Wednesday, July 05, 2017

HIS 105 Week 1 Summer 2017


The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

Map

False Black Power, 5:17

Race since the Civil War, political over urban areas, and Obama: 4:35

Break:

Connect on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/gmicksmith

To join our Slack group: send me your email address so I can invite you to Slack.

Blackboard is not smart enough to reveal email addresses.

For example: gmick.smith@strayer.edu

https://hum111.slack.com/

How have you used the Orai app?

https://www.oraiapp.com/

How about trying it for the Discussion?

Boost Linguistics

The Boost Editor improves language communication that is written by students.

Sign up at:
boost-ling.com/boost-text-editor/



In order to do this you can access Boost at boost-ling.com/boost-text-editor/

There you’ll be able to copy and paste any text (email, article, assignment, blog, etc.) and improve the language for the emotion of JOY.

http://boost-ling.com/app/

Side note:Video of V1 in June release

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B63nNuIP9mzpLXN3RER4cXlvN28/view

Digital History
 
Chapters 16-29

16     Reconstruction, 1865–1877
17     The Industrial Revolution
18     The Industrial Age: North, South, and West
19     The Progressive Era
20     Becoming a World Power
21     Prosperity and Change in the Twenties
22     The Great Depression and the New Deal
23     World War II
24     Cold War America
25     The Sixties
26     The Age of Fracture: The 1970s
27     Reagan’s America
28     America in the Information Age
29     Globalization and Its Discontents


Week 1 Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:



  • Identify and discuss the different ways that the heritage of slavery, the Civil War, the Reconstruction, and segregation have shaped America’s history – even to the present day.
  • Summarize and discuss the ways that formal policies of government have influenced the direction of historical and social development in the United States.

CHAPTER 16
Reconstruction, 1865-1877

The process of reconstructing the nation after four years of civil war was long and exhausting, so long in fact that it may have even allowed the South to lose the war but win the peace.

16 Reconstruction, 1865–1877

16-1 Freedmen, Freedwomen

The Freedmen's Bureau

16-2 Political Plans for Reconstruction

Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction and His Assassination

Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction

Johnson's Impeachment

The Fifteenth Amendment

Women's Rights

16-3 Grassroots Reconstruction

Black Officeholders

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

Sharecropping

16-4 The Collapse of Reconstruction

In the North

In the South


Learning Outcomes

After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

16-1 Describe the changed world of ex-slaves after the Civil War.

16-2 Outline the different phases of Reconstruction, beginning with Lincoln’s plan and moving through presidential Reconstruction to Congressional Reconstruction.

16-3 Explain how Reconstruction evolved at the individual states’ level.

16-4 Evaluate and understand the relative success of Reconstruction.


DISCUSSION
The Lost Cause is a set of beliefs common in the white American South in the late 19th and early 20th century that describes the Confederate cause as a heroic one against great odds despite its defeat. The beliefs endorse the virtues of the antebellum South, viewing the American Civil War as an honorable struggle for the Southern way of life, while minimizing or denying the central role of slavery. While it was not taught in the North, aspects of it did win acceptance there and helped the process of reunifying American whites.


"Lost Cause" Please respond to the following: (Note: Please respond to one [1] of the following two [2] bulleted items in a primary posting of at least 125 words. In addition, please make a substantive comment to one [1] of your classmates.)
  • From the e-Activity about the Lost Cause, compare the two (2) different narratives about the causes and results of the Civil War that Americans developed in both Union states and Confederate states. Describe the key reasons why these narratives are an important part of understanding differences between the North and South in the present-day of United States. Provide a rationale for your response.
  • From the e-Activity about the Lost Cause, identify at least two (2) reasons for these narratives’ importance in regard to race relations in today’s society. Provide a rationale and real-world example for each reason.

Our examination of important issues in the course having to do with Reconstruction really begins with the material in Week 8 and identity politics.

Identity politics refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify. Identity politics includes the ways in which people's politics may be shaped by aspects of their identity through loosely correlated social organizations.

Examples include social organizations based on race, class, gender, gender identity, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, culture, language and dialect. Not all members of any given group are necessarily involved in identity politics.

The term identity politics came into being during the latter part of the 20th century, during the Civil Rights Era.[2] During this time period, identity politics were used by a minority group to form a coalition with members of the majority.

In the spirit of full disclosure then I want to identify my political position so that you know where I stand.

Article V


As stated by songwriter Ian Hunter:


"Don't wanna vote for the left wing - don't wanna vote for the right I gotta have both-to make me fly"
All American Alien Boy, Ian Hunter

The Founders realized that there may come a time when the federal government would go astray from the intention of the Constitution to limit power; thus, they implemented a stop gap measure to put control back in the hands of the people.

How the Convention of States was put into the Constitution, 1:58

https://youtu.be/Hw0LCKwcgIw







Article V
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution [this is the ordinary way that amendments have been passed; however, there is another procedure that the Founders proposed. Their proposal put power in the hands of the people, and not in the government, Congress, or the President].

The Founders stated:
Or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress.

The Founders set up a government wherein citizens did not identify with a social group but with their state, local community, and their personal relationships. To ensure that factions within the nation did not dominate presidential elections they created the Electoral College to fairly represent different areas within the country.

Based on the failure of examples they studied, in particular Greece and Rome, they feared a direct democracy and the popular election of a president. 



The Birth of a New Nation
Benjamin Franklin
"A Republic Madame, if you can keep it," 10:36
Very few Americans understand our form of Government. All too often citizens think majority rules or that we live in a democracy. Some advocate no Government at all. But our Founding Fathers had something a little different in mind. Choosing to avoid the entrapment inherent in Monarchies and Dictatorships, while protecting State's rights, they settled on a Republic.

In-class
1. In-class assignment, what is the difference between a democracy and a republic?
2. How are we to understand the political spectrum?
3. What is the role of the government in the U.S.?
4. What are the five forms of government?
5. What is the most common form of government?
6. What does the word democracy mean?
7. What is the flaw in democracy?
8. What does the word Republic mean?
9. What can a lynch mob teach us about the difference between a democracy and a republic?
10. Does the word democracy appear in American founding documents, Constitution, or state constitutions?
11. Why did the Founders look upon democracy with contempt?
12. What did Solon and the Romans suggest to the Founders?
13. What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?
14. What are our two choices?

https://youtu.be/FmzldNFgD40


Today, our history has led us to the situation of identity politics as a result of the fractured 1970s. 

Sam Harris | Identity Politicstext


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVIlPSLzuFA


https://youtu.be/VVIlPSLzuFA

What is the alternative to identity politics?

Is there an actual connection between each issue dividing Americans?

What organization are people forming?

If we reason honestly what should we base our opinions on?

Why shouldn't we base our opinions on the basis of personal experience?

The screen goes dark at the end of the video.



What is the alternative to identity politics? 
Knowledge of the issues and individual behavior.

Is there an actual connection between each issue dividing Americans?
No, the issues should be distinguished from one another.

What organization are people forming?
Tribes

If we reason honestly what should we base our opinions on?
Facts and evidence

Why shouldn't we base our opinions on the basis of personal experience?

Facts and evidence do not rely on personal experience for their validity; they are true regardless.

Today, do we see examples of tribal like behavior in America?

Special Needs Boy Kidnapped and Tortured in Chicago, 1:30

https://youtu.be/q3CL6NZ-HXw



Brutal Attack For Voting Trump,:32

https://youtu.be/djx3T9IEc1A






Today, it is standard business practice to highlight '60s radicals such as Malcolm X. On the Christiana campus of Strayer University for example a quote by Malcolm is prominently displayed.

Malcolm X (/ˈmælkəm ˈɛks/; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and later also known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎‎), was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist

To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; on the other hand, detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence.

1960s and 1970s, a period of social protest and discontent.


Black Identity

https://youtu.be/FmzldNFgD40

1968

James Brown, Say It Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud, 5:57

"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" is a funk song performed by James Brown and written with his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis in 1968.

It was released as a two-part single which held the number-one spot on the R&B singles chart for six weeks, and peaked at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100.[1][2]

Both parts of the single were later included on James Brown's 1968 album A Soulful Christmas and on his 1969 album sharing the title of the song.

"Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" was Brown's first recording to feature trombonist Fred Wesley.

The song addresses the Black Power movement of 1968: but how it address black power is the interesting aspect of the song.

Brown is distancing himself from the radical Black Power movement emerging in 1968.

Consider that the lyrics "We've been 'buked and we've been scorned/We've been treated bad, talked about as sure as you're born" in the first verse of the song paraphrases the spiritual "I've Been 'Buked" by Mahalia Jackson which was performed at the March on Washington.

From Mahalia and the March on Washington we can understand that relying on "Jesus" and "God" are important. 

Martin Luther King, Jr., significantly, was a Christian minister.

Themes from Peter, Paul, and Mary, as well as Bob Dylan, indicate that social change is coming ringing in justice and freedom for my brothers and my sisters. 

The Civil Rights movement is a Judeo-Christian, American movement that James Brown is tapping into.

Several other Brown singles from the same era as "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud", notably "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door, I'll Get It Myself)", explored similar themes of black empowerment and self-reliance. 

And, coupled with his "America Is My Home" tune we can see that American Jews and Christians are relying on their talent, hard work, and education to bring about social change.

Will only Judeo-Christian, pro-American forces be the only important political movement of the decade?

https://youtu.be/2VRSAVDlpDI














1960s and 1970s, a period of social protest and discontent.

Gil Scott-Heron 
Gil Scott-Heron - The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, 2:50

"You will not be able to plug in, turn on, and cop out."

"There will be no pictures of pigs shooting down brothers in the instant replay."

"The revolution will not be televised; the revolution will be live."

Thus, when did the revolution occur?

https://youtu.be/rGaRtqrlGy8





FACT 1. Over 1,400 more black Americans murdered other blacks in two years than were lynched from 1882 to 1968.

FACT 2. Black People (mostly men) commit a grossly disproportionate amount of crime.

FACT 3. Despite making up just 13% of the population, blacks committed half of homicides in the United States for nearly 30 years.

FACT 4. Chicago’s death toll is almost equal to that of both wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, combined.

FACT 5. It would take cops 40 years to kill as many black men as have died at the hands of others black men in 2012 alone.




James Brown. Views on Martin Luther King, Jr., Vietnam and Promised Land speech, April 3, 1968, 1:11

James Brown. A clip from the documentary, "The Night James Brown Saved Boston", features his views on Dr. King speaking out on Vietnam. James Brown believed as a religious leader Dr. King should not have spoken out about the Vietnam War.

The clip also includes an excerpt of the Promised Land speech by Martin Luther King. Jr. given on April 3, 1968. Video transcript:

Those were the most difficult days for Martin because he was being pulled apart by two movements. The Civil Rights movement and the war in Vietnam.

When Dr. King spoke out against the Vietnam war, Mr. Brown thought he was wrong because Mr. Brown thought that he is a religious leader.

He is not a politician. He is getting out of his bag, as we would say, he is getting out of what he stands for and he can create a problem for himself.

Because the powers that be are not going to stand for this.Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: I just want to do God's will, and he has allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the Promised Land.

https://youtu.be/qhpP6DC-H5Y

James Brown vs. Martin Luther King



Politics

During the 1968 presidential campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies.

Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January 1969.

Brown's endorsement of Nixon during the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his career during that period with several national Black organizations boycotting his records and protesting at his concert shows.

Brown stated he was neither Democratic nor Republican despite his support of Republican presidents such as Nixon and Ronald Reagan.

In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century, Brown mentioned John F. Kennedy and 96-year-old, former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' And that's great for our country. He's like a grandfather to me." In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee. Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard."


James Brown, I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing, MDS 1969, 4:06

Embedding disabled by request

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYNJK5sHHeo

June 30, 1969: JB doin' the tune "I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing (Open Up The Door I'll Get It Myself)"


The JB'S-You Can Have Watergate,But Gimme Some Bucks (1973), 6:10


Brown's band went on to sing this topical, political song during the Watergate era.



America Is My Home (Pt. 1), 3:20

Provided to YouTube by Universal Music Group International America Is My Home (Pt. 1) · James Brown & The Famous Flames The 50 Greatest Songs ℗ 1967 Universal Records, a Division of UMG Recordings, Inc. Released on: 2007-01-01 Producer: James Brown Composer, Author: Haywood E. Moore Composer, Author: James Brown Music Publisher: Intersong Music Ltd

https://youtu.be/nT1e0H1himc








"America Is My Home"
Talking 'bout me leaving America
You gotta be crazy, man, I like
All the nice thing, Jack
Colonial suits and things, look at here
Now I am sorry for the man
Who don't love this land
Now black and white, they may fight
But when up the enemy come
We'll get together and run about all side
I love it
The sun don't come out in rainy weather
But when you ball it down they are still together
Now let's not overlook the fact that we are, we are still in reach
You got to chance to make it and you got a freedom of speech
Say what you wanna, tell 'em how you feel
There may be a lot of places, a lot of places that you like to go
But believe me if you get an education you can blow
You can all it blow, dig this
Now you tell me if I'm wrong
America is still the best country
And that's without a doubt
America is still the best country
Without a doubt
And if anybody says it ain't, you can try to put him out
They ain't going nowhere, you got a good fight
When I tell you one time that I was a shoeshine boy
Every word I said, I meant
But name me any other country
You can start out as a shoeshine boy
And shake hand with the president
It ain't gonna help you gotta had that royal blood to make it
And I ain't got nothing royal but me
So I can take the chances, I'm gonna stay home
And look at here I got a brand new jet
When I need to move
I saw a brother made it
Now it ain't that a rule
So look at here
Brothers and sisters and friends, dig this
So quit your dreaming all night
Stop beatin' yourself and get up and fight
Don't give up, you might give up, but just don't give out
I know if you give out don't give up
There's no quick going, I mean like keep it moving you know
'Cause if you stop like a ball quit rolling
Now we got two of the [Incomprehensible] from Florida to Rome
Which we know there's one thing we'll never forget
America's still our home, hit it bad
God bless America, I'm talking about me too
You know I'm American myself, I like that kind of thing, look at here
Songwriters

Hayward Epps Moore;James Brown
Published by

DYNATONE PUBLISHING CO

James Brown managed to criticize the state and yet he was proud to be an American.

As a result, he accurately reflects the American notion of civil disobedience similar to Henry David Thoreau. Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.

In it, Thoreau argues that individuals should not permit governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that they have a duty to avoid allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.

Thoreau was motivated in part by his disgust with slavery and the Mexican–American War (1846-1848).

The challenge within the black power movement, as in all protests movements, would be to balance criticism of the state against the denunciation of America.

There was a division between those aligned with Martin Luther King, Jr. and those aligned with Stokely Carmichael, marked by their respective slogans, "Freedom Now" and "Black Power."[27]

Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American revolutionary active in the Civil Rights Movement, and later, the global Pan-African movement.

Can you think of any other Americans who grew up in the Third World and as a result may have a Third World perspective?  

Growing up in the United States from the age of 11, he graduated from Howard University.

He rose to prominence in the civil rights and Black Power movements, first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and finally as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP).[1]

Anti-Semitism

Jews had comprised a disproportionate number of the white supporters of the southern civil rights movement. The subsequent rejection of white activists from groups like SNCC and CORE, accompanied by ideological factors such as the shift in emphasis to a revolutionary anti-colonialist struggle, and anti-Zionist sympathy for the Palestinians, led to a permanent souring of relations in America between blacks and Jews.

In 1970 Carmichael proclaimed: "I have never admired a white man, but the greatest of them, to my mind, was Hitler."[27]

Anti-woman

In November 1964 Carmichael made a joking remark in response to a SNCC position paper written by his friends Casey Hayden and Mary E. King on the position of women in the movement. In the course of an irreverent comedy monologue he performed at a party after SNCC's Waveland conference, Carmichael said,

"The position of women in the movement is prone."[28]

A number of women were offended. In a 2006 The Chronicle of Higher Education article, historian Peniel E. Joseph later wrote:

While the remark was made in jest during a 1964 conference, Carmichael and black-power activists did embrace an aggressive vision of manhood — one centered on black men's ability to deploy authority, punishment, and power. In that, they generally reflected their wider society's blinders about women and politics.[29]

Despite the anti-woman aspects of the radical black power movement women, such as Hillary Rodham, were involved.

Stokely Carmichael vs. Liberals, Liberal Racism, Alinsky-Obama


Racist white society


Portion of speech by Kwame Ture, then still known as Stokely Carmichael, chairman of the militant Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), delivered it in front of the Mississippi State Capitol at Jackson on June 26, 1966, 


SNCC was successful in the South with poor blacks.




Black Power


Stokely Carmichael, Black Power, 8:03

https://youtu.be/4zg4dhFb7aQ



The first popular use of the term "Black Power" as a political and racial slogan was by Stokely Carmichael (later known as Kwame Ture) and Willie Ricks (later known as Mukasa Dada), both organizers and spokespersons for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). 

On June 16, 1966, in a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi, after the shooting of James Meredith during the March Against Fear, Stokely Carmichael said:[5][6]


This is the twenty-seventh time I have been arrested and I ain't going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin' us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin' now is Black Power!


Carmichael saw the concept of "Black Power" as a means of solidarity between individuals within the movement. 

It was a replacement of the "Freedom Now!" slogan of Carmichael's contemporary, the non-violent leader Martin Luther King. 

With his use of the term, Carmichael felt this movement was not just a movement for racial desegregation, but rather a movement to help end how American racism had weakened blacks. 

He said, "'Black Power' means black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs."[7]

Carmichael split from Martin Luther King as well as Liberal racism.

Today, who might be representative of liberal racism?




Harry Reid "Obama Electable Because he is Light Skinned with no Negro Dialect,"

1:14


Reid’s comments were first reported in early 2010 in the book Game Change by journalists Mark Halperin and John Heilemann.

White Liberals

https://youtu.be/kQnlcUN3qcQ



Biden: clean and articulate Obama, :40

Biden kicked off his 2007 White House run by condescending to his current running mate, saying that then-Sen. Barack Obama was the “first mainstream African-American who is articulate and bright and clean and a nice-looking guy.”

http://nation.foxnews.com/joe-biden/2012/08/17/top-5-racist-biden-gaffes



There are those who contend that Obama was new or the first African-American to be considered presidential material but historically this is not true.

Candidates receiving popular votes

U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees

Through the 2012 presidential election, no African-American candidates have received electoral votes for vice president.

Candidates receiving popular votes

U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination

Candidates who failed to receive their party's nomination (or who are currently campaigning for their party's nomination). Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.

U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1904 George Edwin Taylor[1] National Liberty Party W.C. Payne scattering[2]
1960 Clennon King Independent Afro-American Party Reginald Carter 1,485
1964 Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Ed Shaw 32,706
1968 Eldridge Cleaver Peace and Freedom Party Various candidates 36,623[3]
1968 Dick Gregory Freedom and Peace Party Various candidates 47,097
1968 Charlene Mitchell Communist Party Michael Zagarell 1,076
1976 Margaret Wright People's Party Benjamin Spock 49,013
1980 Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Matilde Zimmermann 38,738
1980 Andrew Pulley Socialist Workers Party Matilde Zimmermann 6,264[4]
1984 Larry Holmes Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 17,985
1984 Dennis L. Serrette New Alliance Party Nancy Ross 46,853
1984 Edward Winn Socialist Equality Party Helen Halyard 10,801
1988 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Joyce Dattner 217,219
1988 Larry Holmes Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 7,846
1988 James Warren Socialist Workers Party Kathleen Mickells 15,602
1988 Edward Winn Socialist Equality Party Helen Halyard 18,693
1992 Ronald Daniels Peace and Freedom Party Asiba Tupahache 27,949
1992 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Maria Elizabeth Muñoz 73,714
1992 Helen Halyard Workers League Fred Mazelis 3,050
1992 Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Walter Masters 327
1992 James Warren Socialist Workers Party Various candidates 23,533
1996 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Laura Garza 8,476
1996 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 29,083
1996 Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Shirley Jean Masters 752
2000 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Margaret Trowe 7,038
2000 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 4,795
2000 Randall A. Venson Independent Gene Kelly 547
2004 James Harris[5] Socialist Workers Party Margaret Trowe 7,102
2004 John Parker Workers World Party Teresa Gutierrez 1,646
2008 James Harris[5] Socialist Workers Party Alyson Kennedy 2,424
2008 Alan Keyes America's Independent Party Brian Rohrbough 47,756[6]
2008 Cynthia McKinney Green Party Rosa Clemente 150,061
2008 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 69,498,215
2012 Stewart Alexander Socialist Party Alejandro Mendoza 4,405[7]
2012 Andre Barnett Reform Party Ken Cross 956[7]
2012 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Maura DeLuca 4,117[7]
2012 Peta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Yari Osorio 7,791[7]
2012 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 65,915,796[7]
Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1872 Frederick Douglass[8] Equal Rights Party Victoria Woodhull Unreported
1928 Simon P. Drew Interracial Independent Party[9] Jacob S. Coxey[10][11]
1932 James W. Ford Communist Party William Z. Foster 102,991
1936 James W. Ford Communist Party Earl Browder 80,195
1940 James W. Ford Communist Party Earl Browder
1952 Charlotta Bass Progressive Party Vincent Hallinan 140,023
1968 Paul Boutelle Socialist Workers Party Fred Halstead
1972 Julius Hobson People's Party Benjamin Spock 78,759
1972 Jarvis Tyner Communist Party Gus Hall
1976 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Peter Camejo 90,986
1976 Jarvis Tyner Communist Party Gus Hall
1980 Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 43,871
1984 Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 36,386
1984 Helen Halyard[12] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 10,801
1988 Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 18,693
1992 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
1996 Shirley Jean Masters Looking Back Party Isabell Masters 752
2000 Ezola B. Foster Reform Party Pat Buchanan 449,225
2004 Arrin Hawkins Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 3,689
2004 Jim Lawrence Socialist Equality Party Bill Van Auken 1,857
2008 Stewart Alexander Socialist Party Brian Moore 7,315
2008 Eugene Puryear Party for Socialism and Liberation Gloria La Riva 7,478
Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1848 Frederick Douglass Liberty Party 1 vote at national convention[13] Gerrit Smith
1888 Frederick Douglass Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Benjamin Harrison
1968 Channing E. Phillips Democratic Party 67.5 votes at national convention Hubert Humphrey
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 152 votes at national convention George McGovern
1972 Walter Fauntroy Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention; 21,217 votes (71.78%) and winner of Washington, D.C. primary George McGovern
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Jimmy Carter
1976 Walter Fauntroy Democratic Party 10,149 votes (30.49%) (2nd place) in Washington, D.C. primary Jimmy Carter
1984 Jesse Jackson Democratic Party 466 votes at national convention Walter Mondale
1988 Jesse Jackson Democratic Party 1218.5 votes at national convention Michael Dukakis
1992 Douglas Wilder Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses Bill Clinton
1992 Alan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention. Keyes was the Republican candidate in the U.S. Senate election in Maryland at the time, and was not actively seeking the presidency in 1992. George H.W. Bush
1996 Alan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Bob Dole
1996 Isabell Masters Republican Party 1052 votes (7th place) in Oklahoma primary[14] Bob Dole
2000 Alan Keyes Republican Party 6 votes at national convention George W. Bush
2000 Angel Joy Rocker[15] Republican Party 6 votes in Alabama straw poll[16] George W. Bush
2004 Carol Moseley Braun Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses John Kerry
2004 Al Sharpton Democratic Party Earned 26 delegates in 5 primaries and caucuses John Kerry
2008 Alan Keyes Republican Party Keyes withdrew from Republican Party on April 15, 2008, but remained on the Republican ballot in several states. John McCain
2008 Alan Keyes Constitution Party 125.7 votes (24.36%) (2nd place) at national convention. Chuck Baldwin
2012 Herman Cain Republican Party Withdrew on December 3, 2011. Mitt Romney
2016 Ben Carson Republican Party Announced candidacy on May 3, 2015. Withdrew on March 4. Earned 9 delegates.
2016 Willie Wilson Democratic Party Announced candidacy on June 1, 2015.
2016 John Fitzgerald Johnson Democratic Party Announced candidacy on August 23, 2015.
2016 Clifton Roberts Humane Party Announced candidacy on November 1, 2015. Various candidates[17]
Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1856 Frederick Douglass Political Abolitionist[18]
Samuel T. McFarland[19]
1880 Blanche Bruce Republican Party 8 votes at national convention[20] Chester A. Arthur
1888 Blanche Bruce Republican Party 11 votes at national convention[20] Levi P. Morton
1968 Julian Bond Democratic Party 48.5 votes at national convention Edmund Muskie
1972 Julian Bond Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 20 votes at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1972 Ron Dellums Democratic Party 4 votes at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 17 votes in national convention Walter Mondale
1980 Mel Boozer Democratic Party 49 votes in national convention[21] Walter Mondale




https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=vJSfBKQA_KQ




https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RTj1WazIFw

In contemporary politics, several themes have emerged since the revolution will be not be televised. 

First, there is a split between the religious, American social movement of civil rights; 

second, black power emerged as a split from the Martin Luther King movement but it also identified liberal racism. 

Finally, the respectable type of radical, following Alinsky, has emerged.


D' Sousa Talks About Alinsky & Obama, 4:42



Nonetheless, and in contrast to the Alinsky or Black Power radicals, the American, hard-working ethic of African-Americans is well-represented by Berry Gordy and James Brown.



Motown Message Songs
 
Valadiers

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=SYDWLGGHFDg

“Greetings” appeared nearly a decade before Motown allowed Marvin Gaye’s protest anthem “What’s Going On” to hit the airwaves on January 20, 1971.

Gaye’s masterpiece followed on the heels of such politically charged hit singles as the Temptations’ “Ball of Confusion” (May 7, 1970) and Edwin Starr’s “War” (June 9, 1970), which paved the way for Gaye’s effort.

Marvin Gaye - What's Going On, 3:51

https://youtu.be/H-kA3UtBj4M



The radicals though were emerging during the period.

Tim Kaine, VP candidate of the Democratic Party in 2016, identified with Marxist liberation theology priests in the Roman Catholic Church.

Marxist


In 1965, Hillary Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science.[18]

During her freshman year, she served as president of the Wellesley Young Republicans;[19][20] with this Rockefeller Republican-oriented group.[21]

In her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy.[26] Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty.[26]

Rodham wrote her senior thesis about the radical community organizer Saul Alinsky.[29] (Years later, while she was first lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation.[29])

Saul David Alinsky (January 30, 1909 – June 12, 1972) was a Jewish American community organizer and writer. He is generally considered to be the founder of modern community organizing. He is often noted for his 1971 book Rules for Radicals.

In the course of nearly four decades of political organizing, Alinsky received much criticism, but also gained praise from many public figures. His organizing skills were focused on improving the living conditions of poor communities across North America. In the 1950s, he began turning his attention to improving conditions in the African-American ghettos, beginning with Chicago's and later traveling to other ghettos in California, Michigan, New York City, and a dozen other "trouble spots".

His ideas were adapted in the 1960s by some U.S. college students and other young counterculture-era organizers, who used them as part of their strategies for organizing on campus and beyond.[5] Time magazine wrote in 1970 that "It is not too much to argue that American democracy is being altered by Alinsky's ideas."[6] Conservative author William F. Buckley, Jr. said in 1966 that Alinsky was "very close to being an organizational genius".[7]

:02

1:40

Hillary's Mentor: From Hell

 Shortly before his death Alinsky had discussed life after death in Playboy:[4]




ALINSKY: ... if there is an afterlife, and I have anything to say about it, I will unreservedly choose to go to hell.
PLAYBOY: Why?
ALINSKY: Hell would be heaven for me. All my life I've been with the have-nots. Over here, if you're a have-not, you're short of dough. If you're a have-not in hell, you're short of virtue. Once I get into hell, I'll start organizing the have-nots over there.
PLAYBOY: Why them?
ALINSKY: They're my kind of people.

https://youtu.be/uYx7ymCSua0








After graduating from college, Hillary worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthful conditions).[36]


Hillary's radical politics is shared with another young man in college during the era. In his autobiography, he states:

"To avoid being mistaken for a sellout, I chose my friends carefully.

The more politically active black students.

The foreign students.

The Chicanos.

The Marxist professors and structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets.

We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets.

At night, in the dorms, we discussed neocolonialism, Franz Fanon, Eurocentrism, and patriarchy.

When we ground out our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling conventions.

We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure.

We were alienated.

But this strategy alone couldn't provide the distance I wanted, from Joyce or my past.

After all, there were thousands of so-called campus radicals, most of them white and tenured and happily tolerant.

No, it remained necessary to prove which side you were on, to show your loyalty to the black masses, to strike out and name names."

The young man identified with radical blacks, foreigners, and Marxists while rejecting the culture of the Western humanities and middle-class society as represented by the Irish novelist James Joyce.

Does anyone recognize the young, radical college student's quote and who it is?

The young radical introduced the Marxist professor, Derrick Bell, at Harvard, 1:44

Bell advocates Critical Race Theory which hold that racism is engrained in the fabric and system of the American society. The individual racist need not exist but all of American culture is institutionally racist. CRT contends that these power structures are based on white privilege and white supremacy, which perpetuates the marginalization of people of color.[11]

http://youtu.be/a1wghYexaP4

Derrick Bell

http://www.frontpagemag.com/2012/john-perazzo/barack-obamas-first-jeremiah-wright/



The young radical is of course:

-- Barack Obama


BREITBART: Sowell Destroys 'Totalitarian' Derrick Bell on 'Hannity'; 'Ideological Intolerance' 5:02

Thomas Sowell (/soʊl/; born June 30, 1930) is an American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author.

Perhaps it is best to introduce him as a high school drop-out from Harlem.

He is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Sowell was born in North Carolina, but grew up in Harlem, New York. He dropped out of high school and served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War. He received a bachelor's degree, graduating magna cum laude[3] from Harvard University in 1958 and a master's degree from Columbia University in 1959. In 1968, he earned his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Chicago.

Sowell has served on the faculties of several universities, including Cornell University and University of California, Los Angeles. He has also worked for think tanks such as the Urban Institute. Since 1980, he has worked at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He writes from a libertarian conservative perspective, advocating supply-side economics. Sowell has written more than thirty books (a number of which have been reprinted in revised editions), and his work has been widely anthologized. He is a National Humanities Medal recipient.


https://youtu.be/MkVl5_Dq6ZY





The emerging type of American culture highlights race in contrast to Dr. King's admonition to judge people by their character and not by the color of their skin. However, since the late 1960s, Dr. King's ideas have fallen out of favor so as to judge race over character. For example, consider how Muhammad Ali has been glorified at his passing. Yet, he called his opponents names and insulted some of them unmercifully.

Is it funny to call people names like "gorilla?"

Is it acceptable for "Smokin' Joe" Frazier to be `black and proud?'

Fearless Funny MAN Muhammad Ali vs The Gorilla in Manila Ali at His BEST 1975, 1:00

https://youtu.be/s1Jd5B0GGfw




Alinsky Revolutionaries

Hillary, Obama and the Cult of Alinsky"True revolutionaries do not flaunt their radicalism, Alinsky taught. He urged them to cut their hair, put on suits, and infiltrate the system from within

Alinsky viewed revolution as a slow, patient process. The trick was to penetrate existing institutions such as churches, unions and political parties. 


                                                              "Revolution"


You say you want a revolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world

But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me out

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

You say you got a real solution
Well, you know
We'd all love to see the plan
You ask me for a contribution
Well, you know
We're all doing what we can

But if you want money for people with minds that hate
All I can tell you is brother you have to wait

Don't you know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright, al...

You say you'll change the constitution
Well, you know
We all want to change your head
You tell me it's the institution
Well, you know
You'd better free your mind instead

But if you go carrying pictures of Chairman Mao
You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow

Don't you know know it's gonna be alright
Alright, alright

Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright
Alright, alright


http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/beatles/revolution.html 






THE WHO - Won't Get Fooled Again (1971 UK TV Appearance), 3:40


We'll be fighting in the streets With our children at our feet And the morals that they worship will be gone And the men who spurred us on Sit in judgment of all wrong They decide and the shotgun sings the song I'll tip my hat to the new constitution Take a bow for the new revolution Smile and grin at the change all around me Pick up my guitar and play Just like yesterday And I'll get on my knees and pray We don't get fooled again Don't get fooled again Change it had to come We knew it all along We were liberated from the fall that's all But the world looks just the same And history ain't changed 'Cause the banners, they all flown in the last war I'll tip my hat to the new constitution Take a bow for the new revolution Smile and grin at the change all around me Pick up my guitar and play Just like yesterday And I'll get on my knees and pray We don't get fooled again Don't get fooled again No, no! I'll move myself and my family aside If we happen to be left half alive I'll get all my papers and smile at the sky For I know that the hypnotized never lie Do ya? There's nothing in the street Looks any different to me And the slogans are replaced, by-the-bye And the parting on the left Is now the parting on the right And the beards have all grown longer overnight I'll tip my hat to the new constitution Take a bow for the new revolution Smile and grin at the change all around me Pick up my guitar and play Just like yesterday Then I'll get on my knees and pray We don't get fooled again Don't get fooled again No, no! YAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAH! Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss

https://youtu.be/onwFub77NFY



As noted earlier, for the 1963 March on Washington,  Mahalia Jackson, and she sung her "How I Got Over" and an old African American spiritual called "I've been 'buked."






Early Trump

What were the non-radical, non-Alinsky types such as Berry Gordy and James Brown doing during this time?



1998-1999 Jesse Jackson Endorses Trump


Trump attended Fordham University in the Bronx for two years. He entered the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, as Wharton then offered one of the few real estate studies departments in U.S. academia.[25] While there, he worked at the family's company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, named for his paternal grandmother.[26] Trump graduated from Wharton in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in economics.[27][28]

Trump was not drafted into the Vietnam War, for several reasons: student deferments, a medical deferment, and then a lucky high number in the draft lottery.[29] While in college, he obtained four student deferments.[29] He was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination in 1966, and was briefly classified as fit by a local draft board in 1968, but was then medically disqualified later in 1968.[29] Trump has attributed his medical deferment to "heel spurs" in both feet according to a 2015 biography.[24] Selective Service records from the National Archives confirm that Trump received the medical deferment and eventually received a high selective service lottery number in 1969.[30][nb 2] Trump put it this way in 2011: "I actually got lucky because I had a very high draft number".[30]
25 Years Ago https://youtu.be/SEPs17_AkTI 

3:10








Vietnam and its protest movements, 5:15

https://youtu.be/rHmZjs6t9oc



What were John Kerry's politics during the protest era?

Who is John Kerry?


John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943)[1] is an American diplomat and Democratic Party politician who is the 68th and current United States Secretary of State. He previously served in the United States Senate, where he chaired the Senate Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Kerry was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush.

Kerry was born in Aurora, Colorado and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. He graduated from Yale University class of 1966 with a political science major. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, and during 1968–1969 served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge (OIC) of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal, and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War. He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he deemed United States war policy in Vietnam to be the cause of war crimes.

After receiving his J.D. from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked in Massachusetts as an Assistant District Attorney. He served as Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was re-elected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. In 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein", but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war.

In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War. He and his running mate, North Carolina Senator John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney. Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and then of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and then confirmed by the U.S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013.



Today, Kerry, Hillary, and Obama preside over the longest war in American history.

Following the September 11 attacks inside the United States in 2001, NATO invaded Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom. The purpose of this was to defeat Al-Qaeda, to remove the Taliban from power, and to create a viable democratic state.

The United States still has troops in Afghanistan and during the Obama administration there has been the rise of the Islamic State.

John Kerry - Anti-War Speech (1971) [short clip] 3:05

On April 22nd, 1971, 27 year-old former Navy Lt. John Kerry testified against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War as a member of "Vietnam Veterans Against the War". Senator J. William Fulbright (D-Arkansas) chaired the committee. This event was filmed by NBC News.

https://youtu.be/yixdveuf0GQ



Kerry and Hillary protested, as did much of popular music during the era, against the Establishment.

The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organization. The Establishment may be a closed social group which selects its own members (as opposed to selection by merit or election) or specific entrenched elite structures, either in government or in specific institutions.

Today, these former protestors are the Establishment.

Are Democrats violent?

Dan Rather states "I think we have a bunch of thugs here." 1:00

Dan Rather Convention Floor Fight 1968 ElectionWallDotOrg.flv ElectionWall.Org

https://youtu.be/wItUjFU1i4M



1968 Democratic National Convention- www.NBCUniversalArchives.com, 1:45

Should police attack protestors?

Was the 1968 Democratic Party nominee to blame for the police riot?

It has now been 45 years since rallies outside of the 1968 Democratic National Convention turned violent. As the Chicago Police Department clashed with the protesters, news cameras rolled. This week, we present you with a short compilation of the footage that many concerned Americans around the country watched all those years ago -- scenes that left two legendary newsmen, Chet Huntley and David Brinkley, virtually speechless.

https://youtu.be/6ZlD4Dn_U7U






1968 DNC: Democratic nightmare in Chicago, 1:14

Chaos before Hubert Humphrey's nomination sets the modern standard for a harmful convention.

https://youtu.be/epxmX_58tOo




After Nixon's election in 1968 he was lampooned as "Tricky Dick."


The nomenclature was coined by Democratic politician Helen Gahagan Douglas.










"For What It's Worth" is a song written by Stephen Stills. It was performed by Buffalo Springfield, recorded on December 5, 1966, and released as a single in January 1967; it was later added to the re-release of their first album, Buffalo Springfield. The single peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. This song is currently ranked #63 on Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time as well as the eighth best song of 1967 by Acclaimed Music.[3]

Although "For What It's Worth" is often mistaken as an anti-war song, Stephen Stills was inspired to write the track because of the "Sunset Strip riots" in November 1966. The trouble, which started during the early stages of the counterculture era, was in the same year Buffalo Springfield had become the house band at the Whisky a Go Go on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles.[4]

It was within this period that local residents and businesses had become increasingly annoyed by late-night traffic congestion caused by crowds of young people going to clubs and music venues along the Strip. In response they lobbied the city to pass local ordinances that stopped loitering and enforced a strict curfew on the Strip after 10pm. However young music fans felt the new laws were an infringement of their civil rights.[5]

On Saturday, November 12, 1966, fliers were distributed on Sunset Strip inviting people to join demonstrations later that day. Several of Los Angeles' rock radio stations also announced that a rally would be held outside the Pandora's Box club on the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights.[5] That evening as many as 1,000 young demonstrators, including celebrities like Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda (who was handcuffed by police), gathered to protest against the enforcement of the curfew laws. Although the rallies began peacefully, trouble eventually broke out among the protesters and police. The unrest continued the next night and periodically throughout the rest of November and December forcing some clubs to shut down within weeks.[5]

Against the background of these civil disturbances, Stills recorded the song on December 5, 1966.
Buffalo Springfield - For What It's Worth 1967, 2:37


Sunset Strip Teen Riots November '66

https://youtu.be/D9ialZHUFVc?list=RDD...

There's something happening here
what it is ain't exactly clear
there's a man with a gun over there
telling me i got to beware
i think it's time we stop, children,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down

There's battle lines being drawn
nobody's right if everybody's wrong
young people speaking their minds
getting so much resistance from behind
i think it's time we stop, hey,
what's that sound every body look what's going down

What a field-day for the heat
a thousand people in the street
singing songs and carrying signs
mostly say, hooray for our side
it's time we stop, hey, what's that sound
everybody look what's going down

Paranoia strikes deep
into your life it will creep it
starts when you're always afraid
you step out of line, the man come and take you away we
better stop, hey, what's that sound everybody
look what's going down stop, hey, what's that
sound everybody look what's going down stop, now,
what's that sound everybody look what's going down stop,
children, what's that sound everybody look what's going down

https://youtu.be/gp5JCrSXkJY



Audio Summary
http://www.cengage.com/custom/ems/history/schultz_9781285071008/audio_summary/ch16_hist_vol2_audio_sum.html


Chp 16: RECONSTRUCTION, 1865 - 1877




CHAPTER 16 RECONSTRUCTION, 1865 - 1877 Shortly 
after gaining their freedom, African-Americans embarked 
on a series of changes, often relocating from the plantations 
where they were enslaved. 
A major priority for many ex-slaves, 
finding lost family members, 
spurred travelers throughout the South. 
In the newly-formed free black communities in the South, 
the people built new churches, schools, 
and pushed for the right to vote. 
Facing a major task, the Freedmen's Bureau, 
a government agency in charge of providing food, education, 
medical and other assistance to freed slaves, 
operated in the South right after the war ended. 
As Washington decided the South's fate, a division erupted 
between the more moderate Lincoln 
and the more radical Republicans in the Congress. 
Their anger over Lincoln's lenient plans was replaced 
by grief after Lincoln's assassination. 
The new president, Andrew Johnson, 
pardoned many major Confederate leaders, 
who soon regained political power 
and imposed new black codes 
that effectively were a new form of slavery. 
The Republicans in Congress were outraged 
and politically outmaneuvered Johnson, 
leading to The Fourteenth Amendment, 
which essentially made African-Americans U.S. citizens, 
and the imposition 
of Congressional Reconstruction in the South. 
Due to Johnson's violation of the Tenure of Office Act, 
Congress commenced an impeachment process 
that almost led to his removal. 
The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified shortly thereafter, 
preserved the right to vote for all...men. 
After fighting for slave rights for decades, women now had 
to ramp up their own struggle 
against their second-class citizenship. 
Efforts occurred across the South 
as radical changes took place in the political landscape. 
Ex-slaves, just a few years back in chains, 
now served as politicians. 
Northerners who moved into the South along 
with local Republicans were derisively known 
as Carpetbaggers and Scalawags, respectively, 
by the former Confederates who hated them. 
This ire increased 
when Republican policies had some moderate successes. 
Although the plantation owners lost political power, 
they still possessed economic clout. 
Their sharecropping system took advantage of poor farmers, 
blacks especially, but also the growing number 
of poor white farmers. 
Blacks suffered disproportionately 
under the convict leasing system, 
where prisoners were loaned out as manual laborers. 
Sadly, Reconstruction lasted just twelve years; 
conditions in the North and South caused its demise. 
The North made efforts at significant legislative changes 
but lost its focus after the Panic of 1873 led 
to turbulent economic conditions. 
Southern Democrats found violence to be an effective tool 
to intimidate blacks from challenging white power. 
Grant made some mild attempts to combat this form 
of domestic terrorism; the South responded 
with the Mississippi Plan, a scheme for organized ballots 
to thwart any Republican victories in the 1876 Election. 
In the Compromise of 1877, 
where the presidential election results were disputed 
in some southern states, 
the Republicans gained the presidency 
and the Southern Democrats got the end 
of federal troops and Reconstruction. 
Despite all of the potential of the Reconstruction years, 
not much changed for blacks in the South, 
except that no one "owned" them. 
It would be almost another century before things 
improved markedly. 

Flashcard
http://www.cengage.com/cgi-wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M41&product_isbn_issn=1133953549&chapter_number=16&resource_id=6&altname=Glossary

Glossary

Chapter 16
black codes Post–Civil War laws specifically written to govern the behavior of African Americans; modeled on the slave codes that existed before the Civil War
carpetbagger Northern-born white who moved south after the Confederacy’s defeat
Civil Rights Act Bill that granted all citizens mandatory rights, regardless of racial considerations; designed to counteract the South’s new black codes
Civil Rights Act of 1875 Act that forbade racial discrimination in all public facilities, transportation lines, places of amusement, and juries; it proved largely ineffective
Civil Rights Cases Cases in which, in 1883, the Supreme Court declared all of the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, except for the prohibition of discrimination on juries
Compromise of 1877 Compromise in which Republicans promised not to dispute the Democratic gubernatorial victories in the South and to withdraw federal troops from the region, if southern Democrats accepted Hayes’s presidential victory and respected the rights of black citizens
Congressional Reconstruction Phase of Reconstruction during which Radical Republicans wielded more power than the president, allowing for the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and the Military Reconstruction Act
Fifteenth Amendment Amendment that extended voting rights to all male citizens regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Fourteenth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed in 1868 that extended the guarantees of the Constitution and Bill of Rights to all persons born in the United States, including African Americans and former slaves; it promised that all citizens would receive the “due process of law” before having any of their constitutional rights breached
Freedmen’s Bureau Government agency designed to create a new social order by government mandate; this bureau provided freedmen with education, food, medical care, and access to the justice system
iron-clad oath Oath to be taken by southerners to testify that they had never voluntarily aided or abetted the rebellion
Ku Klux Klan A quasi-military force formed immediately after the Civil War by former Confederate soldiers in order to resist racial integration and preserve white supremacy
Military Reconstruction Act Act that divided the former rebel states, with the exception of Tennessee, into five military districts; a military commander took control of the state governments and federal soldiers enforced the law and kept order
Mississippi Plan 1875 Democratic plan that called for using as much violence as necessary to put Mississippi back under Democratic control
Panic of 1873 Financial crisis provoked when overspeculation, high postwar inflation, and disruptions from Europe emptied the financial reserves in America’s banks; many banks simply closed their doors; this emergency focused northern attention on the economy rather than on civil rights
Radical Republicans Wing of the Republican Party most hostile to slavery
Redeemers A collection of southern Democrats and their supporters who used violence, intimidation, and the law to win political and social control away from those promoting greater racial equality in the region
scalawag Southern-born white Republican; many had been nonslaveholding poor farmers
sharecropping System in which a family farmed a plot of land owned by someone else and shared the crop yield with the owner
Ten-Percent Plan Plan issued by Lincoln in 1863 that offered amnesty to any southerner who proclaimed loyalty to the Union and support of the emancipation of slaves; once 10 percent of a state’s voters in the election of 1860 signed the oath, it could create a new state government and reenter the Union
Wade-Davis Bill Bill that would have allowed a southern state back into the Union only after 50 percent of the population had taken the loyalty oath 
Google Earth: Cotton Mills

1816 - 1828 Cotton Mills

Although the current buildings were rebuilt following the Civil War, Granby Mill is one of many examples of southern dependence on the textile industry prior to the conflict. It is not until a dramatic increase of these types of facilities that the South becomes truly self-sufficient in every stage of textile production.

Placement of this historic mill in Asheville, NC, is a typical representation of Southern dependence on water modes of transportation. The lack of flexible transportation options was one of the major obstacles to Southern success during the "War between the States."

Although the Fulton Cotton Mill shown in image one only dates back to 1868, its location provides an appropriate contrast to the focus on water transportation in the pre-Civil War south. This mill was part of the larger effort to get the South back on its economic feet in the difficult context of post-war recovery and Reconstruction.

*To view the above files you must first install the Google EarthTM Application.

Follow the river that Granby Mill sits by to see what destinations were accessible because of its placement. Besides limited geographical reach, what other potential problems are posed by a heavy dependence on water transportation.

Explore the village structure and layout. While keeping in mind that Columbia, SC is quite a bit larger than the Columbia of the 1820s, what kinds of assumptions can you make about life in a mill village based on some of the details you see?

Map 16.1. Reconstruction in the South

http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/maps/mi00379_zm.html

Map 16.2. The Disputed Election of 1876

http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/maps/mi00384_zm.html

Primary Source Assignment: 1877 Ku Klux Klan

Coldwater Semi-Weekly Republican May 25, 1877 Murder of a Colored Citizen by Ku-Klux. New Orleans, May 23—The Republican gives the following account of the assassination of Jas. Laws, colored, Of East Feliciana: Mr. Dula, of East Feliciana, has reached New Orleans, and brought with him the coffin that was placed at his door Saturday, and a bunch of Winchester rifle cartridges which were place with it. He also states that the crowd of bull-dozers, after threatening him, went on with the information that they would return soon and put their threats into execution. They proceeded to Jackson and rode up to the house of Jas. Laws, colored, and found him seated on his gallery with his mother. The said "Halloo, Laws, have you got back?" He rose and answered them, and was instantly shot dead. This was on Saturday night. In reference to the assassination of Laws, ex-Governor Packard states that just before his return to East Feliciana, Laws wrote to him stating that on account of his presiding at the only Republican meeting held in East Feliciana during the late campaign, and his consequent enforced absence from the parish, his business as a merchant he feared had been destroyed, and begging Packard’s influence to get him a position in the custom house. Packard further says that Laws had told him his life was in danger, as he had testified before the Howe Senate committee, giving the names of prominent citizens who had threatened his life, and as he believed had caused his store to be fired. Packard further asserts that Laws was one of the best and most conservative colored men in the whole Feliciana District, and had previously held several influential positions with the full acquiescence of the people, and was a tax-payer, owning $30,000 to $40,000 worth of property. Packard has transmitted the original and also an unpublished letter from Sheriff Weber, killed in an adjoining parish, to Gen. B. F. Butler for campaign use.text


Why would a newspaper that supports the Republican Party report such a story?

If such an event happened in the United States today, in what ways would most newspapers cover it?

Would it be considered of lesser or greater importance?

Do you think the people who committed this crime were punished? Why or why not?

How common were such events in the South in this time period? Why?

Primary Source Assignment: Black Testimony Aftermath Enslavement is ready

Title: Black Testimony on the Aftermath of Enslavement

Introduction: The testimony of African Americans from the Civil War and Reconstruction era presents special interpretive problems for the historian. Despite questions about the reliability of oral accounts, however, the words of freedmen have provided a rich resource for historians interested in the black response to emancipation and the social and economic experience of freedmen.

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Black Testimony on the Aftermath of Enslavement

Instructions: After reading the introduction and the primary source provided, answer the questions below.

Black Testimony on the Aftermath of Enslavement

1866

Question. Where do you live?
Answer. Hampton, Virginia. . . .
Question. How do the rebels down there, about Hampton, treat the colored people?
Answer. The returned rebels express a desire to get along in peace if they can. There have been a few outrages out upon the roadside there. One of the returned Union colored soldiers was met out there and beaten very much.
Question. By whom was he beaten?
Answer. It was said they were rebels; they had on Union overcoats, but they were not United States soldiers. Occasionally we hear of an outrage of that kind, but there are none in the little village where I live.
Question. What appears to be the feeling generally of the returned rebels towards the freedmen; is it kind or unkind?
Answer. Well, the feeling that they manifest as a general thing is kind, so far as I have heard.
Question. Are they willing to pay the freedmen fair wages for their work?
Answer. No, sir; they are not willing to pay the freedmen more than from five to eight dollars a month.
Question. Do you think that their labor is worth more than that generally?
Answer. I do, sir; because, just at this time, everything is very dear, and I do not see how people can live and support their families on those wages.
Question. State whether the black people down there are anxious to go to school?
Answer. Yes, sir; they are anxious to go to school; we have schools there every day that are very well filled; and we have night schools that are very well attended, both by children and aged people; they manifest a great desire for education. . . .
Question. How do you feel about leaving the State of Virginia and going off and residing as a community somewhere else?
Answer. They do not wish to leave and go anywhere else unless they are certain that the locality where they are going is healthy and that they can get along.
Question. Are they not willing to be sent back to Africa?
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Why not?
Answer. They say that they have lived here all their days, and there were stringent laws made to keep them here; and that if they could live here contented as slaves, they can live here when free.
Question. Do you not think that to be a very absurd notion?
Answer. No, sir; if we can get lands here and can work and support ourselves, I do not see why we should go to any place that we do not want to go to.
Question. If you should stay here, is there not danger that the whites and blacks would intermarry and amalgamate?
Answer. I do not think there is any more danger now than there was when slavery existed. At that time there was a good deal of amalgamation.



Credits: Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1866), Part II, pp. 55-56.

According to the freedman's responses, what goals have the freed slaves set for themselves? What are the obstacles to achieving these goals?

Why is the questioner interested in "amalgamation"? How does the freedman respond to the question?

How does the freedman respond to questions about repatriation to Africa? Do you think that his response was justified? Why?

What can you infer from the passage about the immediate aftermath of the Civil War for freed slaves?

Read Lincoln's proclamation on vetoing the Wade-Davis Bill.
http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/ps/wadedavis.html
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/presidents/abraham-lincoln/proclamation-on-the-wade-davis-bill-july-8-1864.php
Abraham Lincoln Proclamation on the Wade-Davis Bill July 8 1864
Whereas, at the late Session, Congress passed a Bill, "To guarantee to certain States, whose governments have been usurped or overthrown, a republican form of Government." a copy of which is hereunto annexed:
And whereas, the said Bill was presented to the President of the United States, for his approval, less than one hour before the sine die adjournment of said Session, and was not signed by him:
And whereas, the said Bill contains, among other things, a plan for restoring the States in rebellion to their proper practical relation in the Union, which plan expresses the sense of Congress upon that subject, and which plan it is now thought fit to lay before the people for their consideration:
Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do proclaim, declare, and make known, that, while I am, (as I was in December last, when by proclamation I propounded a plan for restoration) unprepared, by a formal approval of this Bill, to be inflexibly committed to any single plan of restoration; and, while I am also unprepared to declare, that the free-state constitutions and governments, already adopted and installed in Arkansas and Louisiana, shall be set aside and held for nought, thereby repelling and discouraging the loyal citizens who have set up the same, as to further effort; or to declare a constitutional competency in Congress to abolish slavery in States, but am at the same time sincerely hoping and expecting that a constitutional amendment, abolishing slavery throughout the nation, may be adopted, nevertheless, I am fully satisfied with the system for restoration contained in the Bill, as one very proper plan for the loyal people of any State choosing to adopt it; and that I am, and at all times shall be, prepared to give the Executive aid and assistance to any such people, so soon as the military resistance to the United States shall have been suppressed in any such State, and the people thereof shall have sufficiently returned to their obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the United States,-in which cases, military Governors will be appointed, with directions to proceed according to the Bill.

Read the Second Reconstruction Act.

14th Amendment

https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

14th Amendment

The Fourteenth Amendment addresses many aspects of citizenship and the rights of citizens.  The most commonly used -- and frequently litigated -- phrase in the amendment is  "equal protection of the laws", which figures prominently in a wide variety of landmark cases, including Brown v. Board of Education (racial discrimination), Roe v. Wade (reproductive rights),  Bush v. Gore (election recounts), Reed v. Reed (gender discrimination),  and University of California v. Bakke (racial quotas in education).  See more...













































Amendment XIV

Section 1.

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

Section 3.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Mississippi Black Code

Mississippi Black Code Adapted from a document placed online by Jud Sage at Northern Virginia Community College
The status of the Negro was the focal problem of Reconstruction. Slavery had been abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment, but the white people of the South were determined to keep the Negro in his place, socially, politically, and economically. This was done by means of the notorious "Black Codes," passed by several of the state legislatures. Northerners regarded these codes as a revival of slavery in disguise. The first such body of statutes, and probably the harshest, was passed in Mississippi in November 1865. Four of the statutes that made up the code are reprinted below.
Source, Laws of the State of Mississippi, Passed at a Regular Session of the Mississippi Legislature, held in Jackson, October, November and December, 1965, Jackson, 1866, pp. 82-93, 165-167,
Apprentice Law
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that it shall be the duty of all sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other civil officers of the several counties in this state to report to the Probate courts of their respective counties semiannually, at the January and July terms of said courts, all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes under the age of eighteen within their respective counties, beats, or districts who are orphans, or whose parent or parents have not the means, or who refuse to provide for and support said minors; and thereupon it shall be the duty of said Probate Court to order the clerk of said court to apprentice said minors to some competent and suitable person, on such terms as the court may direct, having a particular care to the interest of said minors:
Provided, that the former owner of said minors shall have the preference when, in the opinion of the court, he or she shall be a Suitable person for that purpose.
Section 2. Be it further enacted, that the said court shall be fully satisfied that the person or persons to whom said minor shall be apprenticed shall be a suitable person to have the charge and care of said minor and fully to protect the interest of said minor. The said court shall require the said master or mistress to execute bond and security, payable to the state of Mississippi, conditioned that he or she shall furnish said minor with sufficient food and clothing; to treat said minor humanely; furnish medical attention in case of sickness; teach or cause to be taught him or her to read and write, if under fifteen years old; and will conform to any law that may be hereafter passed for the regulation of the duties and relation of master and apprentice:
Provided, that said apprentice shall be bound by indenture, in case of males until they are twenty-one years old, and in case of females until they are eighteen years old.
Section 3. Be it further enacted, that in the management and control of said apprentices, said master or mistress shall have power to inflict such moderate corporeal chastisement as a father or guardian is allowed to inflict on his or her child or ward at common law:
Provided, that in no case shall cruel or inhuman punishment be inflicted.
Section 4. Be it further enacted, that if any apprentice shall leave the employment of his or her master or mistress without his or her consent, said master or mistress may pursue and recapture said apprentice and bring him or her before any justice of the peace of the county, whose duty it shall be to remand said apprentice to the service of his or her master or mistress; and in the event of a refusal on the part of said apprentice so to return, then said justice shall commit said apprentice to the jail of said county, on failure to give bond, until the next term of the county court; and it shall be the duty of said court, at the first term thereafter, to investigate said case; and if the court shall be of opinion that said apprentice left the employment of his or her master or mistress without good cause, to order him or her to be punished, as provided for the punishment of hired freedmen, as may be from time to time provided for by law, for desertion, until he or she shall agree to return to his or her master or mistress:
Provided, that the court may grant continuances, as in other cases; and provided, further, that if the court shall believe that said apprentice had good cause to quit his said master or mistress, the court shall discharge said apprentice from said indenture and also enter a judgment against the master or mistress for not more than $100, for the use and benefit of said apprentice, to be collected on execution, as in other cases.
Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any person entice away any apprentice from his or her master or mistress, or shall knowingly employ an apprentice, or furnish him or her food or clothing, without the written consent of his or her master or mistress, of shall sell or give said apprentice ardent spirits, without such consent, said person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof before the county court, be punished as provided for the punishment of persons enticing from their employer hired freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes.
Section 6. Be it further enacted, that it shall be the duty of all civil officers of their respective counties to report any minors within their respective counties to said Probate Court who are subject to be apprenticed under the provisions of this act, from time to time, as the facts may come to their knowledge; and it shall be the duty of said court, from time to time, as said minors shall be reported to them or otherwise come to their knowledge, to apprentice said minors as hereinbefore provided.
Section 7. Be it further enacted, that in case the master or mistress of any apprentice shall desire, he or she shall have the privilege to summon his or her said apprentice to the Probate Court, and thereupon, with the approval of the court, he or she shall be released from all liability as master of said apprentice, and his said bond shall be canceled, and it shall be the duty of the court forthwith to reapprentice said minor; and in the event any master of in apprentice shall die before the close of the term of service of said apprentice, it shall be the duty of the court to give the preference in reapprenticing said minor to the widow, or other member of said master's family:
Provided, that said widow or other member of said family shall be a suitable person for that purpose.
Section 8. Be it further enacted, that in case any master or mistress of any apprentice, bound to him or her under this act shall be about to remove or shall have removed to any other state of the United States by the laws of which such apprentice may be an inhabitant thereof, the Probate Court of the proper county may authorize the removal of such apprentice to such state, upon the said master or mistress entering into bond, with security, in a penalty to be fixed by the judge, conditioned that said master or mistress will, upon such removal, comply with the laws of such state in such cases:
Provided, that said master shall be cited to attend the court at which such order is proposed to be made and shall have a right to resist the same by next friend, or otherwise.
Section 9. Be it further enacted, that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or Mulatto having a minor child or children to apprentice the said minor child or children as provided for by this act.
Section 10. Be it further enacted, that in all cases where the age of the freedman, free Negro, or mulatto cannot be ascertained by record testimony, the judge of the county court shall fix the age.
II.
Vagrancy Law
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all rogues and vagabonds, idle and dissipated persons, beggars, jugglers, or persons practising unlawful games or plays, runaways, common drunkards, common nightwalkers, pilferers, lewd, wanton, or lascivious persons, in speech or behavior, common railers and brawlers, persons who neglect their calling or employment, misspend what they earn, or do not provide for the support of themselves or their families or dependents, and all other idle and disorderly persons, including all who neglect all lawful business, or habitually misspend their time by frequenting houses of ill-fame, gaming houses, or tippling shops, shall be deemed and considered vagrants under the provisions of this act; and, on conviction thereof shall be fined not exceeding $100, with all accruing costs, and be imprisoned at the discretion of the court not exceeding ten days.
Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes in this state over the age of eighteen years found on the second Monday in January 1966, or thereafter, with no lawful employment or business, or found unlawfully assembling themselves together either in the day or nighttime, and all white persons so assembling with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes, or usually associating with freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes on terms of equality, or living in adultery or fornication with a freedwoman, free Negro, or mulatto, shall be deemed vagrants; and, on conviction thereof, shall be fined in the sum of not exceeding, in the case of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, 150, and a white man, $200, and imprisoned at the discretion of the court, the free Negro not exceeding ten days, and the white man not exceeding six months.
Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all justices of the peace, mayors, and aldermen of incorporated towns and cities of the several counties in this state shall have jurisdiction to try all questions of vagrancy in their respective towns, counties, and cities; and it is hereby made their duty, whenever they shall ascertain that any person or persons in their respective towns, counties, and cities are violating any of the provisions of this act, to have said party or parties arrested and brought before them and immediately investigate said charge; and, on conviction, punish said party or parties as provided for herein. And it is hereby made the duty of all sheriffs, constables, town constables, city marshals, and all like officers to report to some officer having jurisdiction all violations of any of the provisions of this act; and it shall be the duty of the county courts to inquire if any officers have neglected any of the duties required by this act; and in case any officer shall fail or neglect any duty herein, it shall be the duty of the county court to fine said officer, upon conviction, not exceeding $100, to be paid into the county treasury for county purposes.
Section 4. Be it further enacted, that keepers of gaming houses, houses of prostitution, all prostitutes, public or private, and all persons who derive their chief support in employments that militate against good morals or against laws shall be deemed and held to be vagrants.
Section 5. Be it further enacted, that all fines and forfeitures collected under the provisions of this act shall be paid into the county treasury for general county purposes; and in case any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto shall fail for five days after the imposition of any fine or forfeiture upon him or her for violation of any of the provisions of this act to pay the same, that it shall be, and is hereby made, the duty of the sheriff of the proper county to hire out said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to any person who will, for the shortest period of service, pay said fine or forfeiture and all costs:
Provided, a preference shall be given to the employer, if there be one, in which case the employer shall be entitled to deduct and retain the amount so paid from the wages of such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto then due or to become due; and in case such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto cannot be hired out he or she may be dealt with as a pauper.
Section 6. Be it further enacted, that the same duties and liabilities existing among white persons of this state shall attach to freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes to support their indigent families and all colored paupers; and that, in order to secure a support for such indigent freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes, it shall be lawful, and it is hereby made the duty of the boards of county police of each county in this state, to levy a poll or capitation tax on each and every freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, between the ages of eighteen and sixty years, not to exceed the sum of s I annually, to each person so taxed, which tax, when collected, shall be paid into the county treasurer's hands and constitute a fund to be called the Freedman's Pauper Fund, which shall be applied by the commissioners of the poor for the maintenance of the poor of the freedmen, free Negroes. and mulattoes of this state, under such regulations as may be established by the boards of county police, in the respective counties of this state.
Section 7. Be it further enacted, that if any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto shall fail or refuse to pay any tax levied according to the provisions of the 6th Section of this act, it shall be prima facie evidence of vagrancy, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff to arrest such freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or such person refusing or neglecting to pay such tax, and proceed at once to hire, for the shortest time, such delinquent taxpayer to anyone who will pay the said tax, with accruing costs, giving preference to the employer, if there be one.
Section 8. Be it further enacted, that any person feeling himself or herself aggrieved by the judgment of any justice of the peace, mayor, or alderman in cases arising under this act may, within five days, appeal to the next term of the county court of the proper county, upon giving bond and security in a sum not less than $25 nor more than $150, conditioned to appear and prosecute said appeal, and abide by the judgment of the county court, and said appeal shall be tried de novo in the county court, and the decision of said court shall be final.
Civil Rights of Freedmen
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded in all the courts of law and equity of this state, and may acquire personal property and choses in action, by descent or purchase, and may dispose of the same in the same manner and to the same extent that white persons may:
Provided, that the provisions of this section shall not be construed as to allow any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to rent or lease any lands or tenements, except in incorporated towns or cities, in which places the corporate authorities shall control the same.
Section 2. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes may intermarry with each other, in the same manner and under the same regulations that are provided by law for white persons:
Provided, that the clerk of probate shall keep separate records of the same.
Section 3. Be it further enacted, that all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who do now and have heretofore lived and cohabited together as husband and wife shall be taken and held in law as legally married, and the issue shall be taken and held as legitimate for all purposes. That it shall not be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to intermarry with any white person; nor for any white person to intermarry with any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto; and any person who shall so intermarry shall be deemed guilty of felony and, on conviction thereof, shall be confined in the state penitentiary for life; and those shall be deemed freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes who are of pure Negro blood; and those descended from a Negro to the third generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person.
Section 4. Be it further enacted, that in addition to cases in which freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes are now by law competent witnesses, freedmen, free Negroes, or mulattoes shall be competent in civil cases when a party or parties to the suit, either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, also in cases where freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes is or are either plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants, and a white person or white persons is or are the opposing party or parties, plaintiff or plaintiffs, defendant or defendants. They shall also be competent witnesses in all criminal prosecutions where the crime charged is alleged to have been committed by a white person upon or against the person or property of a freedman, free Negro, or mulatto:
Provided, that in all cases said witnesses shall be examined in open court on the stand, except, however, they may be examined before the grand jury, and shall in all cases be subject to the rules and tests of the common law as to competency and credibility.
Section 5. Be it further enacted, that every freedman, free Negro, and mulatto shall, on the second Monday of January 1866, and annually thereafter, have a lawful home or employment, and shall have a written evidence thereof, as follows, to wit: if living in any incorporated city, town, or village, a license from the mayor thereof; and if living outside of any incorporated city, town, or village, from the member of the board of police of his beat, authorizing him or her to do irregular and job work, or a written contract, as provided in Section 6 of this act, which licenses may be revoked for cause, at any time, by the authority granting the same.
Section 6. Be it further enacted, that all contracts for labor made with freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes for a longer period than one month shall be in writing and in duplicate, attested and read to said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto by a beat, city, or county officer, or two disinterested white persons of the county in which the labor is to be performed, of which each party shall have one; and said contracts shall be taken and held as entire contracts; and if the laborer shall quit the service of the employer before expiration of his term of service without good cause, he shall forfeit his wages for that year, up to the time of quitting.
Section 7. Be it further enacted, that every civil officer shall, and every person may, arrest and carry back to his or her legal employer any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto who shall have quit the service of his or her employer before the expiration of his or her term of service without good cause, and said officer and person shall be entitled to receive for arresting and carrying back every deserting employee aforesaid the sum of $5, and 10 cents per mile from the place of arrest to the place of delivery, and the same shall be paid by the employer, and held as a setoff for so much against the wages of said deserting employee:
Provided, that said arrested party, after being so returned, may appeal to a justice of the peace or member of the board of police of the county, who, on notice to the alleged employer, shall try summarily whether said appellant is legally employed by the alleged employer and his good cause to quit said employer; either party shall have the right of appeal to the county court, pending which the alleged deserter shall be remanded to the alleged employer or otherwise disposed of as shall be right and just, and the decision of the county court shall be final.
Section 8. Be it further enacted, that upon affidavit made by the employer of any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or other credible person before any justice of the peace or member of the board of police, that any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, legally employed by said employer, has illegally deserted said employment, such justice of the peace or member of the board of police shall issue his warrant or warrants, returnable before himself, or other such officer, directed to any sheriff, constable, or special deputy, commanding him to arrest said deserter and return him or her to said employer, and the like proceedings shall be had as provided in the preceding section; and it shall be lawful for any officer to whom such warrant shall be directed to execute said warrant in any county of this state, and that said warrant may be transmitted without endorsement to any like officer of another county, to be executed and returned as aforesaid, and the said employer shall pay the cost of said warrants and arrest and return, which shall be set off for so much against the wages of said deserter.
Section 9. Be it further enacted, that if any person shall persuade or attempt to persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to desert from the legal employment of any person before the expiration of his or her term of service, or shall knowingly employ any such deserting freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, or shall knowingly give or sell to any such deserting freedman, free Negro, or mulatto any food, raiment, or other thing, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor; and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than $25 and not more than $200 and the costs; and, if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding two months' imprisonment in the county jail, and he or she shall moreover be liable to the party injured in damages:
Provided, if any person shall, or shall attempt to, persuade, entice, or cause any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to desert from any legal employment of any person with the view to employ said freedman, free Negro, or mulatto without the limits of this state, such person, on conviction, shall be fined not less than $50 and not more than $1500 and costs; and, if said fine and costs shall not be immediately paid, the court shall sentence said convict to not exceeding six months' imprisonment in the county jail,
Section 10. Be it further enacted, that it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto to charge any white person, freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, by affidavit, with any criminal offense against his or her person or property; and, upon such affidavit, the proper process shall be issued and executed as if said affidavit was made by a white person; and it shall be lawful for any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto, in any action, suit, or controversy pending or about to be instituted, in any court of law or equity of this state. to make all needful and lawful affidavits, as shall be necessary for the institution, prosecution, or defense of such suit or controversy.
Section 11. Be it further enacted, that the penal laws of this state, in all cases not otherwise specially provided for, shall apply and extend to all freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes.
IV.
Penal Code
Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Mississippi, that no freedman, free Negro, or mulatto not in the military service of the United States government, and not licensed so to do by the board of police of his or her county, shall keep or carry firearms of any kind, or any ammunition, dirk, or Bowie knife; and, on conviction thereof in the county court, shall be punished by fine, not exceeding $10, and pay the costs of such proceedings, and all such arms or ammunition shall be forfeited to the informer; and it shall be the duty of every civil and military officer to arrest any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto found with any such arms or ammunition, and cause him or her to be committed for trial in default of bail.
Section 2. Be it further enacted, that any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto committing riots, routs, affrays, trespasses, malicious mischief, cruel treatment to animals, seditious speeches, insulting gestures, language, or acts, or assaults on any person, disturbance of the peace, exercising the function of a minister of the Gospel without a license from some regularly organized church, vending spirituous or intoxicating liquors, or committing any other misdemeanor t e punishment of which is not specifically provided for by law shall, upon conviction thereof in the county court, be fined not less than $10 and not more than $100, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days.
Section 3. Be it further enacted, that if any white person shall sell, lend, or give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto any firearms, dirk, or Bowie knife, or ammunition, or any spirituous or intoxicating liquors, such person or persons so offending, upon conviction thereof in the county court of his or her county, shall be fined not exceeding $50, and may be imprisoned, at the discretion of the court, not exceeding thirty days:
Provided, that any master, mistress, or employer of any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto may give to any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto apprenticed to or employed by such master, mistress, or employer spirituous or intoxicating liquors, but not in sufficient quantities to produce intoxication.
Section 4. Be it further enacted, that all the penal and criminal laws now in force in this state defining offenses and prescribing the mode of punishment for crimes and misdemeanors committed by slaves, free Negroes, or mulattoes be and the same are hereby reenacted and declared to be in full force and effect against freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoes, except so far m the mode and manner of trial and punishment have been changed or altered by law.
Section 5. Be it further enacted, that if any freedman, free Negro, or mulatto convicted of any of the misdemeanors provided against in this act shall fail-or refuse, for the space of five days after conviction, to pay the fine and costs imposed, such person shall be hired out by the sheriff or other officer, at public outcry, to any white person who will pay said fine and all costs and take such convict for the shortest time. (Westport, Conn., 1972) Ark. Narr., Vol. 8, 175- 179.




Negative Reactions
The New York Times (A)
The New York Times (B)
The New York Times (C)
Debow's Review on the Radicals
Debow's Review on Chinese Labor
Debow's Review on European Labor
William Finck (D-Ohio)
Mississippi "Black Code"
William Mungen (D-Ohio)
Samuel Thomas
Colonel Whittlesey




History 122
Reconstruction
HIST 122 Syllabus
Second Reconstruction Act [March 23, 1867



An Act supplementary to an Act entitled "An Act to provide for the more efficient Government of the Rebel States," passed . . . [March 2, I867] . . ., and to facilitate Restoration.
Be it enacted . . ., That before . . . [September I, I867] . . ., the commanding general in each district defined by . . . [the act of March 2, I867] . . ., shall cause a registration to be made of the male citizens of the United States, twenty-one years of age and upwards, resident in each county or parish in the State or States included in his district, which registration shall include only those persons who are qualified to vote for delegates by the act aforesaid, and who shall have taken and subscribed the following oath or affirmation: "I, do solemnly swear (or affirm), in the presence of Almighty God, that I am a citizen of the State of ; that I have resided in said State for— months next preceding this day, and now reside in the county of —, or the parish of , in said State (as the case may be); that I am twenty-one years old; that I have not been disfranchised for participation in any rebellion or civil war against the United States, or for felony committed against the laws of any State or of the United States, that I have never been a member of any State legislature, nor held any executive or judicial office in any State, and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; that I have never taken an oath as a member of Congress of the United States, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, and afterwards engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; that I will faithfully support the Constitution and obey the laws of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, encourage others so to do, so help me God." . . .


SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That after the completion of the registration hereby provided for in any State, at such time and places therein as the commanding general shall appoint and direct, of which at least thirty days' public notice shall be given, an election shall be held of delegates to a convention fox the purpose of establishing a constitution and civil government for such State loyal to the Union, said convention in each State, except Virginia, to consist of the same number of members as the most numerous branch of the State legislature of such State . . . [in I860] . . ., to be apportioned among the several districts, counties, or parishes of such State by the commanding general, giving to each representation in the ratio of voters registered as aforesaid as nearly as may be. The convention in Virginia shall consist of the same number of members as represented the territory now constituting Virginia in the most numerous branch of the legislature of said State . . . [in I860] . . ., to be apportioned as aforesaid.


SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That at said election the registered voters of each State shall vote for or against a convention to form a constitution therefor under this act.... If a majority of the votes given on that question shall be for a convention, then such convention shall be held as hereinafter provided; but if a majority of said votes shall be against a convention, then no such convention shall be held under this act: Provided, That such convention shall not be held unless a majority of all such registered voters shall have voted on the question of holding such convention.


SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That the commanding general of each district shall appoint as many boards of registration as may be necessary consisting of three loyal officers or persons, to make and complete the registration, superintend the election, and make return to him of the votes, lists of voters, and of the persons elected as delegates by a plurality of the votes cast at said election; and upon receiving said returns he shall open the same, ascertain the persons elected as delegates, according to the returns of the officers who conducted said election, and make proclamation thereof; and if a majority of the votes given on that question shall be for a convention, the commanding general, within sixty days from the date of election, shall notify the delegates to assemble in convention, at a time and place to be mentioned in the notification, and said convention, when organized, shall proceed to frame a constitution and civil government according to the provisions of this act, and the act to which it is supplementary; and when the same shall have been so framed, said constitution shall be submitted by the convention for ratification to the persons registered under the provisions of this act at an election to be conducted by the Officers or persons appointed or to be appointed by the commanding general, as herein before provided, and to be held after the expiration of thirty days from the date of notice thereof, to be given by said convention; and the returns thereof shall be made to the commanding general of the district.


SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That if, according to said returns, the constitution shall be ratified by a majority of the votes of the registered electors qualified as herein specified, cast at said election, at least one half of all the registered voters voting upon the question of such ratification, the president of the convention shall transmit a copy of the same, duly certi fied, to the President of the United States, who shall forthwith transmit the same to Congress . . .; and if it shall moreover appear to Congress that the election was one at which all the registered and qualified electors in the State had an opportunity to vote freely and without restraint, fear, or the influence of fraud, and if the Congress shall be satisfied that such constitution meets the approval of a majority of all the qualified electors in the State, and if the said constitution shall be declared by Congress to be in conformity with the provisions of the act to which this is supplementary, and the other provisions of said act shall have been complied with, and the said constitution shall be approved by Congress, the State shall be declared entitled to representation, and senators and representatives shall be admitted therefrom as therein provided.

Simulation

http://college.cengage.com/history/wadsworth_9781133309888/courseware/sim/reconstruction/swfs/reconstruction.html

Week 1 eActivity


Week 1 eActivities


Pre-Built Course Content



Click the link above to view the Scenario

Pre-Built Course Content








Pre-Built Course Content


16 Reconstruction, 1865–1877 

Reconstruction 1865-1877, 6:15

https://youtu.be/AqZomMM00sA



16-1 Freedmen, Freedwomen

The Freedmen's Bureau

16-2 Political Plans for Reconstruction

Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction and His Assassination

Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction

Congressional Reconstruction

Johnson's Impeachment

The Fifteenth Amendment

Women's Rights

16-3 Grassroots Reconstruction

Black Officeholders

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

Sharecropping

16-4 The Collapse of Reconstruction

In the North

In the South







"Lost Cause" Please respond to the following: (Note: Please respond to one [1] of the following two [2] bulleted items in a primary posting of at least 125 words. In addition, please make a substantive comment to one [1] of your classmates.)
  • From the e-Activity about the Lost Cause, compare the two (2) different narratives about the causes and results of the Civil War that Americans developed in both Union states and Confederate states. Describe the key reasons why these narratives are an important part of understanding differences between the North and South in the present-day of United States. Provide a rationale for your response.
  • From the e-Activity about the Lost Cause, identify at least two (2) reasons for these narratives’ importance in regard to race relations in today’s society. Provide a rationale and real-world example for each reason.


_______________

References



Supplemental Resources
Alpha History. Retrieved from http://alphahistory.com
American Experience. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org
American Rhetoric. Retrieved from http://americanrhetoric.com
A Multimedia History of World War One. Retrieved from http://www.firstworldwar.com
Calisphere: University of California. Retrieved from http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/

Miller Center: University of Virginia. Retrieved from http://millercenter.org

Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.merlot.org
 


Reconstruction Song, 2:11

https://youtu.be/G34G_Es6eYs




Andrew Johnson's "Under Pressure" (Queen Parody) - @MrBettsClas, 4:29

https://youtu.be/0VMg9C1zGuY





"Hillary's America" Trailer | Official Teaser Trailer HD, 3:09

https://youtu.be/r7e6gLht6OQ





Ian Hunter Saint 2012, 3:32

https://youtu.be/PZX1xuxf5VY



Ian Hunter When I'm President, 4:23

https://youtu.be/14D-ojgaWU8




Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    All of these choices.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being.
    Correct Answer:
     
    keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip.
    Correct Answer:
     
    tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the workplace.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the workplace.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Reconstruction Act.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Wade-Davis Bill.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    All of these choices.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    permit African Americans to sit on juries.
    Correct Answer:
     
    permit African Americans to sit on juries.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How did President Grant's administration respond to increased southern violence against free men and women?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Fifteenth Amendment
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
    Correct Answer:
     
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Radical Republicans in Congress sought to
Given Answer:
Correct 
expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act.
Correct Answer:
 
expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act.


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    The movement divided over whether to support African Americans first and women second.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Fifteenth Amendment
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
    Correct Answer:
     
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    [None Given]
    Correct Answer:
     
    keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Radical Republicans in Congress sought to
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    start a discussion about Northern guilt for the crime of slavery.
    Correct Answer:
     
    expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Reconstruction Act.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Wade-Davis Bill.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    [None Given]
    Correct Answer:
     
    tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    All of these choices.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    permit African Americans to sit on juries.
    Correct Answer:
     
    permit African Americans to sit on juries.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    juries.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the workplace.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Incorrect
In an effort to gain the right to vote, African Americans did all of the following during the Reconstruction era except
Given Answer:
Incorrect 
They paraded to advocate for bills endorsing it.
Correct Answer:
 
They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement.


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Fifteenth Amendment
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
    Correct Answer:
     
    prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    How did President Grant's administration respond to increased southern violence against free men and women?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    They did nothing; the administration was busy grappling with the problems of the Whiskey Ring.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    All of these choices.
    Correct Answer:
     
    All of these choices.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Congress impeached Johnson because
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Wade-Davis Bill.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Wade-Davis Bill.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip.
    Correct Answer:
     
    tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In an effort to gain the right to vote, African Americans did all of the following during the Reconstruction era except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement.
    Correct Answer:
     
    They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the workplace.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the workplace.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being.
    Correct Answer:
     
    keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement?
Given Answer:
Correct 
All of these choices.
Correct Answer:
 
All of these choices.