
     
    Modern abstract