Tuesday, March 07, 2017

HUM 111 Week 10 Winter 2017



  • Complete and submit Week 10 Quiz 9: Chapters 17 and 18
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 19: England in the Tudor Age – Henry VIII to Shakespeare
    • Chapter 20: The Early Counter-Reformation and Mannerism – Italy and Spain
  • View the Week 10 Would You Like to Know More? videos
  • Explore the Week 10 Music Folder
  • Do the Week 10 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 10 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options)
  • Complete and submit Week 10 Assignment 3
19 England in the Tudor Age “THIS OTHER EDEN” 635

THINKING AHEAD

    19.1 Explain how Henry VIII transformed England.

    19.2 Outline the flourishing of the arts under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I.

    19.3 Characterize the Elizabethan stage and the contributions to it of both Marlowe and Shakespeare.

    19.4 Describe the unique features of the English colonization of the Americas.


HUM111 Music for Week 10

In this week's readings (chaps. 19 and 20), there are four musical compositions mentioned. These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube or elsewhere on the internet. Watch and give these a listen. Here below are some background descriptions of each work--and the links to the YouTubes or online presentations (and sometimes other helps).

-------------------------- Fyre and Lightning (by Thomas Morley) (Chap. 19, p. 650) http://classical-music-online.net/en/production/11501

(The short lyrics are on p. 650.)

Read carefully pp. 650-1 in chap. 19 before listening to this.

Then, listen for the two voices copying each other in rapid succession.

Morley wrote this secular madrigal around 1595 AD.

Verily, verily, I say unto you (by Thomas Tallis) (chap. 19, pp. 650-651)

 http://vimeo.com/22477250

English text : Verily, verily I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, ye have not life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day (bis) For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. Het that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood dwelleth in me, and I in him.

Read pp. 650-1 in chap. 19, and then give this a listen.

This was composed by Thomas Tallis in the mid to late 1500s AD.

This is an example of a verse anthem written for the Anglican Communion Service.




Verily, verily I say unto you-Thomas Tallis from PARAFRAZA choir on Vimeo.

(Based on English translation of John 6:53-56;

See lyrics at http://www.free-scores.com/download-sheet-music.php?pdf=12214; This next links shows lyrics and sheet music:

English text : Verily, verily I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, ye have not life in you. Whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day (bis) For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. Het that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood dwelleth in me, and I in him. Source / Web : http://www.choralwiki.org


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaQ_DRvHqr8)

Read pp. 650-1 in chap. 19, and then give this a listen.

This was composed by Thomas Tallis in the mid to late 1500s AD.

This is an example of a verse anthem written for the Anglican Communion Service.

-------------------------------

Missa Papae Marcelli, Credo (Palestrina) (chap. 20, pp. 665-667)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuDAOrd4mr8

Solemnity of Sts Peter and Paul Papal Mass - Holy Mass and imposition of the Pallium on new Metropolitan Archbishops Vatican Basilica, 29 June 2013

https://youtu.be/wuDAOrd4mr8



(for Latin text and translation, go to http://www.hyperion-records.co.uk/dw.asp?dc=W747_66266 .


Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.



Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,
factorem coeli et terrae,
visibilium omnium, et invisibilium.
Et in unum Dominum Iesum Christum,
Filium Dei unigenitum.
Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula.
Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine,
Deum verum de Deo vero,
genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri,
per quem omnia facta sunt.
Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram
salutem descendit de coelis, et incarnatus est
de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine,
et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis
sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est.
Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum
scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum:
sedet ad dexteram Patris.
Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, iudicare vivos
et mortuos: cuius regni non erit finis.
Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum et vivificantem:
qui ex Patre Filioque procedit,
qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur
et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per prophetas.
Et unam sanctam catholicam
et apostolicam ecclesiam. Confiteor unum
baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.
Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum,
et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.
I believe in one God, the Father almighty,
maker of heaven and earth,
and of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ,
the only-begotten son of God.
Born of his Father before all worlds.
God of God, light of light,
very God of very God,
begotten not made, being of one substance with the
Father, by whom all things were made.
Who for us men, and for our salvation,
came down from heaven, and was incarnate
by the Holy Ghost of the virgin Mary,
and was made man. And was crucified also for us
under Pontius Pilate, he suffered and was buried.
And the third day he rose again according to
the scriptures. And ascended into heaven:
and sitteth on the right hand of the Father.
And he shall come again with glory to judge the quick
and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end.
And in the Holy spirit, Lord and giver of life:
who proceedeth from the Father and Son,
who with the Father and Son is worshipped
and glorified: who spoke by the prophets.
And in one, holy, catholic
and apostolic church. I acknowledge one
baptism for the remission of sins.

And I look for the resurrection of the dead,
and the life of the world to come. Amen.


Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus
Dominus Deus sabaoth.
Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
Hosanna in excelsis.
Holy, Holy, Holy
Lord God of hosts.
Heaven and earth are full of thy glory.
Hosanna in the highest.



Benedictus qui venit
in nomine Domini.
Hosanna in excelsis.
Blessed is he who cometh
in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.


Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi, miserere nobis.
O Lamb of God, that takest away
the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.


Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.
O Lamb of God, that takest away
the sins of the world, grant us peace.


 



The story of the Missa Papae Marcelli is difficult to fix down in fact. The myth holds that the cardinals attending the Council of Trent were about to decide that singing polyphony in church services was unacceptable, for reasons ranging from the inaudibility of the texts to the complaint that polyphony was too sensuous and too intellectualized (quite a complaint!). There was a move to reinstate plainchant as the only permissible church music. One of the leading figures in the debate was the man who became Pope Marcellus II in 1555 and it is probable, given the title of the eventual composition, that Marcellus asked Palestrina to write a piece which would show the world that part-music could be both concise and musically valuable. Certainly in two of its movements—the Gloria and Credo—the Missa Papae Marcelli has a precision of word-setting which was innovative, though the other three movements are much more elaborate and the second Agnus Dei possibly the most mathematically complex movement Palestrina ever wrote. The evidence is rather confused, then, though it is surely significant that the syllabic style of the Gloria and Credo was recognized at the time as being novel: when the Mass came to be published in 1567 it was prefaced with the words ‘novo modorum genere’ (broadly speaking ‘a new form of expression’).

Once there, click on the tab “Latin” and then by the tab “English” next to the listing of each movement—for movements 1 through 5b).

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. Peter Phillips © 2007 Lord, have mercy. Christ, have mercy. Lord, have mercy.


Read pp. 665-7 in chap. 20 carefully, then give this a listen.

Missa Papae Marcelli means "Mass for Pope Marcellus" and was composed by Palestrina in 1567.

The YouTube selection above shows a setting in Rome’s St. Peters Basilicas.

Palestrina composed many works for Catholic masses; this polyphonic mass example fits very well the Counter-Reformation mandates of the Council of Trent.

 The Credo (=creed) is one section of the mass, and the words are based on the ancient Nicene Creed, a profession of faith.

Gloria in excelsis Deo et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, rex coelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens, Domine Fili unigenite, Iesu Christe. Domine Deus, agnus Dei, Filius Patris, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis; qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram: qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. Tu solus altissimus, Iesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei Patris. Amen. Peter Phillips © 2007 Glory be to God on high and on earth peace, good will towards men. We praise thee. We bless thee. We worship thee. We glorify thee. We give thanks to thee for thy great glory. Lord God, heavenly king, God the Father almighty, Lord the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ. Lord God, lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer; that sittest at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For thou only art holy. Thou only art the Lord. Thou only art most high, Jesus Christ. With the Holy Ghost, in the glory of God the Father. Amen.

Movement 3: Credo[9'43] Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium, et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Iesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis, et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria virgine, et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, iudicare vivos et mortuos: cuius regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit, qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per prophetas. Et unam sanctam catholicam et apostolicam ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum, et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen. Peter Phillips © 2007

I believe in one God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten son of God. Born of his Father before all worlds. God of God, light of light, very God of very God, begotten not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made. Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the virgin Mary, and was made man. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, he suffered and was buried. And the third day he rose again according to the scriptures. And ascended into heaven: and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. And he shall come again with glory to judge the quick and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no end. And in the Holy spirit, Lord and giver of life: who proceedeth from the Father and Son, who with the Father and Son is worshipped and glorified: who spoke by the prophets. And in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. Peter Phillips © 2007



 Super Flumina Babylonis (Palestrina) (chap. 20, pp. 665-667) (based on a Psalm; see the Latin text with English translation of the Psalm at

http://www.latinvulgate.com/verse.aspx?t=0&b=21&c=136)

Read pp. 665-667 in chap. 20 carefully, then give this a listen.

Super Flumina Babylonis means "By the Rivers of Babylon", derived from Psalm 137 (=Psalm 136 in some versions of the Bible).

This polyphonic motet was (and is) sung during Catholic worship. Palestrina composed it in 1581.

Super Flumina Babylons - The Sixteen, 4:03

Super Flumina Babylons - The Sixteen 4:03 from the BBC Documentary "The God's Composer"

https://youtu.be/0ueBuANB4tU



Boney M Rivers of Babylon Lyrics HQ, 4:40

https://youtu.be/vz6LRBLPKSM










Week 10 Explore


Shakespeare
  • Chapter 19 (pp. 650-656), selections 19.11a and 19.11b. Soliloquy defined on p. 653; review Week 10 Music Folder

An utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself or herself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often used as a device in drama to disclose a character's innermost thoughts): Hamlet's soliloquy begins with “To be or not to be.”.
Counter-Reform and Mannerism


The church of San Giorgio Maggiore was built on the San Giorgio Island between 1566 and 1600 using the design of Palladio. After 1590 the workshop of Tintoretto was commissioned to paint big canvases for decorating it. Due the large number of commissions, Tintoretto in his late years increasingly relied on his coworkers. However, three surviving paintings placed in a chapel consacrated in 1592 - The Jews in the Desert, The Last Supper and The Entombment - were certainly painted by Tintoretto himself.
Tintoretto painted the Last Supper several times in his life. This version can be described as the fest of the poors, in which the figure of Christ mingles with the crowds of apostles. However, a supernatural scene with winged figures comes into sight by the light around his head. This endows the painting with a visional character clearly differentiating it from paintings of the same subject made by earlier painters like Leonardo.
The curious diagonal position of the table for the Last Supper is explained by the installation of the painting on the right wall of the presbytery of San Giorgio Maggiore. The table was to be perceived by visitors to the church as an extension in perspective of the high altar, or conversely the high altar was to be seen as a prolongation of the table for the Last Supper. The priestly bearing of Christ and the liturgical utensils on the small side table play on the same connection. The winged apparitions characterize the Eucharist as the "bread of angels" (St Thomas Aquinas) and in their non-material, other-worldly nature indicate the mystery of transubstantiation (the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ). While the composition of The Last Supper as a whole follows a wall hanging by Giulio Romano depicting the Passover, the detail of the eerily flickering candlestick was suggested by a Crowning with Thorns by Titian (Alte Pinakothek, Munich), which Tintoretto had acquired from the master's estate when he died.


Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, 1594, oil on canvas, 12 x 18 feet, 8 inches (San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice) Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker.
Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper, 4:55

https://youtu.be/YhsjS5CtCTE


  • Chapter 14 (p. 491), Leonardo’s Last Supper (Fig. 14.25)


http://www.philvaz.com/apologetics/LeonardoLastSupper.htm

  • Chapter 20 (pp. 678-680 with Fig. 20.16), "Last Supper" painting and Inquisition trial of the artist Veronese













Paolo Veronese Before the Inquisition in Venice Report of the sitting of the Tribunal of the Inquisition on Saturday July eighteenth, 1573 This is Charles Yriarte's translation from Italian, published, among other places in Francis Marion Crawford's Salve Venetia, New York, 1905. Vol. II: 29-34. This day, July eighteenth, 1573. Called to the Holy Office before the sacred tribunal, Paolo Galliari Veronese residing in the parish of Saint Samuel, and being asked as to his name and surname replied as above. Being asked as to his profession: Answer. I paint and make figures. Question. Do you know the reasons why you have been called here? A. No. Q. Can you imagine what those reasons may be? A. I can well imagine. Q. Say what you think about them. A. I fancy that it concerns what was said to me by the reverend fathers, or rather by the prior of the monastery of San Giovanni e Paolo, whose name I did not know, but who informed me that he had been here, and that your Most Illustrious Lordships had ordered him to cause to be placed in the picture a Magdalen instead of the dog; and I answered him that very readily I would do all that was needful for my reputation and for the honor of the picture; but that I did not understand what this figure of the Magdalen could be doing here; and this for many reasons, which I will tell, when occasion is granted me to speak. Q. What is the picture to which you have been referring? A. It is the picture which represents the Last Supper of Jesus Christ with His disciples in the house of Simon. Q. Where is this picture? A. In the refectory of the monks of San Giovanni e Paolo. Q. Is it painted in fresco or on wood or on canvas? A. It is on canvas. Q. How many feet does it measure in height? A. It may measure seventeen feet. Q. And in breadth? A. About thirty-nine. Q. How many have you represented? And what is each one doing? A. First there is the innkeeper, Simon; then, under him, a carving squire whom I supposed to have come there for his pleasure, to see how the service of the table is managed. There are many other figures which I cannot remember, however, as it is a long time since I painted that picture. Q. How you painted other Last Suppers besides that one? A. Yes. Q. How many have you painted? Where are they? A. I painted one at Verona for the reverend monks of San Lazzaro; it is in their refectory. Another is in the refectory of the reverend brothers of San Giorgio here in Venice. Q. But that one is not a Last Supper, and is not even called the Supper of Our Lord. A. I painted another in the refectory of San Sebastiano in Venice, another at Padua for the Fathers of the Maddalena. I do not remember to have made any others. Q. In this Supper which you painted for San Giovanni e Paolo, what signifies the figure of him whose nose is bleeding? A. He is a servant who has a nose-bleed from some accident. Q. What signify those armed men dressed in the fashion of Germany, with halberds in their hands? A. It is necessary here that I should say a score of words. Q. Say them. A. We painters use the same license as poets and madmen, and I represented those halberdiers, the one drinking, the other eating at the foot of the stairs, but both ready to do their duty, because it seemed to me suitable and possible that the master of the house, who as I have been told was rich and magnificent, would have such servants. Q. And the one who is dressed as a jester with a parrot on his wrist, why did you put him into the picture? A. He is there as an ornament, as it is usual to insert such figures. Q. Who are the persons at the table of Our Lord? A. The twelve apostles. Q. What is Saint Peter doing, who is the first? A. He is carving the lamb in order to pass it to the other part of the table. Q. What is he doing who comes next? A. He holds a plate to see what Saint Peter will give him. Q. Tell us what the third is doing. A. He is picking his teeth with a fork. Q. And who are really the persons whom you admit to have been present at this Supper? A. I believe that there was only Christ and His Apostles; but when I have some space left over in a picture I adorn it with figures of my own invention. Q. Did some person order you to paint Germans, buffoons, and other similar figures in this picture? A. No, but I was commissioned to adorn it as I thought proper; now it is very large and can contain many figures. Q. Should not the ornaments which you were accustomed to paint in pictures be suitable and in direct relation to the subject, or are they left to your fancy, quite without discretion or reason? A. I paint my pictures with all the considerations which are natural to my intelligence, and according as my intelligence understands them. Q. Does it seem suitable to you, in the Last Supper of our Lord, to represent buffoons, drunken Germans, dwarfs, and other such absurdities? A. Certainly not. Q. Then why have you done it? A. I did it on the supposition that those people were outside the room in which the Supper was taking place. Q. Do you not know that in Germany and other countries infested by heresy, it is habitual, by means of pictures full of absurdities, to vilify and turn to ridicule the things of the Holy Catholic Church, in order to teach false doctrine to ignorant people who have no common sense? A. I agree that it is wrong, but I repeat what I have said, that it is my duty to follow the examples given me by my masters. Q. Well, what did your masters paint? Things of this kind, perhaps? A. In Rome, in the Pope's Chapel, Michelangelo has represented Our Lord, His Mother, St. John, St. Peter, and the celestial court; and he has represented all these personages nude, including the Virgin Mary, and in various attitudes not inspired by the most profound religious feeling. Q. Do you not understand that in representing the Last Judgment, in which it is a mistake to suppose that clothes are worn, there was no reason for painting any? But in these figures what is there that is not inspired by the Holy Spirit? There are neither buffoons, dogs, weapons, nor other absurdities. Do you think, therefore, according to this or that view, that you did well in so painting your picture, and will you try to prove that it is a good and decent thing? A. No, my most Illustrious Sirs; I do not pretend to prove it, but I had not thought that I was doing wrong; I had never taken so many things into consideration. I had been far from imaging such a great disorder, all the more as I had placed these buffoons outside the room in which Our Lord was sitting. These things having been said, the judges pronounced that the aforesaid Paolo should be obliged to correct his picture within the space of three months from the date of the reprimand, according to the judgments and decision of the Sacred Court, and altogether at the expense of the said Paolo. "Et ita decreverunt omni melius modo." (And so they decided everything for the best!) Crawford observed: "The existing picture proves that Veronese paid no attention to the recommendations of the Court, for I find that it contains every figure referred to."

Week 10 Explore
Shakespeare
Chapter 19 (pp. 650-656), selections 19.11a and 19.11b. Soliloquy defined on p. 653; review Week 10 Music Folder
Counter-Reform and Mannerism
Chapter 20 (pp. 665-681), Mannerist art; (see also p. 591 in Chapter 17); review Week 10 Music folder
Tintoretto's Last Supper at http://www.wga.hu/html_m/t/tintoret/5_1580s/3lastsup.html (click on the image to enlarge); also at Fig. 20.9 on p. 674
Tintoretto’s Last Supper, video, at http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/jacopo-tintorettos-last-supper.html
Chapter 14 (p. 491), Leonardo’s Last Supper (Fig. 14.25)
Leonardo’s Last Supper at http://www.philvaz.com/apologetics/LeonardoLastSupper.htm
Chapter 20 (pp. 678-680 with Fig. 20.16), "Last Supper" painting and Inquisition trial of the artist Veronese
Trial of Veronese at http://members.efn.org/~acd/Veronese.html




The Reign of Henry VIII 638


THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII

    How did Henry VIII transform England?

However controversial he may have been, Henry VIII brought England to a position of international prominence. By the end of his daughter Elizabeth’s reign in 1603, London could, with some justification, claim to be the very center of Western culture. It was Henry who first insisted the monarch be addressed as “Your Majesty,” rather than “Your Grace” or “Your Highness,” in accord with the air of magnificence that he cultivated in all things associated with his court.

Mini Bio: Henry VIII, 2:59

Henry Tudor was born at Greenwich Palace in 1491. Following the death of his brother, he became Henry VIII, king of England. He married six times and initiated the English Reformation. His son, Edward VI, succeeded him after his death in 1547.

https://youtu.be/vGi2TYAQfXE





Humanism in Tudor England: Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More 638


The same year Henry assumed the throne, in 1509, Desiderius Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly (see Chapter 17), the work that so influenced Martin Luther. Erasmus had an incalculable influence on Henry VIII’s thinking about kingship. For one thing, his attack on monastic life in In Praise of Folly certainly helped Henry justify the dissolution of the monasteries. In his Adages, written off and on from 1500 to 1533, Erasmus opened with a piece about the lessons of Homer’s Iliad (see Chapter 4) that Henry could only have understood as an admonition about his own behavior, particularly his predilection for changing wives at a whim, and the lavishness of his court (Reading 19.1):

Narration 9: "Erasmus of Rotterdam to his Dear Friend Thomas More on the Publication of Praise, 2:23

https://youtu.be/viI3ZCVRk5M





Hans Holbein and Portrait Painting 641


Hans Holbein was one of the most important portraitists of wealthy society in Europe, and he painted hundreds of works during his two extended visits to England (1526–28, 1532–43), including many of Henry (see Fig. 19.3), four of his six wives, scores of portraits of English courtiers and humanists, and just as many of the London German merchant community. Each portrait conveyed the sitter’s status and captured something of the sitter’s identity. The English taste for this genre of painting can be understood as an expression of the culture’s general humanist emphasis on individualism.

Hans Holbein's Art - The Younger, 3:14

Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1498 — between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.

He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He also produced religious art, satire and Reformation propaganda, and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic school. Born in Augsburg, Holbein worked mainly in Basel as a young artist. At first he painted murals and religious works and designed for stained glass windows and printed books.

He also painted the occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of the humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons. His Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy, France, and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance Humanism.

The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own.

Holbein travelled to England in 1526 in search of work, with a recommendation from Erasmus. He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he quickly built a high reputation. After returning to Basel for four years, he resumed his career in England in 1532. This time he worked for the twin founts of patronage, Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was King's Painter to King Henry VIII. In this role, he produced not only portraits and festive decorations but designs for jewellery, plate, and other precious objects.

His portraits of the royal family and nobles are a vivid record of a brilliant court in the momentous years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the English church. Holbein's art was prized from early in his career. The French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him "the Apelles of our time". Holbein has also been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school. After his death, some of his work was lost, but much was collected, and by the 19th century, Holbein was recognised among the great portrait masters. Recent exhibitions have also highlighted his versatility. He turned his fluid line to designs ranging from intricate jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbein's art has sometimes been called realist, since he drew and painted with a rare precision. His portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness; and it is through Holbein's eyes that many famous figures of his day, such as Erasmus and More, are now "seen". Holbein was never content, however, with outward appearance. He embedded layers of symbolism, allusion, and paradox in his art, to the lasting fascination of scholars. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture "remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, and a combined richness and purity of style".

https://youtu.be/TYhy6BQUPBc





Henry’s Marriages and His Defiance of Rome 642


One of Holbein’s most challenging tasks was painting the portraits of Henry’s succession of wives. These portraits were politically sensitive, as Henry’s marriages posed a serious threat to his position as “Defender of the Faith.” His marriage to Katharine of Aragon forced the issue. By 1527, Katharine had endured many miscarriages and stillbirths, and had successfully delivered only two children, one of whom survived, Mary, born February 18, 1516. Henry, who desperately wanted a male heir, had also fallen in love with one of Katharine’s ladies-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn. He could not marry Anne unless the pope agreed to annul his marriage to Katharine, and the pope might not see Henry’s side of the argument. Not only had Katharine borne two children during their 18-year marriage, but she was also the aunt of Charles V, who happened to be holding Pope Clement VII hostage in 1527 after the Sack of Rome. Furthermore, Henry’s marriage to Katharine had required a special papal dispensation in the first place (since Katharine had first been married to Henry’s now-deceased brother Arthur). When Henry’s annulment was denied, he convened what became known as the Protestant Parliament, which quickly recognized Henry, not the pope, as head of the Church of England. England was now in open defiance of the papacy, and Henry no longer its “Defender of the Faith,” although he continued to claim the title for the English crown. In January 1533, he married the pregnant Anne Boleyn.

2:25 The Six Wives Of Henry VIII
 
England, Apr 21 1509, Henry VIII became King.

He was determined to create a Tudor dynasty. Catherine Of Aragon - 1st Wife Born: Dec 16 1485 Married: June 11 1509 Divorced/Annulled: 1533 Died: Jan 7 1536 Catherine was born in Madrid, Spain, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon & Queen Isabella I of Castile. She married Henry's older brother Arthur, Nov 14 1501, but Apr 2 1502 he died of "sweating sickness". Henry VII did not want to return Catherine Of Aragon's dowry, so arranged for her to marry Henry. He was 5 years younger than her. Henry VII, then left it on hold, keeping the dowry. After Henry VIII was crowned, he married Catherine. Although she bore Henry 6 children, only 1 survived. She would become Queen Mary, known as "Bloody Mary". Henry believed the reason for the lack of a male heir was a cursed marriage as Catherine of Aragon was his brother, Prince Arthur's widow. After 24 years of marriage, he declared it illegal. Catherine was banished from court dying 2 years later.

Anne Boleyn - 2nd Wife Born: c1500 Married: Jan 1533 Divorced/Annulled: 1536 Executed: May 19 1536 When Henry VIII noticed Anne, her sister was his mistress. Anne was stylish & an accomplished musician. Henry attempted to seduce her, but she rejected him. His solution was to annull his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, & wed Anne. Pope Clement refused to grant this, so Henry broke the church in England away from Rome. He granted his own annulment & married Anne. She gave birth to a girl who would reign as Queen Elizabeth I, followed by 3 miscarriages. Anne Boleyn had a bad temper, argued with Henry & made enemies at court. Henry became impatient with her behaviour & lack of a male heir. He also wanted to marry Jane Seymour. Henry said he had been seduced into marriage by sorcery. Anne was sent to the Tower of London, accused of adultery & plotting the king's death. Found guilty she was beheaded on Tower Green. 

Jane Seymour - 3rd Wife Born: c1509 Married: 30 May 1536 Died: 24 Oct 1537 A day after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry VIII became engaged to Jane Seymour, who had served in Anne Boleyn's household. They married 10 days later. Jane was very different to Anne Boleyn. She was fair & her household was strictly run. Oct 12 1537, Jane gave birth to a boy. Henry was overjoyed. He had a male heir! The boy would become King Edward VI, but die aged just 15. Jane died 12 days later from an infection. Henry mourned her death & did not remarry for 3 years. Jane Seymour was Henry VIII's favourite wife. He is buried next to her.

Anne of Cleves - 4th Wife Born: 1515 Married: Jan 6 1540 Divorced: July 1540 Died: July 16 1557 After Henry VIII decided to marry again, Anne of Cleves & her sister Amelia were considered. Hans Holbein the Younger, was sent to Germany to paint them & told to make the paintings realistic. Marriage was agreed, however Anne was not as described, looking old for her age. Henry called her a "Flanders Mare". The feeling was mutual. But the marriage went ahead to preserve England's relations with Germany. After just six months it was annulled. In gratitude to her consenting to the annulment, Henry gave Anne land & property. They became good friends.

Catherine Howard - 5th Wife Born: c1521 Married: July 28 1540 Executed: February 13 1542 Catherine Howard was a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves. Henry married her a few weeks after his divorce. She was frivolous, a dangerous trait to have being married to Henry VIII. He showered Catherine with expensive gifts. However, he was 30 years older & she found him unattractive beginning an affair with Thomas Culpeper, a favourite of Henry VIII. Soon news reached Henry. After being shown a love letter, Catherine was charged with treason, adultery & for not informing Henry VIII of affairs she had before the marriage. She was executed aged either 20 or 21.

Catherine Parr - 6th Wife Born: 1512 Married: July 12 1543 Widowed: Jan 28 1547 Died: Sept 5 1548 Catherine, probably the most influential of Henry VIII's wives, worked in the household of his daughter Mary. She was a widow in a relationship with Thomas Seymour (1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley). After Henry VIII proposed, she was obliged to marry him. Catherine had good relations with all of Henry VIII's children, helping to reconcile him with daughters, Mary & Elizabeth. July-Sept 1544 Catherine was made regent effectively ruling the country. This was whilst Henry was on his last military campaign. It has been speculated Catherine's character & religious beliefs were a big influence on her stepdaughter Elizabeth I. Henry VIII was sick & Catherine was more nurse than wife. Henry VIII died Jan 28 1547 & was buried in Windsor next to his third wife, Jane Seymour. Catherine Parr then married Thomas Seymour, but soon died from childbirth complications.

https://youtu.be/Gqs0HBcdc74 



-NEW- I'm Henry VIII I Am Herman's Hermits HD {Stereo}, 1:56

1965.......#1 U.S. Billboard Hot 100, #27 Australia

https://youtu.be/zoCoxOBsBvw







Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth: The Continuing Religious Conflict 643


Edward VI was only 10 years of age when he became king in 1547. A Protestant himself, and influenced by his Protestant regents, Edward ordered the removal of images and altars from churches, decreed salvation by faith alone and the supremacy of the Bible, and overturned Catholic doctrines that his father had upheld even as he had revolted from the Church itself.

The changes were short-lived, for when Edward died at age 16 in 1553, his half-sister Mary I (Fig. 19.6), a devout Catholic, assumed the throne. She quickly restored Catholic doctrine and practice. She also made a political marriage with the militant Prince Philip of Spain in 1554—making the Catholic Philip king of England (he would become King Philip II of Spain in 1556—see Chapter 22). Mary executed 282 Protestants by burning them at the stake, and forced hundreds of others into exile in Germany and Switzerland. Mary died only five years into her reign, and Elizabeth I took the throne in 1558. Like Edward, she had been raised a Protestant, but Elizabeth strove to find a middle ground by merging, in her new Anglican Church—more formally known as the Church of England—traditional Catholic ritual and a broadly defined Protestant doctrine.

Tudor Religious Rollercoaster, 6:01

The Tudors changed the way religion, especially Christianity, was and is today, following their fluctuation from Protestantism and Catholicism in a so called 'Religious Roller-coaster'. Henry did reform the Church to Protestantism, but he had a Catholic funeral, so it's widely believed that he was still slightly Catholic, and his motives to reform the Church were simply based on ease of mind. Edward however, had clearer incentive, in that he completely 'Protestantised' the Church, finishing his dad's job with extreme bans on Catholic virtues. Mary I, commonly known as Bloody Mary was brought up as a Catholic, and she was a deep believer in Catholicism, brutally attacking and punishing Protestants, by burning them on the stake. Elizabeth I was a comitted Protestant, but unlike Mary I, wanted to stay popular with the public, even Catholics. She did press higher charges and taxes on Catholics, so she was a Protestant, but not all the way as she wanted to keep her people happy.

https://youtu.be/m6wXXG3a2GQ







Elizabethan England 646


    How did the arts flourish under Queen Elizabeth I?

England flourished under Elizabeth I, even though it remained religiously divided, sometimes beset by rebellion, mired in personal and political intrigue, and threatened by Catholic Europe. What held English society together was a common sense of destiny and purpose, a shared belief in the greatness of England itself, and a booming national economy. Some in England soon came to see it as the center of culture, or even of the world, with London as its shining light. We find these feelings of national pride articulated by the princely character John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, in the historical play Richard II, written by William Shakespeare (1564–1616) a mere six years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English navy (Reading 19.3):

Elizabethan England, 4:49

A short screencast about the Daily Life in Elizabethan England. Including clothing, food, social status, warfare, role of religion and work.

https://youtu.be/_kDKZeLPqJ0




Elizabeth I and the Arts: Painting and Poetic Forms 647


Shakespeare was the direct beneficiary of a monarchy that championed the arts, especially the literary arts. Elizabeth I could speak Latin, French, and Italian, and was reasonably competent in Greek. In painting, she favored portraiture, like her father, and was herself the subject of many portraits. Her Armada Portrait (see Fig. 19.7) is typical of post-Holbein portraiture in the Elizabethan court. Few English painters could match Holbein’s skill in depicting volume, texture, and light. Most tended to concentrate on elaborate decorative effects. Set behind the flat patterning of her lace collar, pearl necklaces, and jewel-encrusted dress, Elizabeth appears almost bodiless—the exact opposite of Holbein’s emphatically embodied portrait of Henry VIII (see Fig. 19.3). This sense of two-dimensionality appears, too, in the elaborate detail of Elizabeth’s gown in the so-called Darnley Portrait of Elizabeth I (Fig. 19.8), with its repetitive interlace of intricate pattern and rich texture.

Elizabethan Portraiture: Iconography of Ubiquity, 3:38

Queen Elizabeth never looks quite real in her portraits... I propose a couple reasons why. Please subscribe for more Art History Videos. Written, Edited, and narrated by James Earle with the help of Dr. Lesley Peterson

https://youtu.be/twqgDABJtfg




Music in the Elizabethan Age 650


Elizabeth was an accomplished musician and an avid fan of the madrigal. Her enthusiasm for this musical form probably accounts for its popularity in England during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. A madrigal is a complex polyphonic unaccompanied song based on a secular text (see Chapter 15). In 1588, Music from across the Alps, an anthology of 57 Italian madrigals translated into English, was published in London. Two years later, Italian Madrigals Englished appeared. But English composers were not to be outdone. Thomas Morley, the organist at Saint Paul’s Cathedral, complained about the English public’s penchant for liking “whatever cometh from beyond the seas (and specially from Italy) be it ever so simple, [while] condemning that which is done at home though it be never so excellent.” Morley was owner of the monopoly on publishing music in England, so his sentiments were obviously self-serving. Nevertheless, he wrote and published more madrigals than any other English composer, many of them inspired by Italian sources. In 1601, he also published an anthology of madrigals honoring Elizabeth, The Triumphs of Oriana, named for a mythological shepherd queen, Oriana, who personified Elizabeth.

Great Music from the court of Elizabeth 1 by the Elizabethan Consort.wmv, 4:17

Elizabeth I's court was a great place to be a musician, and opportunities to make music were all around, whether for use in religious services, or for pleasurable moments during entertainment and relaxation. William Byrd was the queen's particular musical favourite, but this did not exclude others such as Morley or Allison from getting a hearing. This album concentrates on the secular rather than the sacred, and, from music in praise of the Queen, and of England, to dance tunes and songs, it presents a selection of many of the types of music which a courtier in late sixteenth century London would have heard and known. (from album description) I claim no right to this song; and this video is not 'monetized.' The video was simply created for a class to showcase Elizabethan music, and I happen to have bought the CD of Elizabethan Consort when I was in Oxford as a Study Abroad Program student.

https://youtu.be/q_RcMug23po







The Elizabethan Stage 651


    What are the characteristics of the Elizabethan stage and what were Marlowe’s and Shakespeare’s contributions to it?

The most remarkable cultural characteristic of Elizabethan England was the rise of drama as a popular art form. The rise of theater coincided with the growth of the middle and upper classes, who now had the leisure time to enjoy an occasional play or two. For centuries, the English had adored theatrical pageantry—minstrels and acrobats passing through town, guild pageants traveling through city streets (pageant literally means “movable stage” in Middle English), and especially religious plays. Chief among the last of these are the so-called miracle and morality plays.

In a strict sense, miracle plays are nonscriptural dramas based upon the legend of some saint or of a miracle performed by some saint or sacred object. In a broader sense, they include scriptural dramas. Miracle plays became very popular in the early fourteenth century. Easter and Christmas plays were joined into cycles representing the whole course of sacred history from the Creation to the Last Judgment. They were performed at a number of locations around the city in a single day, generally by townspeople. Four such cycles survive—the Towneley, Chester, York, and Coventry plays. The morality plays developed out of the miracle plays in the fifteenth century. In these dramatized allegories, abstract virtues and vices or other human qualities appear in human form (a device known as personification) and either struggle for the human soul or act out some moral truth or lesson.

Early in Elizabeth’s reign, government authorities banned performances of most of these religious plays, fearing that the Catholic origins and sentiments of these dramas might stir up religious tensions. But the court itself was extremely supportive of theater in general. Henry VIII had loved what were called revels, large-scale entertainments that depicted mythological or chivalric themes in an allegorical manner organized by the king’s Master of the Revels. Henry often participated in them himself. He also employed traveling bands of players to perform interludes during breaks in the larger entertainments. Often written in doggerel verse, interludes were generally comical or allegorical. “Pyramus and Thisbe,” the play-within-a-play in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer’s Night Dream, is just such an interlude.

Until 1576, no permanent theater existed in England. Amphitheaters in Southwark, on the south bank of the Thames (see Map 19.2), were used for bear-baiting, and many inns made for natural playhouses, as they were designed around inner courtyards with upstairs rooms looking in. Companies of actors were officially adopted by noblemen, wore their patron’s feudal livery, and were officially his servants. James Burbage belonged to a troupe adopted by the earl of Leicester, known as Leicester’s Men. In the spring of 1576, Burbage opened the Theater of Shoreditch, just outside the walls of London, and the relationship between actors and patrons changed. Troupes of actors no longer depended completely on their masters; now they could also rely on the popularity of their plays to bring in profits and support themselves.

The basic price of admission to Burbage’s Theater was one penny, which in 1600 could buy one chicken or two tankards of ale. A laborer’s wage was three or four pence, or pennies, a day. Burbage’s Theater was thus affordable, which partly accounts for its success; one penny soon became the standard base price of admission for all London theaters. Although public playhouses varied, in general they were open-air structures consisting of three tiers of covered galleries (in which seats cost between three and six pence). In front of the stage, an open courtyard area held the groundlings. These theatergoers paid the one-penny base price of admission, stood throughout the performance, and wandered in and out at will, eating and drinking as they enjoyed the play. A rectangular stage, about 40 feet wide, projected into the courtyard. Behind it were exits to dressing rooms and balconies where players might look out on the action beneath them on the stage proper. Out of a trap door, in center stage, a ghost might rise.

In 1598, Burbage’s company, now headed by James’s son Richard, tore down the Shoreditch theater, in a dispute over the lease, and rebuilt it across the river in Southwark at Bankside, in the neighborhood previously associated with bear-baiting. He re-named it “The Globe” (Figs. 19.9 and 19.10). It could seat 3,000 people. The Swan and the Rose, large theaters that were already established at Bankside, could seat about the same. Watermen who transported London audiences across the river to the theaters claimed to carry 3,000 to 4,000 theatergoers to Bankside every afternoon. Including those arriving by foot across London Bridge, as many as 9,000 Londoners descended on the playhouses each day.

The Theater in Shakespeare's Time (clip), 2:32

The many facets and traditions of the Elizabethan theater and the unique characteristics of the stage are visualized within the context of the society of Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare wrote his plays for the stage on which they were performed, for the actors, and for an audience which represented a cross-section of the citizens of London. Produced by Seabourne Enterprises, Ltd.

https://youtu.be/o978_nEhyMM




Christopher Marlowe: The Legend of Faustus 653


The relationship between illusion and reality, and our inability to distinguish between the two, is, in fact, the focus of one of the most important pre-Shakespearean plays performed in London, The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus by Christopher Marlowe (1564–93). It was first performed in 1588, with great success. We know very little about Marlowe’s life, although it is clear that he served the throne in some capacity. At the time of his death, rumors surfaced that he was a spy. We do know, from a coroner’s report discovered in 1923, that he was stabbed in the eye in a brawl over a bar tab on June 1, 1593.

Dr. Faustus owes a great debt to the morality plays of the previous century. Faustus is a German professor at Luther’s Wittenberg, dissatisfied with what traditional scholarship can teach him. He turns to black magic when Mephistopheles, Lucifer’s assistant, reveals its power to him in a vision. In a scene deeply indebted to the morality play, a Good Angel and a Bad Angel argue for control of Faustus’s conscience. He signs over his soul to Lucifer for what he believes will be 24 years of pleasure and intellectual power. Although Faustus is tempted to repent, Mephistopheles wins him for good with a mimed show of the Seven Deadly Sins, a scene that also derives directly from the example of the morality plays. In a series of interludes that the audience is to understand as taking place over the passage of a great deal of time, Faustus plays a practical joke on the papal court, presents the emperor Charles V with a vision of Alexander the Great and his lover, and makes the spirit of Helen of Troy appear in a debate with his students over the question “Who is the most beautiful woman in the world?” At his death he finally realizes his mistake, expressing his thoughts in a soliloquy, or interior monologue (Reading 19.10). (A soliloquy expresses a character’s innermost thoughts. On the stage, the character appears to be talking to him- or herself, oblivious to anyone present.)

Doctor Faustus - Marlowe - Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, 2:35

Doctor Faustus, restless for knowledge, forsakes scholarship for magic and makes a pact with the Devil: if the veil spirit Mephistopheles will serve him for 24 years, Faustus will yield his soul to the Devil after death. It isn't long before Faustus has doubts about the bargain, but Mephistopheles has plenty of entertainment at hand to distract Faustus from the terrifying reality of his position and the prospect of its agonizing conclusion. In Doctor Faustus, the greatest tragedy in English before Shakespeare, Marlowe puts some of the finest poetry ever written for the stage and a good deal of anarchic comedy at the service of a mythic tale illustrating mankind's insatiable desire for knowledge and power. Featuring Paul Hilton as Faustus and Arthur Darvill as Mephistopheles: 'elegant and intelligent verse speakers' The Times. Please visit http://www.kultur.com/Doctor-Faustus-...

https://youtu.be/ILwZmZdk28Y



Did Robert Johnson really sell his soul? 5:57

Rock Expose arguing that Robert Johnson sold his soul to the Devil in exchange for guitar playing powers.

https://youtu.be/ku4zOtYd-Is




William Shakespeare: “The play’s the thing!” 653


The Rose Theatre hosted the first of Shakespeare’s plays known to have been staged in London: Henry VI, Part I, and Titus Andronicus, both performed in 1592. We actually know almost nothing about Shakespeare’s preparation to be a playwright. When he was in his twenties, during the 1580s, he lived in almost total obscurity. But beginning in about 1590, two years before his first two plays were staged, he was active in the London theater. Shakespeare’s company was Burbage’s newly renamed Lord Chamberlain’s Players at the Globe, and he earned 10 percent of its profits. He wrote his plays with specific actors in the company in mind and played only minor roles himself. Richard Burbage was the leading man, playing the title role in Shakespeare’s major tragedies Richard II, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. Though many of Shakespeare’s characters sing—and music plays an important role in the plays—none of the characters played by Burbage ever sing a note, because Burbage himself was tone-deaf.

William Shakespeare - Mini Biography, 4:43

Watch a short video biography of William Shakespeare, The Bard of Avon best known for his plays "Hamlet," "Romeo and Juliet," and "King Lear." Learn more about William Shakespeare: http://bit.ly/TPrqTS Watch more videos of William Shakespeare: http://bit.ly/UC7gxS


https://youtu.be/geev441vbMI




The English in Virginia 656


    What was unique about the English colonization of the Americas?

In one of his last plays, The Tempest, first performed in November 1611, Shakespeare created a work that many scholars find tempting to read as a parable of the colonial exploitation of the Americas. His chief protagonist, Prospero, once Duke of Milan, has been stranded on a remote island for 12 years with his daughter Miranda, the two having been left to die on a raft at sea by Prospero’s jealous brother. Over the years, Prospero has assumed control of the island and its spirits and nymphs, including Ariel, the chief agent of Prospero’s considerable magical powers, whom he has promised to one day free, and Caliban, his servant, described as a monster, a “thing of darkness … as disproportion’d in his manners / As in his shape.” Caliban rankles at his servitude. Told that he should be grateful for having learned language, he replies:

    You taught me language; and my proft on’t
    Is, I know how to curse: the red plague rid you
    For learning me your language!

It is easy enough, then, to see Caliban as a figure for the Native American (it seems likely that Shakespeare was reading a new English translation of Montaigne’s essay “Of Cannibals” [see Reading 17.7 in Chapter 17] as he wrote the play), and Prospero as the embodiment of colonial overseer.

Whether Shakespeare intended this reading—or instead was interested only in exploring the faces of political power in more general terms—we can be certain that he was well aware of England’s colonial aspirations. Faced with the prospect of an ever more powerful and increasingly wealthy Hispanic Catholic presence in the Americas, England sought to establish its own colonial foothold in the New World as well. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh (1552–1618) secured a charter from Queen Elizabeth giving him the right “to discover, search, find and view such remote heathen and barbarous lands, countries and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited by Christian people as to him, his heirs and assigns, to every or any of them shall seem good, and the same to have hold and occupy and enjoy, to him his heirs and assigns forever.” America, north of Florida at least, was Raleigh’s for the taking.
Shakespeare's Brave New World: Virginia, 4:31
Although Shakespeare's beastly Caliban, in the Tempest, is overtly compared to Native Americans, at play's end, the character confesses his errors and promises, thereafter "to seek for grace", leaving room in the audience's mind for the possibility of his redemption. Meanwhile, the Bard expresses the hopes of the best of Englishmen and Natives that something truly noble might come from the experiment: a biracial, or even a multi-racial, society. This ideal is movingly expressed by the virginal Miranda on her first encounter with the great variety of humanity: "O, Brave New World, that has such creatures in it!" The clips are from BBC’s The Shakespeare Plays: The Tempest (1980); The Tempest (2010); Prospero’s Books (1991); “Wishbone: The Tempest”; The Tempest (1983); The Tempest (1979); “Shakespeare Behind Bars: The Tempest”; Animated Shakespeare: “The Tempest”; “Doug”; “Sealab 2021”; O Brother, Where Art Thou (2000); ESPN SportsCenter; “Amistad II” (satire); The Tempest (1998); Forbidden Planet (1956); Star Trek: “Requiem for Methusela”; Shakespeare in Love (1998); The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders (1996).
https://youtu.be/YoXpLHwJH4c



The Roanoke Colonies 656


An expedition led by two of Raleigh’s lieutenants determined that the best place to establish such a colony was the Outer Banks of present-day North Carolina. From there, they believed, it would be possible to raid Spanish settlements to the south, as well as explore the as yet uncharted territories inland. To those ends, Raleigh dispatched an expedition of 108 men in the spring of 1585, which was composed almost entirely of soldiers who had fought to establish English rule in Ireland. In June, seven vessels led by Sir Richard Greenville landed on an island they called Roanoke, after the word for “money” in the language of the Algonquin peoples whom they found living in the larger region, which they named Virginia, after Queen Elizabeth, the “Virgin Queen.”

The first expedition was short-lived. For one, Greenville’s supply ship was grounded on a shoal off the Outer Banks, and almost all the company’s supplies were lost. Greenville returned to England in order to resupply the colony. In his absence, Algonquian Indians did at first come to their aid, but relations quickly deteriorated and within a year, the desperate settlers sailed home on board a ship commanded by Sir Francis Drake (1540–96), who stopped at Roanoke on his way home from the Caribbean on a mission, also financed by Raleigh, to capture Spanish treasure ships

Undaunted, Raleigh organized a second expedition, this one to be headed by a member of the original 1585 expedition, John White (ca. 1540–ca. 1593). White had returned from the 1585 expedition with watercolors that, in addition to recording the local flora and fauna of the region, chronicled the customs of the local Algonquian peoples as carefully as possible. In 1590, Theodore de Bry (1528–98), a Flemish engraver particularly dedicated to publishing accounts of the New World, issued A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, an account of the 1585 Roanoke expedition written by White’s friend, the scientist Thomas Hariot (1560–1621). It was originally written in Latin, as a scientific text, and translated into English by Richard Hakluyt (1522/23–1616). Hakluyt was himself author of a lengthy memorandum personally delivered to Queen Elizabeth in 1584 in support of Raleigh’s request for a charter entitled A Particular Discourse concerninge the Greate Necessitie and Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like to Growe to This Realme of Englande by the Westerne Discoveries Lately Attempted. He readily understood the value in creating popular interest in and enthusiasm for settling the New World, and he encouraged de Bry to include in Hariot’s Brief and True Report illustrations based on White’s watercolors (all of White’s paintings survive, housed today in the British Museum). The Lost Roanoke Colony, 2:58
One of the greatest mysteries still left unsolved is the mystery of The Lost Roanoke Colony. Join Cliff as he analyzes the facts and theories behind what might have happened to the missing colonists. That Was History is an educational, history channel with a laid back feel. TWH was founded by Cliff Langston and Jeremy Payne. Each episode contains a historical event and facts that correspond to a particular date. Join the That Was History community and start getting your daily history update, today!
https://youtu.be/ofhIJ1wMKtc



Jamestown 658


White’s second expedition arrived at Roanoke in July 1587 with about 100 colonists, many of them families from Devon who had been promised 500 acres apiece in return for settling the new colony. But the expedition was woefully undersupplied, and on August 25, White returned to England in order to reprovision the colony for the winter. England’s war with Spain, primarily a naval affair headed by Raleigh himself, left White unable to secure a relief expedition, and it was not until August 1590 that he returned to Roanoke. There he found no trace of any colonists, including his own daughter, Eleanor, her husband, Ananias Dare, and his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, who on August 18, 1587, had been the first child born of English parents in the New World.

The prospect of colonization seemed tenuous, until finally, in 1607, Captain John Smith (1580–1631) established the first successful British colony in Virginia at Jamestown on the James River, about 40 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, both the settlement and the river named after Queen Elizabeth’s successor in England, King James I. This expedition was financed by a group of investors from London that came to be known as the London Company of Virginia. In order to recruit settlers, they inaugurated what historian Richard Hofstadter has called “one of the first concerted and sustained advertising campaigns in the history of the modern world.” Hakluyt, an original member of the London Company, published in 1609 a tract entitled Virginia Richly Valued, typical of the materials intended to promote the Company. Its purpose is summarized on the title page: “Wherein are truly observed the riches and fertilities of these parts, abounding with things necessary, pleasant, and profitable for the life of man.”

If descriptions of the horticultural prospects of the New World were designed to seem appealing, it seemed equally important to downplay the hostilities of the Indians. The famous story of Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, the chief of the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan tribes of the lower Chesapeake region, saving Captain Smith’s life was popularized in no small part to demonstrate the inherent goodness of the native peoples. If the story is, perhaps, apocryphal, and whatever her actual role in saving Smith’s life when her father threatened him, it seems certain that Smith wanted to associate himself more closely with the young woman who epitomized in the eyes of many the successes of the Jamestown colony and its “civilizing” mission. In 1613, Pocahontas had been captured by the Jamestown colonists in order to pressure Powhatan to release a number of English prisoners and stolen weapons. Negotiations between Powhatan and the English proved fruitless, and over the course of the next year, Pocahontas was instructed in English and Christianity, baptized and christened Rebecca, and married to the settler John Rolfe, who in 1611 had begun to farm tobacco successfully, creating the first real cash crop export from the New World. Their only child, Thomas Rolfe, was born in 1615, and the marriage apparently soothed relations between the colonists and the Powhatans.
The Jamestown Colony, 4:58
Despite themselves, some of the first colonists in the United States survived. Here's how... Check out www.HippoCampus.org for more history lessons and other homework help.
https://youtu.be/ZINHFyVDp3s


THINKING BACK19.1 Explain how Henry VIII transformed England.

    In the sixteenth century, London would become one of the most rapidly growing cities in the world, due in no small part to Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries in 1536. Henry surrounded himself with humanist scholars, including Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More. How does More’s Utopia critique Henry’s England? Portraiture was the chief form of visual art supported by Henry’s court. How do you account for this taste? The chief portrait painter of the day was Hans Holbein. While Holbein’s paintings evidence the meticulous realism characteristic of the Northern Renaissance, how do they reflect larger concerns?

    Henry’s reign was complicated by his unceasing desire to father a male heir and, as a consequence, his marriage to a succession of wives. These marriages forced him to break with the Church in Rome. Henry’s three heirs—Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth—were variously Protestant or Catholic. What strains did his heirs’ varying religious sympathies put on the court? How did Elizabeth finally secure England’s central place in world affairs?

19.2 Outline the flourishing of the arts under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I.

    England flourished under Elizabeth’s rule, and the queen was a great supporter of the arts. How did portrait painting in her court differ stylistically from portrait painting under her father? How did Elizabeth’s taste manifest itself in poetry as well? What are the characteristics of one of the primary poetic forms of Elizabethan England, the sonnet? Elizabeth was also an accomplished musician, whose favorite form was apparently the madrigal, hundreds of which were written by Thomas Morley. The publication of The Book of Common Prayer encouraged composers to write motets in English that came to be known as anthems, a form in which the composer Thomas Tallis excelled. Perhaps the greatest composer of the day was William Byrd. Although he excelled in almost every form of musical composition, what did he particularly encourage?

19.3 Characterize the Elizabethan stage and the contributions to it of both Marlowe and Shakespeare.

    Perhaps the greatest artistic achievement of the Elizabethan age was its drama. Thousands of people flocked daily to the playhouses on the south bank of the Thames. Christopher Marlowe’s Tragical History of Dr. Faustus introduced an important figure to the Elizabethan theater, the tragic hero who seeks the unattainable. But audiences were especially attracted to the plays of William Shakespeare, whose greatest achievement is, perhaps, the tragedy Hamlet. In what way is Hamlet unique in the early seventeenth century as a dramatic character?

19.4 Describe the unique features of the English colonization of the Americas.

    Unwilling to cede control of the New World to the Spanish, Queen Elizabeth encouraged exploration and settlement of areas north of Spanish control. Unlike the Spanish, the English dispatched families intent on settling and making a new life in the New World. What was the primary motive for settlement? What were the obstacles that settlers faced?




READINGS

19.1 from Desiderius Erasmus, The Adages of Erasmus (1500–33) 638

19.2 from Thomas More, Utopia, Book 2 (1516) 661

19.2a from Thomas More, Utopia, Book 2 (1516) 640

19.3 from William Shakespeare, Richard II, Act 2, Scene 1 (1594) 646

19.4 Elizabeth I, “On Monsieur’s Departure” (1582) 648

19.5 Thomas Wyatt, “List to Hunt” (first published 1557) 649

19.6 William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 (1609) 649

19.7 William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 (1609) 649

19.8 Edmund Spenser, Sonnet 75, from the Amoretti (1595) 650

19.9 from William Byrd, Psalms, Sonnets, & Songs (1588) 651

19.10 from Christopher Marlowe, The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, Scene 14 (1604) 653

19.11a from William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2 (1623) 654

19.11b from William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1 (1623) 655

19.12 from Thomas Hariot, A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1590) 657

FEATURES

CONTEXT

The Tudor Genealogy 641

The Sonnet 648

CLOSER LOOK Holbein’s The Ambassadors 644

CONTINUITY & CHANGE The New Universe 659

20 The Early Counter- Reformation and Mannerism RESTRAINT AND INVENTION 663 


THINKING AHEAD

    20.1 Explain the rationale behind the Counter-Reformation, and the Council of Trent's effect on the arts.

    20.2 Discuss the new stylistic directions introduced by Michelangelo in his late work.

    20.3 Define Mannerism and describe its stylistic features.

    20.4 Examine how the Inquisition affected the arts.



The Counter-Reformation 665


    What was the Counter-Reformation and how did it address the arts?

In 1493, the year after Columbus arrived in America, Pope Alexander VI decreed that the New World was the property of the Church, which he chose to rent in its entirety to Spain (he was himself Spanish). Alexander’s papal bull made clear that no other country could occupy any of these territories without the pope’s permission and, by extension, his direct financial benefit. Thus, the subsequent colonization of North America by France and England was, from the Church’s point of view, an act of piracy.

As King of Spain, Charles V was the direct beneficiary of the pope’s pronouncements. From his point of view, the Americas served but one purpose—to provide funds for his continuing war against Francis I of France. The two monarchs had been at war since 1521 but never with any clear outcome for any significant period of time. The papacy needed both of them as allies in its campaign against the Protestant Reformation. But it was Charles V whose troops, to his embarrassment, had sacked Rome in 1527 and imprisoned Pope Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici), as a direct response to Clement’s alliance with Francis I and Henry VIII of England.

The enmity between Charles V and Francis I went back to the election of Charles as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1521. When, after the death of Emperor Maximilian, Charles out of courtesy informed Francis that he intended to seek election as emperor, Francis had replied, “Sire, we are both courting the same lady.” The pope backed Francis, but Charles secured a loan of 500,000 florins from a bank in Augsburg and literally bought the votes of the seven electors.

Charles’s empire was immense. By heredity and marriage, it included the Netherlands, where he had been born (in Ghent), the Iberian peninsula, southern Italy, Milan, Austria and parts of present-day Germany, and the Franche-Comté (see brown areas in Map 20.1). To this was added the lands of the Holy Roman Empire (outlined in red in Map 20.1), including all of Germany, Switzerland, and more of Italy. Because of its vast size, Charles’s territory was susceptible to attack from virtually all directions, as Suleiman the Magnificent, Emperor of the Ottoman Empire, demonstrated when, at Francis’s request, he defeated and killed Charles’s brother-in-law, Louis II of Hungary, in 1526. Thus embattled, Charles claimed to want peace so that the Church, and its Catholic kings, could turn their united attention to the threat of Protestantism. And finally, in 1544, Charles entered France from the Netherlands. Francis was sufficiently frightened, or sufficiently tired of the endless conflict, that he sued for peace. Together the two kings then turned to Pope Paul III and pressured him to call a general council to be held at Trento, in northern Italy, beginning December 3, 1545, to confront their common enemy, the Protestant challenge.
Art Briefly: Caravaggio and the Counter-Reformation, 2:35
Giulia briefly describes Caravaggio's importance as a Baroque artist. For more visit us at http://wonderfeast.com.
https://youtu.be/BUcGO4yB9hg




The Council of Trent 665


The resolution of the conflict between Charles and Francis marks a moment when historical urgency profoundly affected the direction of humanistic enterprise. The resulting Council of Trent was charged with reforming the Church. It met in three sessions, and owing to war, plague, and the political strategies of the papacy itself, it spanned the careers of four different popes over 18 years: 1545–47, 1551–52, and 1562–63. The Council concentrated on restoring internal Church discipline. It called a halt to the selling of Church offices and religious goods, a common practice used by clergy to pad their coffers. It required bishops, many of whom lived in Rome, to return to their dioceses, where, they were told, they needed to preach regularly, exert discipline over local religious practice, and be active among their parishioners. They were warned not to live ostentatiously:

    It is to be desired that those who undertake the office of bishop shall understand … that they are called, not to their own convenience, not to riches or luxury, but to labors and cares, for the glory of God. … Wherefore … this Council not only orders that bishops be content with modest furniture and a frugal table and diet, but that they also give heed that in the rest of their manner of living and in their whole house there be nothing seen which is alien to this holy institution, and which does not manifest simplicity, zeal toward God, and a contempt of vanities.

The bishops were to maintain strict celibacy, which they had not been required to do before. And they were to construct a seminary in every diocese.

There is good reason to believe that the Council of Trent came to recognize, as Charles himself finally did, that there could be no military victory over Protestantism. Rather, if the Church were to be victorious, it had to win back the hearts and souls of the people themselves. So it did not give in to the Protestants on a single doctrinal point, reaffirming the role of good works in salvation, transubstantiation (in the Eucharist, the conversion of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ), the Eucharist itself as a ritual embodying the true presence of Christ, clerical celibacy, the reality of purgatory, the veneration of saints and relics, and letters of indulgence. In other words, even as the Council enforced a new standard of discipline among its bishops, it strongly reinforced traditional Roman Catholic doctrine.
The Council of Trent: Answering the Reformation and Reforming the Church, 5:42 After the separation of the Eastern and Western churches in 1054, the holding of councils by the pope became a way to give guidance to the church, both locally and ecumenically (for the entire church), on varying ecclesiastical matters. One of the most significant of these was the Council of Trent, held in the mid-1500s, which considered such weighty matters as the Lutheran Protestant Reformation and how to counter it, disciplinary reforms in the church, the definition of dogma, and ways to establish key tenets of Roman Catholicism. In fact, the growing complexities of the issues at stake grew so voluminous that it took 18 years, spanning the reigns of five popes, for the Council of Trent to actually convene. During the Council of Trent, both Scripture and tradition were declared authoritative for the Roman Catholic Church, with tradition just as authoritative as Scripture. Salvation by grace alone through faith alone, one of the Reformers’ rallying cries, was dumped overboard in favor of “sacramental” and “works” righteousness. There are seven sacraments instituted by Christ, according to the council: baptism, confirmation, communion, penance, unction, orders and marriage. The council condemned anyone who said sacraments were not necessary for salvation, or that through faith alone without any sacrament man can be justified. “Works” righteousness is the belief that one can win God’s favor by doing good things. The council also confirmed the belief in transubstantiation, that the substance of bread and wine given during communion (the “Eucharist”) is changed into the actual body and blood of Christ, while the appearance of bread and wine remains. Trent attendees stressed man’s incapacity to save himself, yet confirmed the necessity for the cooperation of his free will, including his resolve to receive baptism and begin a new life. They denied that predestination to salvation can be known with certainty (one rebuttal to this belief is found in Romans 8:28-30). Modern Roman Catholicism, in general, continues to hold to the beliefs put forward and accepted at Trent. -- Source: http://www.gotquestions.org

What really happened at the Council of Trent? In this 12-lecture video or audio program, renowned historian Fr. John O'Malley addresses misconceptions about the council and explores its colorful history. By discovering Trent's wide-reaching contributions to doctrine and reform, you will learn how its lasting legacy is vital to an understanding of the Catholic Church today.
https://youtu.be/D6N3ngu28aM






Catholic Reform of the Arts: Palestrina and the Music of the Early Counter-Reformation 665


The Council of Trent’s injunction against luxury and its assertion of the principle of simple piety were directly translated to the arts. Contrary to many Protestant sects, the Council of Trent insisted on the use of religious imagery:
0:02 / 1:16 Pleni sunt coeli - Palestrina (c1525-1594) For Three High Voices
https://youtu.be/aOEwS7MB0Os



Michelangelo and the Rise of Mannerism 667


    What new stylistic direction defines Michelangelo’s late work?

The demand for clarity and directness that marks the art and music of the Counter-Reformation did not constrain so original an artist as Michelangelo, who introduced a different, more inventive direction in sixteenth-century art. Raphael had already arrived at a new style in the last paintings he executed for the Vatican before his death in 1520. He replaced the clarity, restraint, and order of his School of Athens (see Chapter 15, Closer Look, pages 512–513) with a more active, dynamic, even physically distorted realization of the human figure, probably in response to Michelangelo’s own innovations in the same direction in the later frescoes for the Sistine Chapel ceiling—in the Libyan Sibyl, for instance, or the figures of Day and Night in the tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici (see Figs. 15.12 and 15.18 in Chapter 15). This new proto-Mannerist style, reflecting the virtuosity and sophistication of its practitioners, manifests itself in architecture in Michelangelo’s stairway for the Laurentian Library (see Fig. 15.19 in Chapter 15), which some believe to be among the style’s earliest examples. In painting and sculpture, it resulted in distorted, artificial poses, mysterious or obscure settings, and, very often, elongated proportions. It is marked by the rejection of the Classicizing tendencies of the High Renaissance and by the artist’s display of virtuosity through manipulations and distortions of the conventional figure.

Michelangelo’s Pietà, one of the artist’s last works, is a fully realized example of the new Mannerist artistic vocabulary (Fig. 20.3). The traditional contrapposto pose that evolved from Classical Greek sculpture in order to give a static figure the illusion of potential movement is here exaggerated by the dynamic, spiral turn of the Christ’s body as he falls to the ground. The result is what would become known as a serpentine figure, with no single predominant view. The right arm twists away from the body even as Christ’s right leg seems to fold forward to the right at a 90-degree angle.

Mannerism - Overview - Goodbye-Art Academy, 4:5
https://youtu.be/t6TvfyL9vHc



Mannerism in Art: A Matter of Decorum 669


    What are the stylistic characteristics of Mannerism?

As long as painting confined itself to depicting nonreligious subjects for nonreligious venues, it was more or less free to do as it pleased. Even the nudity of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel figures would have been tolerable if painted in some less holy place. The Roman cardinal Cirillo Franco summed up the general attitude in a letter: “I hold the painting and sculpture of Michelangelo to be a miracle of nature; but I would praise it so much more if, when he wants to show the supremacy of his art in all that posturing of naked limbs, and all those nudes … he did not paint it on the vault of the Pope’s Chapel, but in a gallery, or some garden loggia.” It was a matter of decorum, or propriety. What might be decorous and appropriate in a gallery or garden loggia was absolutely not so in a church.



Court Painting: Beyond the Church’s Reach 670


In the private galleries of the princely courts throughout Europe, this more indecorous but highly inventive imagery thrived. Federico Gonzaga of Mantua, son of Isabella d’Este and nephew of Alphonso d’Este, commissioned a set of erotic paintings, perhaps intending to compete with the cycle decorating his uncle’s palace at Ferrara. The indecorous embodiment of what the Council of Trent would label “the lascivious or impure,” they were the work of the northern Italian artist Correggio (given name Antonio Allegri; ca. 1494–1534) and depicted the loves of Jupiter, or Zeus.

Jupiter and Io, painted in the early 1530s, is one of these (Fig. 20.6). The painting illustrates Jupiter consummating his love for Io, a priestess of Hera (Jupiter’s wife). Jupiter appears to Io in the guise of a cloud, his face barely visible behind her, kissing her lightly on the cheek. His bearlike arm embraces her as she abandons herself, quite visibly, to sensual pleasure. In addition to the unabashed sensuality of the presentation, the somewhat bizarre juxtaposition of Io’s fully lit and well-defined body with Jupiter’s dark and amorphous form is fully Mannerist in spirit.

This same theme occupied Titian in a series of paintings commissioned by Philip II of Spain in the late 1550s. Philip built a special room to house them in the Escorial (his palace complex near Madrid). In The Rape of Europa, Jupiter has assumed the form of a bull to abduct the nymph Europa as she adorns its horns with flowers (Fig. 20.7). What most distinguishes the work is this Venetian artist’s loose, sensual way of handling paint—a far cry from the crisp, even cold linearity of Correggio’s Mannerist technique in the drapery beneath Io and in the porcelain-like quality of Io’s skin. Titian’s lush brushwork mirrors the sensuality of the image. And yet, in the way that Europa falls across the bull’s back in a serpentine posture emphasized by the spiraling form of the red robe that flies from her hand, the painting demonstrates just how strongly Mannerist expression had entered the vocabulary of sixteenth-century painting as a whole. Like the Mannerists, the later Titian draws attention to his own virtuosity and skill, to the presence of his so-called hand, or stylistic signature through brushwork, in the composition. (The root of maniera, not coincidentally, is mano, “hand.”)

The French court was as eager to look at sexually charged Mannerist paintings as its Spanish counterpart. In fact, in his later years, Francis I had an enormous taste for erotic art. Statesmen often catered to this taste in the form of gifts as a way to build alliances (see Closer Look, pages 672–673).


Mannerist Religious Painting 671


Even when Mannerists did find themselves working in a religious context, they tended to paint works designed to unsettle the viewer. When, for instance, Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (1503–40), known as Parmigianino, was commissioned in 1535 to decorated a family chapel in the Church of Santa Maria dei Servi in his native Parma (where, not coincidentally, Correggio spent most of his career), the resulting Madonna and Child must have startled more than one viewer. Known as The Madonna with the Long Neck (Fig. 20.8), the painting seems, from the very first glance, oddly organized. How much space, for instance, is there between the Madonna and her attendants, compressed into the left three-quarters of the painting, and the figure of Saint Jerome reading a scroll in the distant, open space at the right? He appears to be standing just a short step below the Madonna’s chair, but because Parmigianino has not accounted for the wide gap between the saint and the foreground group, the space in which he stands is visually almost totally incoherent. In fact, he must be standing far below her. We know that Saint Jerome’s presence in the painting was a requirement of the commission—he was famous for his adoration of the Virgin, and Parmigianino had even painted a Vision of Saint Jerome in 1527, in which, oddly, the saint is sound asleep—but it is almost as if Parmigianino is scoffing at his patron’s wishes, or at least acceding to them in an almost flippant way. The painting, it is worth noting, is over 7 feet high, and thus the miniature Saint Jerome contrasts even more dramatically with the greater-than-life-size Virgin who rises above him almost as if she is analogous in size to the column beside which he stands. Indeed, the Virgin’s swanlike neck is a traditional conceit, found in medieval hymns, comparing her neck to an ivory tower or column, a sort of vernacular expression of the Virgin as the allegorical representation of the Church.


The Rise of Women Artists in Northern Italy 674


In the last half of the sixteenth century, in the context of this widespread emphasis on inventiveness and originality, a number of women were encouraged to display their artistic virtuosity. In northern Italy, particularly, women seem  to have been better educated, and more likely to be artists, than women in the rest of Italy and Europe, perhaps due to the presence of powerful court ladies such as Isabella d’Este, Duchess of Mantua (see Chapter 15).




Mannerist Sculpture: Focus on Individual Genius 676


The belief that an artist’s individual genius manifests itself in the virtuosity of the hand owes much to the influence of the Accademia del Disegno (“Academy of Design”) in Florence, founded by Giorgio Vasari in 1562 under the patronage of Cosimo de’ Medici. The Accademia emphasized history and theory, and Vasari’s own Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Architects, and Sculptors, published first in 1550 and then greatly expanded in a second edition in 1568, provided the historical framework. Vasari’s Lives (see Chapter 14) focuses on individual creative genius, hardly surprising given the biographical framework of the text (see Reading 14.5 in Chapter 14).


Inquisition and Innovation 678


    What was the Inquisition and how did it affect the arts?

The liberty to invent is the hallmark of art and architecture throughout the middle years of the sixteenth century and the defining characteristic of Mannerist art. But if invention led to the kind of indecorous images produced in the courts of Europe, the Church could not tolerate it. Nor could it tolerate religious beliefs that did not strictly follow Church doctrine. Like Lavinia Fontana, artists working on religious subjects had to discover ways to blend their Mannerist style with properly decorous religious imagery. Muslims and Jews living in Catholic countries had to convert or be expelled. And Catholics inspired by a different kind of spirituality than the Church recognized were deemed a special threat and suffered greatly under repression or worse.


Art under the Italian Inquisition: Veronese 678


A clear example of the need to use invention decorously in art is provided by the fate of a Last Supper, now known as the Feast in the House of Levi, by the Venetian artist Paolo Veronese (1528–88). Veronese was born Paolo Cagliari and nicknamed after the city of his birth, Verona (Fig. 20.16). As early as 1542, Pope Paul III had initiated a Roman Inquisition—an official inquiry into possible heresy—and in 1573, Veronese was called before the Inquisition to answer charges that his Last Supper, painted with life-size figures for a Dominican monastery in Venice, was heretical in its inappropriate treatment of the subject matter. His testimony before the tribunal illuminates the aesthetic and religious concerns of the era (Reading 20.3):






The Spanish Inquisition 679


In Spain, the Church implemented the Inquisition in 1478, much earlier than in Italy, but not as a method of enforcing the strictures of the Counter-Reformation. Rather, it was used as a tool to expel or convert all non-Christian Spaniards. Its first target was the Muslims of Andalusia, the Islamic emirate in the south of Spain. In 1492, after the armies of Ferdinand and Isabella had finally succeeded in taking the Nasrid stronghold of Granada (see Chapter 9), the Church encouraged Muslims to convert by means of friendly persuasion, permitting them to retain the Mudéjar language and culture, and to use Arabic during religious services. By 1500, however, the clergy had begun to impose Christianity upon the Muslim population by force, systematically baptizing Muslims in mass ceremonies. Within the year, all Muslims were officially considered Christian—moriscos, they were called—and by royal decree in October 1501, a huge bonfire destroyed Arabic books in Granada, signaling the symbolic if not actual end of Muslim al-Andalus.

The second target of the Spanish Inquisition was Spaniards of Jewish origin who had converted to Christianity, known as conversos. Since 1480, the Inquisition had persecuted Jews whose conversion they deemed suspect and had executed scores of them on the charge of heresy. The fall of Granada inspired the inquisitors to bring about the conversion of all Jews. So on March 31, 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella issued an edict of expulsion, giving the Jews of Castile and Aragon until July 31 to accept baptism or leave the country. Over half the Jews of Spain chose to leave. (Over the course of the previous century, many thousands had already emigrated, as Spanish Christendom had become intolerant of their presence. In Barcelona, where more than 4,000 Jews had lived the century before, only 20 Jewish families remained in 1492.) The forcible conversion and expulsion of the conversos and moriscos reinforced the image of the Spanish monarchy as champions of Christianity, a role that both Charles V and Philip II would take very seriously.

The persecutions of the Inquisition were complicated further by the rise, in the sixteenth century, of a brand of religious mysticism that threatened the Church from within. The alumbrados, or “illuminated ones,” nuns, monks, and priests lit by the Holy Spirit, practiced an extremely individualistic and private brand of faith, which led to accusations that they also claimed to have no need of the sacraments of the Church. The alumbrados were therefore susceptible to charges of heresy. Chief among them were the Carmelite nun Teresa of Ávila (1515–82) and the Carmelite friar Juan de la Cruz (1542–91), known as John of the Cross. Teresa was from a converso family that lived in Ávila, the medieval center of Jewish mystical thought. Dissatisfied with the worldliness that had crept into her Carmelite order, Teresa campaigned to reform it, founding the Discalced (or shoeless) Carmelites, dedicated to absolute poverty and the renunciation of all property. Between 1567 and 1576, she traveled across Spain, founding Discalced convents and a reform convent for Carmelite men. Juan de la Cruz was one of the first two members, and the two would become close friends. Juan’s powers as a teacher, preacher, and poet served to strengthen the movement. Teresa’s writings, including an autobiography and The Way to Perfection, both written before 1567, and The Interior Castle, written in 1577, all describe the ascent of the soul to union with the Holy Spirit in four basic stages. In the final of these stages, “devotion of ecstasy or rapture,” consciousness of being in the body disappears and the spirit finds itself alternating between the ecstatic throes of a sweet, happy pain and a fearful, glowing fire.

In 1574, Teresa was denounced to the Inquisition as a restless wanderer who under the pretext of religion lived a life of dissipation. As a result, in 1576, she was confined in a convent. Juan de la Cruz suffered an even worse fate. Calced Carmelites arrested him in Toledo on the night of December 3, 1577. They held him in solitary confinement and lashed him before the community on a weekly basis until he escaped eight months later. Among the great works written following his escape is The Dark Night of the Soul, a book-length commentary on his eight-stanza poem “The Dark Night” (see Reading 20.4, pages 683–684), itself an account of the author’s mystical union with God.


The Counter-Reformation and Mannerism United: El Greco in Spain 680


The moral strictures of the Inquisition and the mysticism of the alumbrados are recognizable in the art of one of the most original sixteenth-century painters, El Greco, “The Greek” (born Domenico Theotokopulos; 1541–1614). He trained as an icon painter in his native Crete, in those days a Venetian possession. In 1567, he went to Venice, then three years later to Rome, and in 1576 to Spain, where he soon developed a style that wedded Mannerism with the elongated, iconic figures of his Byzantine training. He used painting to convey an intensely expressive spirituality.

Painted at the turn of the sixteenth century, El Greco’s Resurrection is decorous to the extent that draperies carefully conceal all inappropriate nudity (Fig. 20.17). The poses of the writhing Roman soldiers who surround the vision of the triumphant Christ are as artificial and contrived as any in Mannerist art. The verticality of the composition, popular since the time of Correggio, mirrors the elongated anatomies of El Greco’s figures. And yet, El Greco’s style is unique, singular in the angularity of its draperies, in the drama of the representation, and in its overall composition. The Roman soldiers rise and fall in figura serpentinata poses around Christ like petals on a blossom, with Christ himself as the flower’s stamen. If Christ’s sexuality has been repressed, the effect of his presence on the soldiers, who swoon in near-hysterical ecstasy, is unmistakable. Above all, this painting celebrates raw physicality, even as it presents the greatest spiritual mystery of the Christian faith. Here the aspirations of the Counter-Reformation and the inventiveness of the Mannerist style are fully united, as they would come to be in the Baroque art of the seventeenth century.
Toledo, Spain: The Art of El Greco, 3:05
No painter before or since has captured the mystery of the spiritual world like the painter El Greco. His unique style of painting developed in Toledo, Spain. Join Rick on a visit to the Santa Cruz Museum, which houses many of El Greco's 16th century works. For more information on the Rick Steves' Europe TV series — including episode descriptions, scripts, participating stations, travel information on destinations and more — visit http://www.ricksteves.com.
https://youtu.be/ZrMjG3Hd24c







Cervantes and the Picaresque Tradition 680


In the last half of the sixteenth century, a literary genre originated in Spain that celebrated inventiveness, particularly suited to Spanish taste, and had a strong effect on literary events in the seventeenth century. This was the picaresque novel, a genre of prose that narrates, in a realistic way, the adventures of a picaro, a roguish hero of low social rank living by his wits in a corrupt society. The first book to introduce the picaresque tradition in Spain was Lazarillo de Tormes, published anonymously in 1554. Raised by beggars and thieves, Lazarillo is a frankly common man, particularly bent on ridiculing and satirizing the Catholic Church and its officials. For that reason and probably because its hero was not highborn, the Spanish crown banned the book and listed it in the Index of Forbidden Books of the Inquisition. A much more complex picaro and undoubtedly the greatest hero of the picaresque tradition in Spanish literature is Don Quixote, the creation of novelist, poet, and playwright Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616). Don Quixote - Don Quixote of La Mancha-by the Spanish Author, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 4:33
Don Quixote The original title of this novel is “Don Quixote of La Mancha”. Arabs used to wrongly call it “Donkishot”. The Novel was written by the Spanish Author, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, and consists of two volumes. The first volume was published in 1605, where as the second volume was published in 1615, following the success of the first one. Don Quixote is considered by critics as the most influential work of literature and the number one European novel. The story of Don Quixote is that of an individual who lives in the past through his words and tools and refuses to live according to the modern lifestyle or understand its changes. He also refuses transformations and does not recognize them. Therefore, he enters into battles whose reasons are found only in his mind, and fights windmills. For this reason, his life is full of humorous and ridiculous ironies. The events of this novel are centered on a retired country gentleman named Alonso Quixano who decides to leave his house and become a gallant knight. He dons an old suit of armor and a worn helmet. Herides an exhausted horse named "Rocinante", and convinces a simple farmer named “Sancho Panza” to become his companion and carry his weapons for him on his quests to fight oppression around the world. The funny irony here is that the Knight’s size is half that of his giant assistant who rides a donkey while Don Quixote rides a horse. In the novel, Don Quixote represents a human model with a high moral character, a dreamy and adventurous personality that is irrational in its decisions and confrontation methods. When Don Quixote fights the windmills he pictures their sails as the arms of the devils and attacks them with his spear. His assistant Sancho Panza warns him, but Don Quixote never listens. His lance gets caught in the windmill’s sail, throwing him and Rocinante to the ground. In another event, Don Quixote attacks and fights a large group of enemies; his friend shouts trying to dissuade his master, but all in vain. The battle was actually with a herd of sheep that Don Quixote mistook for an army. At the end of the battle Don Quixote had killed a number of sheep. As a result, shepherds attacked him by throwing stones on him. They broke his jaw and teeth. Later on, Don Quixote attacks small houses thinking they were military castles. He also attacks priests in a funeral. This is just some of the many acts of heroism that ended up by having Don Quixote tied up with ropes by his neighbors who take him back to his village. In the second volume, Don Quixote continues waging his imaginary battles and promises Sancho Panza that he would appoint him as the ruler of an island after he wins the battle. At the end of the novel, Don Quixote declares he is recovered from his madness, and dies among his family and neighbors who cry upon his death out of compassion and grief.
https://youtu.be/-YCnGR4Qcys




THINKING BACK

20.1 Explain the rationale behind the Counter-Reformation and the Council of Trent's effect on the arts.

    The Counter-Reformation was the Roman Catholic Church’s conscious attempt to reform itself in reaction to the Protestant Reformation. To that end and under the urging of Charles V and Francis I, Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent in 1545. What guiding principles did the Council adopt? How did these principles affect art and music?

20.2 Discuss the new stylistic directions introduced by Michelangelo in his late work.

    The edicts of the Council of Trent did not constrain Michelangelo, who introduced a different direction in sixteenth-century art. With its virtuoso manipulations and distortions, his new style is already evident in the inventiveness of his design for the stairway of the Laurentian Library, and anticipates what has come to be called Mannerism. In what ways does his sculpture of the Pietà, or his painting of the Last Judgment, exaggerate the Classicizing tendencies of the Renaissance?

20.3 Define Mannerism and describe its stylistic features.

    Many had found the nudity in Michelangelo’s Last Judgment inappropriate for religious painting, but this lack of decorum was acceptable outside a religious context. In the private galleries of the princely courts throughout Europe, a more lascivious imagery thrived. How would you describe this less decorous Mannerist style? If words like “surprising,” “odd,” and “unorthodox” seem appropriate, how do they manifest themselves in more formal ways, in both painting and sculpture? How does the style manifest itself in religious painting? Why do invention and experimentation come to be so valued in Mannerist art? How did women artists respond to the possibilities offered by Mannerism?

20.4 Examine how the Inquisition affected the arts.

    In the art of Veronese and El Greco, Mannerist inventiveness sought to accommodate itself to the more conventional aspirations of the Counter-Reformation and to the Roman Catholic Church’s Inquisition in Italy and Spain, dedicated to rooting out heresy. How did Veronese accommodate the Inquisition? The Inquisition prosecuted the Spanish mystics Teresa of Ávila and Juan de la Cruz because of their intensely personalized faith. Nevertheless, both composed written accounts of their mystical unions with the divine. Finally, in what many consider the Western world’s first great novel, Don Quixote, the writer Miguel de Cervantes captured the complexities of the era in a picaresque character whose imagination isolates him from reality. How would you define the picaresque?


READINGS

20.1 from Pietro Aretino, Letter to Michelangelo (1545) 669

20.2 from Benvenuto Cellini, Life (1728) 678

20.3 from The Trial of Veronese (1573) 678

20.4 from John of the Cross, The Dark Night of the Soul, “The Dark Night” 683

20.5 from Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote, Part 1, Chapter 8 (1605) 684

FEATURES

CLOSER LOOK Bronzino’s Allegory with Venus and Cupid 672

CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Frenzy of Inspiration 682

Assignment 3: Cultural Activity Report
Due Week 10 and worth 100 points
As a way of experiencing the Humanities beyond your classroom, computer, and textbook, you are asked to do a certain type of “cultural activity” that fits well with our course and then report on your experience. Your instructor will require you to propose an activity and get instructor approval before you do it and report on it (students should look for any instructions in that respect). Every effort should be made to ensure that this is a hands-on experience (not a virtual one), that this activity fits the HUM 111 class well, and that the activity is of sufficient quality for this university course. The two (2) key types of activities are a museum visit or a performance. Note: This must not be a report on the same activity (and certainly not the same report) as done for another class, like HUM 112. For instance, one might go to the same museum as done for HUM 112, but this HUM 111 report will focus on entirely different works and displays.












  1. Visit a museum or gallery exhibition or attend a theater or musical performance before the end of Week 10. The activity (museum or performance) should have content that fits our course well. Have fun doing this.
  2. Write a two to three (2-3) page report (500-750 words) that describes your experience.
    • Clearly identify the event location, date attended, the attendees, and your initial reaction upon arriving at the event.
    • Provide specific information and a description of at least two (2) pieces (e.g., art, exhibits, music, etc.).
    • Provide a summary of the event and describe your overall reaction after attending the event.
    • Use at least the class text as a reference (additional sources are fine, not necessary unless required by your content). Your report should include connections you make between things observed in your activity and things learned in the course and text.
Note: Submit your cultural activity choice to the instructor for approval before the end of Week 5 (earlier is even better). Look for guidance from the instructor for how or where to make your proposal. You may also seek advice from your instructor (provide your town/state or zip code) for a good activity in your general area.
Visiting a Museum
  • It makes sense to approach a museum the way a seasoned traveler approaches visiting a city for the first time. Find out what there is available to see. In the museum, find out what sort of exhibitions are currently housed in the museum and start with the exhibits that interest you.
  • If there is a travelling exhibition, it’s always a good idea to see it while you have the chance. Then, if you have time, you can look at other things in the museum.
  • Every effort should be made ahead of time to identify a museum that has items and works one can easily connect to our HUM 111 class and book. Since HUM 111 covers from ancient times to the 1500s AD, it makes more sense to focus on items from that time frame. In general, museums with artistic cultural artifacts and fine arts work better than history museums.
  • Any questions about whether a museum-visit activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for the activity. Any alternative activity outside the normal ones listed here, such as for those limited by disability or distance, will be determined by the instructor. Generally, we do not expect students to travel over an hour to get to an approved activity.
  • Take notes as you go through the museum and accept any handouts or pamphlets that the museum staff gives you. While you should not quote anything from the printed material when you do your report, the handouts may help to refresh your memory later.
  • The quality of your experience is not measured by the amount of time you spend in the galleries or the number of works of art that you actually see. The most rewarding experiences can come from finding two (2) or three (3) pieces of art or exhibits which intrigue you and then considering those works in leisurely contemplation. Most museums even have benches where you can sit and study a particular piece.
  • If you are having a difficult time deciding which pieces to write about, ask yourself these questions: (1) If the museum you are visiting suddenly caught fire, which two (2) pieces of art or exhibits would you most want to see saved from the fire? (2) Why would you choose those two (2) particular pieces?
Attending a Performance
  • Check your local colleges to see if there are any free or low-cost performances or student recitals. Student performances are generally of almost the same quality as professional performances, but typically cost much less. However, performances of high school level or lower will not meet this requirement.
  • A performance that is relevant to a HUM 111 course is more difficult to find than a performance that would be relevant to HUM 112 (which covers from 1600 to the present). However, our course does cover Shakespeare and Greek tragedy and drama, so any performances of those will work. Note: One can sometimes find music performances of music from the Renaissance or Reformation period, or even earlier.
  • Any questions about whether a performance activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for an activity. Any alternative activity outside the normal ones listed here, such as for those limited by disability or distance, will be determined by the instructor. Generally, we do not expect students to travel over an hour to get to an approved activity.
  • Unlike visiting a museum, where you can wear almost anything, people attending performances are often expected to “dress up” a bit.
  • Take a pen or pencil with you and accept the program you are offered by the usher; you will probably want to take notes on it during or after the performance.
  • Turn off your cell phone before entering the auditorium. Do not use your phone to record the music or to take pictures or videos. To play it safe, turn the phone off.
  • Most long musical performances have at least one (1) intermission. If the lights start blinking, it is a sign that the performance is about to begin.
  • Look for very specific things (such as a particular piece of music or the way certain instruments sounded at a specific time) which tend to stand out as either enjoyable or not enjoyable. Be sure to take notes of the things which you find enjoyable as well as the things which are not enjoyable.
If a student is unable to attend a cultural event in person due to circumstances beyond the student’s control, then the instructor will recommend an alternate event / activity for the student to “attend” online. The “virtual” event / activity is usually only for students who, due to their physical location, cannot possibly attend an event / activity in person; typically, these students are stationed overseas or have no means of transportation. Experience shows most museums and activities are modest in cost and manageable for students, and you will often see students from other universities there on similar course projects. If you are facing financial hardship, keep in mind that many museums have a free day each week and performance discounts are often available for students and veterans, among others. Feel free to ask your instructor to help with finding low-cost options. If you believe that you have a legitimate reason for attending a “virtual” activity, you must contact the instructor no later than Week 5 for your request to be considered.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. (Note: Students can find APA style materials located in the course shell for reference).
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
  • Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.
  • Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
  • Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.
19 England in the Tudor Age “THIS OTHER EDEN” 635

The Reign of Henry VIII 638

Humanism in Tudor England: Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More 638

Hans Holbein and Portrait Painting 641

Henry’s Marriages and His Defiance of Rome 642

Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth: The Continuing Religious Conflict 643

Elizabethan England 646

Elizabeth I and the Arts: Painting and Poetic Forms 647

Music in the Elizabethan Age 650

The Elizabethan Stage 651

Christopher Marlowe: The Legend of Faustus 653

William Shakespeare: “The play’s the thing!” 653

The English in Virginia 656

The Roanoke Colonies 656

Jamestown 658

READINGS

19.1 from Desiderius Erasmus, The Adages of Erasmus (1500–33) 638

19.2 from Thomas More, Utopia, Book 2 (1516) 661

19.2a from Thomas More, Utopia, Book 2 (1516) 640

19.3 from William Shakespeare, Richard II, Act 2, Scene 1 (1594) 646

19.4 Elizabeth I, “On Monsieur’s Departure” (1582) 648

19.5 Thomas Wyatt, “List to Hunt” (first published 1557) 649

19.6 William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 (1609) 649

19.7 William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 (1609) 649

19.8 Edmund Spenser, Sonnet 75, from the Amoretti (1595) 650

19.9 from William Byrd, Psalms, Sonnets, & Songs (1588) 651

19.10 from Christopher Marlowe, The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, Scene 14 (1604) 653

19.11a from William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2 (1623) 654

19.11b from William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1 (1623) 655

19.12 from Thomas Hariot, A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1590) 657

FEATURES

CONTEXT

The Tudor Genealogy 641

The Sonnet 648

CLOSER LOOK Holbein’s The Ambassadors 644

CONTINUITY & CHANGE The New Universe 659

20 The Early Counter- Reformation and Mannerism RESTRAINT AND INVENTION 663

The Counter-Reformation 665

The Council of Trent 665

Catholic Reform of the Arts: Palestrina and the Music of the Early Counter-Reformation 665

Michelangelo and the Rise of Mannerism 667

Mannerism in Art: A Matter of Decorum 669

Court Painting: Beyond the Church’s Reach 670

Mannerist Religious Painting 671

The Rise of Women Artists in Northern Italy 674

Mannerist Sculpture: Focus on Individual Genius 676

Inquisition and Innovation 678

Art under the Italian Inquisition: Veronese 678

The Spanish Inquisition 679

The Counter-Reformation and Mannerism United: El Greco in Spain 680

Cervantes and the Picaresque Tradition 680

READINGS

20.1 from Pietro Aretino, Letter to Michelangelo (1545) 669

20.2 from Benvenuto Cellini, Life (1728) 678

20.3 from The Trial of Veronese (1573) 678

20.4 from John of the Cross, The Dark Night of the Soul, “The Dark Night” 683

20.5 from Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote, Part 1, Chapter 8 (1605) 684

FEATURES

CLOSER LOOK Bronzino’s Allegory with Venus and Cupid 672

CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Frenzy of Inspiration 682


Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct What form became known as "Marlow's mighty line"? Given Answer: Correct Blank verse Correct Answer: Blank verse out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did English families agree to colonize Roanoke Island in 1587? Given Answer: Correct In exchange for land Correct Answer: In exchange for land out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Incorrect Which of the following is NOT one of William Byrd's reasons for people to learn to sing? Given Answer: Incorrect It strengthens the lungs Correct Answer: It makes people more pleasant out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Where in an English sonnet is the resolution or explanation? Given Answer: Correct The last couplet Correct Answer: The last couplet out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Tales of what land inspired in part Thomas More's ideas about an ideal society? Given Answer: Correct America Correct Answer: America out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why might Michelangelo in the Last Judgment have included his self-portrait on the flayed skin of St. Bartholomew? Given Answer: Incorrect Bartholomew is the largest of his painted saints Correct Answer: Michelangelo felt martyred by papal commissions out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Benvenuto Cellini imprisoned in 1557? Given Answer: Correct Repeated sodomy Correct Answer: Repeated sodomy out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Bronzino paint Venus holding a golden apple in Allegory with Venus and Cupid? Given Answer: Correct To reference the golden apple Paris gave to Venus Correct Answer: To reference the golden apple Paris gave to Venus out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Spain institute an Inquisition in 1478? Given Answer: Correct To convert all non-Christian Spaniards Correct Answer: To convert all non-Christian Spaniards out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Veronese's Last Supper so offensive to the Roman Inquisition that he changed its title to Feast in the House of Levi? Given Answer: Correct It features buffoons and drunkards Correct Answer: It features buffoons and drunkards
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Henry have his marriage with Anne of Cleves annulled? Given Answer: Correct She resembled a horse Correct Answer: She resembled a horse out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Henry VIII write a tract condemning Luther and his religious reforms? Given Answer: Correct To earn a "Defender of the Faith" title from the pope Correct Answer: To earn a "Defender of the Faith" title from the pope out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Marlowe's Dr. Faustus turn to black magic? Given Answer: Correct Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship Correct Answer: Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What did the sale of church lands enable England's Parliament to do? Given Answer: Correct Not raise taxes Correct Answer: Not raise taxes out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why did Henry VIII break away from Rome and start his own Church of England? Given Answer: Incorrect To support Martin Luther's Reformation Correct Answer: To annul his marriage to Katherine of Aragon out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Rape of the Sabine Women considered sculptural genius? Given Answer: Correct It unites three figures in a single spiral Correct Answer: It unites three figures in a single spiral out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Veronese's Last Supper so offensive to the Roman Inquisition that he changed its title to Feast in the House of Levi? Given Answer: Correct It features buffoons and drunkards Correct Answer: It features buffoons and drunkards out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Incorrect How did Palestrina's Missa Papae Macellus conform to the Council of Trent's requirements? Given Answer: Incorrect It allows the entire congregation to sing Correct Answer: The words are clear above the restrained music out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Incorrect What is the distinction of Cellini's Life? Given Answer: Incorrect The instruction manual for Mannerist art Correct Answer: One of the first secular autobiographies out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why is the Escorial of a square, severe style? Given Answer: Incorrect To avoid detracting from the inside glories Correct Answer: To reflect official Catholic taste of the day
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Mary I order mass executions of Protestants when she assumed the throne in 1553? Given Answer: Correct Like her mother, Mary was a devout Catholic Correct Answer: Like her mother, Mary was a devout Catholic out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why was portraiture so popular in Tudor England? Given Answer: Correct Portraits show the humanist emphasis on individualism Correct Answer: Portraits show the humanist emphasis on individualism out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Marlowe's Dr. Faustus turn to black magic? Given Answer: Correct Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship Correct Answer: Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Where in an English sonnet is the resolution or explanation? Given Answer: Correct The last couplet Correct Answer: The last couplet out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct How was London's government unique in Renaissance Europe? Given Answer: Correct It was both self-governing and under royal rule Correct Answer: It was both self-governing and under royal rule out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why might Michelangelo in the Last Judgment have included his self-portrait on the flayed skin of St. Bartholomew? Given Answer: Correct Michelangelo felt martyred by papal commissions Correct Answer: Michelangelo felt martyred by papal commissions out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Charles V direct his son to construct the Escorial? Given Answer: Correct To function as the tomb for all the Spanish kings Correct Answer: To function as the tomb for all the Spanish kings out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Which of the following was NOT ordered by the Council of Trent? Given Answer: Correct Cessation of infant baptism Correct Answer: Cessation of infant baptism out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Incorrect What type of novel is Cervantes' Don Quixote? Given Answer: Incorrect Travelogue Correct Answer: Picaresque out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What does the Italian word maniera, from which Mannerist derives, mean? Given Answer: Correct Style Correct Answer: Style
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct What form became known as "Marlow's mighty line"? Given Answer: Correct Blank verse Correct Answer: Blank verse out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Henry VIII write a tract condemning Luther and his religious reforms? Given Answer: Correct To earn a "Defender of the Faith" title from the pope Correct Answer: To earn a "Defender of the Faith" title from the pope out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Marlowe's Dr. Faustus turn to black magic? Given Answer: Correct Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship Correct Answer: Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Henry have his marriage with Anne of Cleves annulled? Given Answer: Correct She resembled a horse Correct Answer: She resembled a horse out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct As reported in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why in 1616 did the Catholic Church declare Copernicus's On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres heretical? Given Answer: Correct For arguing that Earth was not the center of the universe Correct Answer: For arguing that Earth was not the center of the universe out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Rape of the Sabine Women considered sculptural genius? Given Answer: Correct It unites three figures in a single spiral Correct Answer: It unites three figures in a single spiral out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Benvenuto Cellini imprisoned in 1557? Given Answer: Correct Repeated sodomy Correct Answer: Repeated sodomy out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Charles V direct his son to construct the Escorial? Given Answer: Correct To function as the tomb for all the Spanish kings Correct Answer: To function as the tomb for all the Spanish kings out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the Escorial of a square, severe style? Given Answer: Correct To reflect official Catholic taste of the day Correct Answer: To reflect official Catholic taste of the day out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What does the Italian word maniera, from which Mannerist derives, mean? Given Answer: Correct Style Correct Answer: Style