Monday, July 24, 2017

HUM 111 Week 4 Summer 2017

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have a break at 8:00 pm. I will take roll and you are dismissed at 10:00 or 10:15 pm, depending on the campus.




Connect on LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/gmicksmith

To join our Slack HUM 111 group: send me your email address so I can invite you to Slack.

Blackboard is not smart enough to reveal email addresses.

For example: gmick.smith@strayer.edu

https://hum111.slack.com/

How have you used the Orai app?

https://www.oraiapp.com/

How about trying it for the Discussion?

Boost Linguistics

The Boost Editor improves language communication that is written by students.

Sign up at:
boost-ling.com/boost-text-editor/

In order to do this you can access Boost at boost-ling.com/boost-text-editor/

There you’ll be able to copy and paste any text (email, article, assignment, blog, etc.) and improve the language for the emotion of JOY.

http://boost-ling.com/app/

Side note:Video of V1 to be released in June

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B63nNuIP9mzpLXN3RER4cXlvN28/view

strayer.edu analysis

Alternative presentation site:

haikudeck.com

Tools:

https://elearningindustry.com/18-free-digital-storytelling-tools-for-teachers-and-students

New:

Rise of Christianity

Rise+Christianity

Review

Were Kings/Emperors similar to a President?

King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king).
  • In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish , etc.)
  • In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin rex or either Greek archon or basileus.
  • In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire).
  • In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs, in the West prince, emperor, archduke, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East sultan or emir; etc.
  • Kings, like other royalty, tend to wear purple because purple was an expensive color to wear in the past.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin: 'imperator') is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as "Emperor".

Both kings and emperors are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler, and typically rules over more than one nation. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be completely free of such restraints. However monarchs heading empires have not always used the title—the British sovereign did not assume the title until the incorporation of India into the British Empire, and used it to symbolise British control over all its territories, even those lying outside actual British India, the reason being that India was the jewel in the crown of the British Empire.

In Western Europe the title of Emperor was used exclusively by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and, following the Thirty Years' War, their control over the states (outside of the Habsburg Monarchy, i.e. Austria, Bohemia, and various territories outside of the empire) had become nearly non-existent. However, in 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French, and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who to declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year; however, the position of Holy Roman Emperor continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806.

In Eastern Europe the rulers of the Russian Empire also used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their title of Emperor was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not officially used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. In practice the Russian Emperors are often known by their Russian-language title Tsar, which may also used to refer to rulers equivalent to a king.

Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as "Great King" or "King of Kings", used by the Kings of Persia and others, are often considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has even extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the "Athenian Empire" of the late 5th century BC, the "Angevin Empire" of the Plantagenets, and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era. However such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century.

For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations; currently, however, precedence amongst heads of state – whether they be Kings, Queens, Emperors, or Presidents – is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office.

Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era.

A president is the leader of a state (commonly called "country") or a division thereof, typically a republic, a democracy, or a dictatorship. The title "president" is sometimes used by extension for leaders of other groups, including corporate entities and social groups.

Etymologically, a president is one who presides (from Latin prae- "before" + sedere "to sit"; giving the term praeses). Originally, the term referred to the presiding officer of a ceremony or meeting (i.e., chairman), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official in any social organization. Among other things, "president" today is a common title for the heads of state of most republics, whether presidential republics, semi-presidential republics or parliamentary republics.

Since the Enlightenment the power of kings and an Emperor (only one exists: in Japan) were restrained by a legislature and often by a written constitution hence we have constitutional monarchies such as in England, a traditional monarchy.

It is debatable that presidents in the United States have accumulated more power as in the days of the monarchs such as in the power of life and death and in war powers. 

In the baths was the transition from hot to cold bad for the body?

Yes, the health benefits were far greater during the "Golden Age" of the Greeks and the Romans until the Renaissance and the slow beginnings of more modern medicine. After the fall of Roman Empire bathing, hygiene, and cleanliness declined.

http://www.greekmedicine.net/hygiene/The_Greco-Roman_Bath.html


How was Hannibal defeated?

Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the Mediterranean Basin, when the Roman Republic established its supremacy over other great powers such as ancient Carthage and the Greek kingdoms of Macedonia, Syracuse, and the Seleucid Empire.

One of his most famous achievements was at the outbreak of the Second Punic War, when he marched an army which included war elephants from Iberia over the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy.

In his first few years in Italy, he won three dramatic victories—the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae, in which he distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's strengths and weaknesses, and to play the battle to his strengths and the enemy's weaknesses—and won over many allies of Rome.

Hannibal occupied much of Italy for 15 years but was unable to march on Rome.

How did Fabius (Romans) escape to attack the city of Carthage? Fabius did not but he delayed Hannibal on the Roman peninsula. An enemy counter-invasion of North Africa forced Hannible to return to Carthage, where he was decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama.

The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles and frontal assaults are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition and indirection.

While avoiding decisive battles, the side employing this strategy harasses its enemy through skirmishes to cause attrition, disrupt supply and affect morale.

Employment of this strategy implies that the side adopting this strategy believes time is on its side, but it may also be adopted when no feasible alternative strategy can be devised.

This strategy derives its name from Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the dictator of the Roman Republic given the task of defeating the great Carthaginian general Hannibal in southern Italy during the Second Punic War (218–202 BC). At the start of the war, Hannibal boldly crossed the Alps in wintertime and invaded Italy. Due to Hannibal's skill as a general, he repeatedly inflicted devastating losses on the Romans despite the numerical inferiority of his army—quickly achieving two crushing victories over the Romans at the Battle of Trebbia and the Battle of Lake Trasimene. After these disasters the Romans appointed Fabius Maximus as dictator. Well aware of the military superiority of the Carthaginians and the ingenuity of Hannibal, Fabius initiated a war of attrition which was designed to exploit Hannibal's strategic vulnerabilities.

Hannibal suffered from two particular weaknesses. First, he was commander of an invading foreign army on Italian soil, effectively cut off from the home country by the difficulty of seaborne resupply. His only hope of destroying Rome was by enlisting the support of her allies. As long as the Italians remained loyal to Rome, then there was no hope that Hannibal would win; but should the Romans keep on losing battles, their allies' faith in Rome would weaken. Therefore, Fabius calculated that the way to defeat Hannibal was to avoid engaging with him in pitched battles, so as to deprive him of victories. He determined that Hannibal's extended supply lines, and the cost of maintaining the Carthaginian army in the field, meant that Rome had time on its side. Rather than fight, Fabius shadowed Hannibal's army and avoided battle, instead sending out small detachments against Hannibal's foraging parties, and maneuvering the Roman army in hilly terrain, so as to nullify Hannibal's decisive superiority in cavalry. Residents of small northern villages were encouraged to post lookouts, so that they could gather their livestock and possessions and take refuge in fortified towns. He used interior lines to ensure that at no time could Hannibal march on Rome without abandoning his Mediterranean ports, while at the same time inflicting constant, small, debilitating defeats on the North Africans. This, Fabius had concluded, would wear down the invaders' endurance and discourage Rome's allies from going over to the enemy, without having to challenge the Carthaginians to a decisive battle.

Hannibal's second weakness was that much of his army was made up of mercenaries from Gaul and Spain, who had no great loyalty to Hannibal, although they disliked Rome. Being mercenaries, they were unequipped for siege-type battles; having neither the equipment nor the patience for such a campaign. The mercenaries desired quick, overwhelming battles and raids of villages for plunder, much like land-based pirates. As such, Hannibal's army was virtually no threat to Rome, a walled city which would have required a long siege to reduce, which is why Hannibal never attempted it. Hannibal's only option was to beat Roman armies in the field quickly before plunder ran out and the Gauls and Spaniards deserted for plunder elsewhere. Fabius's strategy of delaying battle and attacking supply chains thus hit right at the heart of Hannibal's weakness; time, not energy, would cripple Hannibal's advances.


An enemy counter-invasion of North Africa forced him to return to Carthage, where he was decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama.

Scipio had studied Hannibal's tactics and brilliantly devised some of his own, and finally defeated Rome's nemesis at Zama, having previously driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula.

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder, and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama, one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus.

Although considered a hero by the general Roman populace, primarily for his contributions in the struggle against the Carthaginians, Scipio was reviled by other patricians of his day. In his later years, he was tried for bribery and treason, unfounded charges that were only meant to discredit him before the public. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio left Rome and withdrew from public life.

How many major aqueducts where there in Roman history?

Rome had several springs within its perimeter walls but its groundwater was notoriously unpalatable; water from the river Tiber was badly affected by pollution and waterborne diseases. The city's demand for water had probably long exceeded its local supplies by 312 BC, when the city's first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, was commissioned by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus. The Aqua Appia was one of two major public projects of the time; the other was a military road between Rome and Capua, the first leg of the so-called Appian Way. Both projects had significant strategic value, as the Third Samnite War had been under way for some thirty years by that point. The road allowed rapid troop movements; and by design or fortunate coincidence, most of the Aqua Appia ran within a buried conduit, relatively secure from attack. It was fed by a spring 16.4 km from Rome, and dropped 10 metres over its length to discharge approximately 75,500 cubic metres of water each day into a fountain at Rome's cattle market, the Forum Boarium, one of the city's lowest-lying public spaces.
A second aqueduct, the Aqua Anio Vetus, was commissioned some forty years later, funded by treasures seized from Pyrrhus of Epirus. Its flow was more than twice that of the Aqua Appia, and it entered the city on raised arches, supplying water to higher elevations of the city.

By 145 BC, the city had again outgrown its combined supplies. An official commission found the aqueduct conduits decayed, their water depleted by leakage and illegal tapping. The praetor Quintus Marcius Rex restored them, and introduced a third, "more wholesome" supply, the Aqua Marcia, Rome's longest aqueduct and high enough to supply the Capitoline Hill. The works cost 180,000,000 sesterces, and took two years to complete. As demand grew still further, more aqueducts were built; the Aqua Tepula in 127 BC and the Aqua Julia in 33 BC. Aqueduct-building programmes reached a peak in the Imperial Era. Augustus' reign saw the building of the Aqua Virgo, and the short Aqua Alsietina that supplied Trastevere's artificial lake with water for staged sea-fights to entertain the populace. Another short Augustan aqueduct supplemented the Aqua Marcia with water of "excellent quality". The emperor Caligula added or began two aqueducts completed by his successor Claudius; the 69 km (42.8 mile) Aqua Claudia, which gave good quality water but failed on several occasions; and the Anio Novus, highest of all Rome's aqueducts and one of the most reliable but prone to muddy, discoloured waters, particularly after rain, despite its use of settling tanks.

Most of Rome's aqueducts drew on various springs in the valley and highlands of the Anio, the modern river Aniene, east of the Tiber. A complex system of aqueduct junctions, tributary feeds and distribution tanks supplied every part of the city. Trastevere, the city region west of the Tiber, was primarily served by extensions of several of the city's eastern aqueducts, carried across the river by lead pipes buried in the roadbed of the river bridges, thus forming an inverted siphon. Whenever this cross-river supply had to be shut down for routine repair and maintenance works, the "positively unwholesome" waters of the Aqua Alsietina were used to supply Trastevere's public fountains. The situation was finally ameliorated when the emperor Trajan built the Aqua Traiana in 109 AD, bringing clean water directly to Trastavere from aquifers around Lake Bracciano.

By the late 3rd century AD, the city was supplied with water by 11 state-funded aqueducts. Their combined conduit length is estimated between 780 and a little over 800 kilometres, of which approximately 47 km (29 mi) were carried above ground level, on masonry supports. They supplied around 1 million cubic metres (300 million gallons) a day: a capacity 126% of the current water supply of the city of Bangalore, which has a population of 6 million.















Where the Romans the first civilization to use the keystone?

The Roman army is the first example of the effective use of keystone in engineering for the army.

The engineers also built bridges from both timber and stone depending on required permanence, time available etc. Some Roman stone bridges survive to this day. Stone bridges were made possible by the innovative use of the keystone to allow an arch construction.

The military engineering of Ancient Rome's armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries'. Indeed, military engineering was in many ways institutionally endemic in Roman military culture, as demonstrated by the fact that each Roman legionary had as part of his equipment a shovel, alongside his gladius (sword) and pila (spears).

Fabri were workers, craftsmen or artisans in Roman society and descriptions of early Roman army structure (Phalanx, the Legion came around the conquest of Greece) attributed to king Servius Tullius describe there being two centuriae of fabri under an officer, the praefectus fabrum.
Roman military engineering took both routine and extraordinary forms, the former a proactive part of standard military procedure, and the latter of an extraordinary or reactionary nature.


Who were the Roman slaves and where did they come from?

Records of slavery in Ancient Greece date as far back as Mycenaean Greece. It is certain that Classical Athens had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 6th and 5th centuries BC; two to four-fifths of the population were slaves.

As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Greeks, Illyrians, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls, Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labour, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus (a Thracian) being the most famous and bitter.

By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome, as well as a very significant part of Roman society. It is estimated that 25% or more of the population of Ancient Rome was enslaved, although the actual percentage is debated by scholars, and varied from region to region. Slaves represented 15–25% of Italy's population, mostly captives in war especially from Gaul and Epirus. Estimates of the number of slaves in the Roman Empire suggest that the majority of slaves were scattered throughout the provinces outside of Italy.

Generally, slaves in Italy were indigenous Italians, with a minority of foreigners (including both slaves and freedmen) born outside of Italy estimated at 5% of the total in the capital at its peak, where their number was largest. Those from outside of Europe were predominantly of Greek descent, while the Jewish ones never fully assimilated into Roman society, remaining an identifiable minority. These slaves (especially the foreigners) had higher death rates and lower birth rates than natives, and were sometimes even subjected to mass expulsions. The average recorded age at death for the slaves of the city of Rome was extraordinarily low: seventeen and a half years (17.2 for males; 17.9 for females).


Who participated in the chariot races?

Were the poor able to participate?

The Romans probably borrowed chariot racing from the Etruscans as well as the racing tracks, who themselves borrowed it from the Greeks, but the Romans were also influenced directly by the Greeks.

According to Roman legend, chariot racing was used by Romulus just after he founded Rome in 753 BC as a way of distracting the Sabine men.

Romulus sent out invitations to the neighbouring towns to celebrate the festival of the Consualia, which included both horse races and chariot races. Whilst the Sabines were enjoying the spectacle, Romulus and his men seized and carried off the Sabine women, who became wives of the Romans.

Chariot races were a part of several Roman religious festivals, and on these occasions were preceded by a parade (pompa circensis) that featured the charioteers, music, costumed dancers, and images of the gods. While the entertainment value of chariot races tended to overshadow any sacred purpose, in late antiquity the Church Fathers still saw them as a traditional "pagan" practice, and advised Christians not to participate.



Bas-relief of a quadriga race in the Circus Maximus (2nd-3rd century)

A chariot race in the Roman era
In ancient Rome, chariot races commonly took place in a circus. The main centre of chariot racing was the Circus Maximus in the valley between Palatine Hill and Aventine Hill, which could seat 250,000 people. It was the earliest circus in the city of Rome. The Circus was supposed to date to the city's earliest times, but it was rebuilt by Julius Caesar around 50 BC so that it had a length of about 650 metres (2,130 ft) and a width of about 125 metres (410 ft). One end of the track was more open than the other, as this was where the chariots lined up to begin the race. The Romans used a series of gates known as carceres, an equivalent to the Greek hysplex. These were staggered in the same way as the hysplex, but they were slightly different because Roman racing tracks also had a median (the spina) in the centre of the track. The carceres took up the angled end of the track, and the chariots were loaded into spring-loaded gates. When the chariots were ready, the emperor (or whoever was hosting the races, if they were not in Rome) dropped a cloth known as a mappa, signalling the beginning of the race. The gates would spring open, creating a perfectly fair beginning for all participants.



Chariot race of Cupids; ancient Roman sarcophagus in the Museo Archeologico (Naples). Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Once the race had begun, the chariots could move in front of each other in an attempt to cause their opponents to crash into the spinae (singular spina). On the top of the spinae stood small tables or frames supported on pillars, and also small pieces of marble in the shape of eggs or dolphins. The spina eventually became very elaborate, with statues and obelisks and other forms of art, but the multiplication of the adornments of the spina had one unfortunate result: They became so numerous that they obstructed the view of spectators on lower seats. At either end of the spina was a meta, or turning point, in the form of large gilded columns. Spectacular crashes in which the chariot was destroyed and the charioteer and horses incapacitated were known as naufragia, also the Latin word for shipwrecks.


A white charioteer; part of a mosaic of the third century AD, showing four leading charioteers from the different colors, all in their distinctive gear
The race itself was much like its Greek counterpart, although there were usually 24 races every day that, during the fourth century, took place on 66 days each year. However, a race consisted of only 7 laps (and later 5 laps, so that there could be even more races per day), instead of the 12 laps of the Greek race. The Roman style was also more money-oriented; racers were professionals and there was widespread betting among spectators. There were four-horse chariots (quadrigae) and two-horse chariots (bigae), but the four-horse races were more important. In rare cases, if a driver wanted to show off his skill, he could use up to 10 horses, although this was extremely impractical.

The technique and clothing of Roman charioteers differed significantly from those used by the Greeks. Roman drivers wrapped the reins round their waist, while the Greeks held the reins in their hands. Because of this, the Romans could not let go of the reins in a crash, so they would be dragged around the circus until they were killed or they freed themselves. In order to cut the reins and keep from being dragged in case of accident, they carried a falx, a curved knife. They also wore helmets and other protective gear. In any given race, there might be a number of teams put up by each faction, who would cooperate to maximize their chances of victory by ganging up on opponents, forcing them out of the preferred inside track or making them lose concentration and expose themselves to accident and injury. Spectators could also play a part as there is evidence they threw lead "curse" amulets studded with nails at teams opposing their favourite.



A winner of a Roman chariot race, from the Red team
Another important difference was that the charioteers themselves, the aurigae, were considered to be the winners, although they were usually also slaves (as in the Greek world). They received a wreath of laurel leaves, and probably some money; if they won enough races they could buy their freedom.

Drivers could become celebrities throughout the Empire simply by surviving, as the life expectancy of a charioteer was not very high. One such celebrity driver was Scorpus, who won over 2000 races before being killed in a collision at the meta when he was about 27 years old. The most famous of all was Gaius Appuleius Diocles who won 1,462 out of 4,257 races. When Diocles retired at the age of 42 after a 24-year career his winnings reportedly totalled 35,863,120 sesterces ($US 15 billion), making him the highest paid sports star in history. The horses, too, could become celebrities, but their life expectancy was also low. The Romans kept detailed statistics of the names, breeds, and pedigrees of famous horses.

Seats in the Circus were free for the poor, who by the time of the Empire had little else to do, as they were no longer involved in political or military affairs as they had been in the Republic. The wealthy could pay for shaded seats where they had a better view, and they probably also spent much of their times betting on the races. The circus was the only place where the emperor showed himself before a populace assembled in vast numbers, and where the latter could manifest their affection or anger. The imperial box, called the pulvinar in the Circus Maximus, was directly connected to the imperial palace.



Mosaic from Lyon illustrating a chariot race with the four factions: Blue, Green, Red and White


Chariot races in the Roman era
The driver's clothing was color-coded in accordance with his faction, which would help distant spectators to keep track of the race's progress. According to Tertullian, there were originally just two factions, White and Red, sacred to winter and summer respectively. As fully developed, there were four factions, the Red, White, Green, and Blue. Each team could have up to three chariots each in a race. Members of the same team often collaborated with each other against the other teams, for example to force them to crash into the spina (a legal and encouraged tactic). Drivers could switch teams, much like athletes can be traded to different teams today.

By 77 BC, the rivalry between the Red and the Whites was already developed, when a funeral for a Red driver involved a Red supporter throwing himself on the funeral pyre. No writer of the time, however, refers to these as factions such as came into existence later, with the factions being official organizations. Writing near the beginning of the third century, he wrote that the Reds were dedicated to Mars, the Whites to the Zephyrs, the Greens to Mother Earth or spring, and the Blues to the sky and sea or autumn. Domitian created two new factions, the Purples and Golds, which disappeared soon after he died. The Blues and the Greens gradually became the most prestigious factions, supported by emperor and populace alike. Numerous occasions occurred when a Blue vs. Green clash would break out during a race. Indeed, Reds and Whites are only rarely mentioned in the surviving literature, although their continued activity is documented in inscriptions and in curse-tablets.


What was the relationship between Julius Caesar and Cleopatra?

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire.

Cleopatra was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a Greek family of Macedonian origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. The Ptolemies spoke Greek throughout their dynasty, and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone. By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of the Egyptian goddess Isis.

Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes, and later with her brothers Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler.

As queen, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated Caesarion, her son with Caesar, to co-ruler in name.

After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus).

With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and son Ptolemy Philadelphus (her unions with her brothers had produced no children).

Antony committed suicide after losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, and Cleopatra followed suit. According to tradition, she killed herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. 

She was outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt then became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in literature and other media, such as William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, George Frideric Handel's opera Giulio Cesare, George Bernard Shaw's play Caesar and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre, and the films Cleopatra (1934) and Cleopatra (1963).
 

    7 Emerging Empires in the East URBAN LIFE AND IMPERIAL MAJESTY IN CHINA AND INDIA 217

        Early Chinese Culture 218

            Chinese Calligraphy 218

            The Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700–1045 bce) 219

            The Zhou Dynasty (1027–256 bce) 220

            The Chu State 224

        Imperial China 225

            The Qin Dynasty (221–206 bce): Organization and Control 225

            The Han Dynasty (206 bce–220 ce): The Flowering of Culture 225

        Ancient India 231

            Hinduism and the Vedic Tradition 233

            Buddhism: “The Path of Truth” 235

        READINGS

            7.1 from the Book of Songs 241

            7.1a from the Book of Songs 221

            7.2 from the Dao De Jing 222

            7.3 from Confucius, the Analects 242

            7.4 from Emperor Wu’s “Heavenly Horses” 228

            7.5 Liu Xijun, “Lament” 228

            7.6 Fu Xuan, “To Be a Woman” 228

            7.7 from the Bhagavad Gita: Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War 242

            7.8 from the Dhammapada 244

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Tomb of Qin Shihuangdi 226

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Silk Road 239

PART TWO THE MEDIEVAL WORLD AND THE SHAPING OF CULTURE 200 CE–1400 246

    8 The Flowering of Christianity FAITH AND THE POWER OF BELIEF IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM 249

        Developments in Judaic Culture 250

            Sectarianism and Revolt 250

            The Rabbis and the Mishnah 251

        The Rise of Christianity 252

            The Evangelists 252

            Symbols and Iconography in Christian Thinking and Art 254

        Christian Rome 258

            The Nicene Creed 259

            The Abandonment of Classicism in Art 260

            Roman Influences on Christian Churches 262

            Greek and Roman Myths in Christianity 264

            Augustine and Early Christian Philosophy 266

        The Byzantine Empire and Its Church 268

            Justinian’s Empire 269

            Ravenna and the Western Empire 274

        The Later Byzantine Empire 277

            The Iconoclast Controversy 278

            Tradition and Innovation: The Icon in the Second Golden Age 279

        READINGS

            8.1 from Josephus, The Jewish War, Book 2, “The Three Sects” 284

            8.2 from the Bible, Romans 5:1–11 252

            8.3 from the Bible, Matthew 6:25–33 254

            8.4 The Nicene Creed 259

            8.5 from Augustine’s Confessions 285

            8.5a from Augustine, Confessions 266

            8.6 from Augustine’s The City of God 286

            8.6a from Augustine, The City of God 267

            8.7 Ambrose’s “Ancient Morning Hymn” 286

            8.8 from Procopius, On Justinian’s Buildings (ca. 537) 270

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 256

            MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Byzantine Mural Mosaics 272

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE Byzantine Influences 281


THINKING AHEAD

    7.1 Identify the enduring artistic, literary, and philosophical directions that developed early in Chinese history.

    7.2 Understand how the art and literature of the Qin and Han dynasties reflect the values of the imperial court.

    7.3 Describe the Hindu and Buddhist faiths and how they helped to shape the cultures of ancient India.








Hinduism


Buddhism

Chinese Religions

Christianity





Week 4 Discussion Option A
"China and its Great Wall" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Describe two (2) specific aspects about the Great Wall of China, such as facts about its size, length, purposes, varied materials, labor force, and its phases of construction. Consider the various purposes of such a wall and its impact for good or bad, and compare the Chinese wall in this respect to some specific wall of more modern times.
Explore
China and Its Great Wall
  • Chapter 7 (pp. 216-218, 225), early phases, (pp. 617-618) later phase
  • Explore wall interactively at http://www.airpano.ru/files/China-Great-Wall/2-2
  •  
  • http://www.airpano.ru/files/China-Great-Wall/2-2
  •  
  • Video at http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/discovery-atlas-china-revealed-the-great-wall.htm
  •  
  • 2:28
  •  
  •  http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/discovery-atlas-china-revealed-the-great-wall/
  •  
  • UNESCO article at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/438
  •  
  •  In c. 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. Construction continued up to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), when the Great Wall became the world's largest military structure. Its historic and strategic importance is matched only by its architectural significance.

    The Great Wall (China) © UNESCO
    Outstanding Universal Value
    Brief synthesis
    The Great Wall was continuously built from the 3rd century BC to the 17th century AD on the northern border of the country as the great military defence project of successive Chinese Empires, with a total length of more than 20,000 kilometers. The Great Wall begins in the east at Shanhaiguan in Hebei province and ends at Jiayuguan in Gansu province to the west. Its main body consists of walls, horse tracks, watch towers, and shelters on the wall, and includes fortresses and passes along the Wall.

    The Great Wall reflects collision and exchanges between agricultural civilizations and nomadic civilizations in ancient China. It provides significant physical evidence of the far-sighted political strategic thinking and mighty military and national defence forces of central empires in ancient China, and is an outstanding example of the superb military architecture, technology and art of ancient China. It embodies unparalleled significance as the national symbol for safeguarding the security of the country and its people.

    Criterion (i): The Great Wall of the Ming is, not only because of the ambitious character of the undertaking but also the perfection of its construction, an absolute masterpiece. The only work built by human hands on this planet that can be seen from the moon, the Wall constitutes, on the vast scale of a continent, a perfect example of architecture integrated into the landscape.

    Criterion (ii):  During the Chunqiu period, the Chinese imposed their models of construction and organization of space in building the defence works along the northern frontier. The spread of Sinicism was accentuated by the population transfers necessitated by the Great Wall.

    Criterion (iii):  That the Great Wall bear exceptional testimony to the civilizations of ancient China is illustrated as much by the rammed-earth sections of fortifications dating from the Western Han that are conserved in the Gansu province as by the admirable and universally acclaimed masonry of the Ming period.

    Criterion (iv): This complex and diachronic cultural property is an outstanding and unique example of a military architectural ensemble which served a single strategic purpose for 2000 years, but whose construction history illustrates successive advances in defence techniques and adaptation to changing political contexts.

    Criterion (vi): The Great Wall has an incomparable symbolic significance in the history of China. Its purpose was to protect China from outside aggression, but also to preserve its culture from the customs of foreign barbarians. Because its construction implied suffering, it is one of the essential references in Chinese literature, being found in works like the "Soldier's Ballad" of Tch'en Lin (c. 200 A.D.) or the poems of Tu Fu (712-770) and the popular novels of the Ming period.

    Integrity 

    The Great Wall integrally preserves all the material and spiritual elements and historical and cultural information that carry its outstanding universal value. The complete route of the Great Wall over 20,000  kilometers, as well as elements constructed in different historical periods which constitute the complicated defence system of the property, including walls, fortresses, passes and beacon towers,  have been preserved to the present day. The building methods of the Great Wall in different times and places have been integrally maintained, while the unparalleled national and cultural significance of the Great Wall to China is still recognised today. The visual integrity of the Wall at Badaling has been impacted negatively by construction of tourist facilities and a cable car.

    Authenticity  

    The existing elements of the Great Wall retain their original location, material, form, technology and structure. The original layout and composition of various constituents of the Great Wall defence system are maintained, while the perfect integration of the Great Wall with the topography, to form a meandering landscape feature, and the military concepts it embodies have all been authentically preserved. The authenticity of the setting of the Great Wall is vulnerable to construction of inappropriate tourism facilities.

    Protection and management requirements 

    The various components of the Great Wall have all been listed as state or provincial priority protected sites under the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics. The Regulations on the Protection of the Great Wall promulgated in 2006 is the specific legal document for the conservation and management of the Great Wall. The series of Great Wall Conservation Plans, which is being constantly extended and improved and covers various levels from master plan to provincial plans and specific plans, is an important guarantee of the comprehensive conservation and management of the Great Wall. China’s national administration on cultural heritage, and provincial cultural heritage administrations where sections of the Great Wall are located, are responsible for guiding the local governments on the implementation of conservation and management measures for the Great Wall.

    The Outstanding Universal Value of the Great Wall and all its attributes must be protected as a whole, so as to fulfill authentic, integral and permanent preservation of the property. To this end, considering the characteristics of the Great Wall, including its massive scale, transprovincial distribution and complicated conditions for its protection and conservation, management procedures and regulations, conservation interventions for the original fabric and setting, and tourism management shall be more systematic, scientific, classified, and prioritized. An efficient comprehensive management system, as well as specific conservation measures for the original fabric and setting will be established, while a harmonious relationship featuring sustainable development between heritage protection and social economy and culture can be formed. Meanwhile, the study and dissemination of the rich connotation of the property’s Outstanding Universal Value shall be enhanced, so as to fully and sustainably realize the social and cultural benefits of the Great Wall.
  •  
  •  “China’s Wall Less Great in View from Space” article at http://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/workinginspace/great_wall.html
  •  
  •  https://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/workinginspace/great_wall.html 


  • China's Wall Less Great in View from Space
    05.09.05
    It has become a space-based myth. The Great Wall of China, frequently billed as the only man-made object visible from space, generally isn't, at least to the unaided eye in low Earth orbit. It certainly isn't visible from the Moon.

    You can, though, see a lot of other results of human activity.

    Expedition 10 photo showing Great Wall of China The visible wall theory was shaken after China's own astronaut, Yang Liwei, said he couldn’t see the historic structure. There was even talk about rewriting textbooks that espouse the theory, a formidable task in the Earth’s most populous nation.

    Image to right: This photo of central Inner Mongolia, about 200 miles north of Beijing, was taken on Nov. 24, 2004, from the International Space Station. The yellow arrow points to an estimated location of 42.5N 117.4E where the wall is visible. The red arrows point to other visible sections of the wall. Credit: NASA.
    + View larger image


    The issue surfaced again after photos taken by Leroy Chiao from the International Space Station were determined to show small sections of the wall in Inner Mongolia about 200 miles north of Beijing.

    Taken with a 180mm lens and a digital camera last Nov. 24, it was the first confirmed photo of the wall. A subsequent Chiao photo, taken Feb. 20 with a 400mm lens, may also show the wall.

    The photos by Chiao, commander and NASA ISS science officer of the 10th Station crew, were greeted with relief and rejoicing by the Chinese. One was displayed prominently in the nation's newspapers. Chiao himself said he didn't see the wall, and wasn't sure if the picture showed it.

    Radar image of Great Wall of China Image above: While the Great Wall of China is very difficult to see or photograph from low Earth orbit, sections of the wall can be seen readily in radar imagery. This image of sections of the wall in a desert about 435 miles west of Beijing was made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar flown aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The wall appears as an orange line extending the length of the image. Credit: NASA.

    Kamlesh P. Lulla, NASA's chief scientist for Earth observation at Johnson Space Center in Houston, directs observation science activities from the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. He says that generally the Great Wall is hard to see and hard to photograph, because the material from which it is made is about the same color and texture as the area surrounding it.

    Pyramids at Giza, Egypt "The interpretation of this (Nov. 24) ISS photo," Lulla said, "seems to be good. It appears that the right set of conditions must have occurred for this photograph to capture the small segment of the wall." It was a sunny day and a recent snowfall had helped make the wall more visible.

    Image to left: Ancient pyramids at Giza, Egypt are clearly visible in this photo from the Station. Credit: NASA.

    The theory that the wall could be seen from the Moon dates back to at least 1938. It was repeated and grew until astronauts landed on the lunar surface.

    "The only thing you can see from the Moon is a beautiful sphere, mostly white, some blue and patches of yellow, and every once in a while some green vegetation," said Alan Bean, Apollo 12 astronaut. "No man-made object is visible at this scale."

    From space you can see a lot of things people have made, Lulla said. Perhaps most visible from low Earth orbit are cities at night. Cities can be seen during the day too, as can major roadways and bridges, airports, dams and reservoirs.

    Downtown Houston Image to right: Three Houston landmarks are visible in this photo taken by an Expedition 10 crewmember. Minutemaid Park is the bright rectangle on the left side. The dome on the right side is the Toyota Center. At top center in the photo is the George R. Brown Convention Center. Credit: NASA.

    Of the wall visibility theories, Lulla said: "A lot has been said and written about how visible the wall is. In fact, it is very, very difficult to distinguish the Great Wall of China in astronaut photography, because the materials that were used in the wall are similar in color and texture to the materials of the land surrounding the wall -- the dirt."

    It's questionable whether you can see it with the unaided eye from space. "The shape, the age of the structure, the resolution of the camera, the condition of the atmosphere -- all these factors affect the ability to detect an object from space." But, he added, "you can see the wall in radar images taken from space."
Bottom of Form

Week 4 Discussion Option B
"Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • In considering Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia, describe the primary techniques that the architects used to keep such a large dome from collapsing. Explain the key aspects of the design that allow light inside of the Hagia Sophia, and speculate on the comments that Augustine might have had on the importance of this design feature. Of the Byzantine mosaics in Chapter 8 and in the Explore area, identify the one (1) that you enjoy most. Then, explain the message that it was intended to communicate to the medieval worshipper. Identify one (1) specific work of art in modern times that communicates in some similar way, whether for religious, political, or ideological purposes.
Explore
Constantinople's Hagia Sophia
  • Chapter 8 (pp. 267-281)
  • Images at http://www.livescience.com/27574-hagia-sophia.html  
  •  
  •  
    The Hagia Sophia is a domed monument built as a cathedral and is now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
    The Hagia Sophia is a domed monument built as a cathedral and is now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
    Credit: Tatiana Popova Shutterstock
    The Hagia Sophia, whose name means “holy wisdom,” is a domed monument originally built as a cathedral in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) in the sixth century A.D.
    It contains two floors centered on a giant nave that has a great dome ceiling, along with smaller domes, towering above.

    “Hagia Sophia’s dimensions are formidable for any structure not built of steel,” writes Helen Gardner and Fred Kleiner in their book "Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History." “In plan it is about 270 feet [82 meters] long and 240 feet [73 meters] wide. The dome is 108 feet [33 meters] in diameter and its crown rises some 180 feet [55 meters] above the pavement.”

    http://content.jwplatform.com/previews/3HzJHLEh-LGVHcJDb
    In its 1,400 year life-span it has served as a cathedral, mosque and now a museum. When it was first constructed, Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. This state, officially Christian, originally formed the eastern half of the Roman Empire and carried on after the fall of Rome.

    Born out of riots

    The story of the construction of the Hagia Sophia began in A.D. 532 when the Nika Riots, a great revolt, hit Constantinople. At the time Emperor Justinian I had been ruler of the empire for five years and had become unpopular. It started in the hippodrome among two chariot racing factions called the blue and green with the riot spreading throughout the city the rioters chanting “Nika,” which means “victory,” and attempting to throw out Justinian by besieging him in his palace.

    “People were resentful of the high taxes that Justinian had imposed and they wanted him out of office,” said University of London historian Caroline Goodson in a National Geographic documentary. After moving loyal troops into the city Justinian managed to put down the rebellion with brute force.

    In the wake of the uprising, and on the site of a torched church that had been called the Hagia Sophia, a new Hagia Sophia would be built. To the ancient writer Paul the Silentiary, who lived when the cathedral was completed, the building represented a triumph for both Justinian and Christianity.

    “I say, renowned Roman Capitol, give way! My Emperor has so far overtopped that wonder as great God is superior to an idol!” (Translation by Peter Bell, from the book "Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian," Liverpool University Press, 2009)

    Interior of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. The crown of the dome rises 180 feet (55 meters) above the floor.
    Interior of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. The crown of the dome rises 180 feet (55 meters) above the floor.
    Credit: Artur Bogacki Shutterstock
    Building the Hagia Sophia
  •  
    To build his cathedral, Justinian turned to two men named Anthemius and Isidore the Elder.
    “Contemporary writers do not refer to Anthemius and Isidore as architects, though the term was common in the sixth century, but as mechanikoi or mechanopoioi,” writes Indiana University professor W. Eugene Kleinbauer in a section of the book "Hagia Sophia" (Scala Publishers, 2004). “These terms denote a very small number of practitioners of the arts of design, whether of buildings or of machines or other works ...”

    They built the Hagia Sophia in great haste, finishing it in less than six years. To put this in comparison it took nearly a century for medieval builders to construct the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris.

    This short construction period appears to have led to problems. Ancient sources, such as the writer Procopios, write that the builders had problems with the dome roof, the structure almost collapsing during construction. The dome used a system of piers to channel its weight.
    “The piers on top of which the structure was being built, unable to bear the mass that was pressing down on them, somehow or other suddenly started to break away and seemed to be on the point of collapsing...” writes Procopios (translation republished on Columbia University’s website).

    Eventually Anthemius and Isidore did get the domed roof to stand and it was a magnificent sight indeed. “It seems not to be founded on solid masonry, but to be suspended from heaven by that golden chain and so cover the space,” wrote Procopios.

    Unfortunately this roof did not stand. It collapsed about two decades later and it fell to a man named Isidore the Younger to build a new domed roof. It has lasted, with some repairs, nearly 1,400 years, down to the present day.

    “The dome rests not on a drum but on pendentives, spherical triangles that arise from four huge piers that carry the weight of the cupola. The pendentives made it possible to place the dome over a square compartment,” writes researcher Victoria Hammond, who describes the structure of the surviving Hagia Sophia dome, in a chapter of the book "Visions of Heaven: The Dome in European Architecture" (Springer, 2005).

    Sunlight coming in through the windows of the Hagia Sophia "seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery," wrote one author.
    Sunlight coming in through the windows of the Hagia Sophia "seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery," wrote one author.
    Credit: Yulia Gursoy Shutterstock
    Beneath the dome are 40 windows with sunlight coming through. “The sunlight emanating from the windows surrounding its lofty cupola, suffusing the interior and irradiating its gold mosaics, seemed to dissolve the solidity of the walls and created an ambience of ineffable mystery,” she writes. “On the completion of Hagia Sophia, Justinian is said to have remarked, ‘Solomon, I have outdone thee’.”

    Imperial seating

    Modern-day visitors will note that the Hagia Sophia has two levels, the ground floor and a gallery above. The presence of the two levels may mean that people were organized according to gender and class when services were held at the cathedral.

    In Byzantine churches “galleries seem to have been used as a means of segregation of genders and of social classes,” writes Vasileios Marinis in a chapter of the book "The Byzantine World" (Routledge, 2010). “In Hagia Sophia a part of the gallery was used as an imperial lodge, from which the empress and occasionally the emperor attended the services.”

    This lodge wasn’t the only benefit the emperor got. Antony White writes in another chapter of the 2004 "Hagia Sophia" book that to enter the cathedral’s nave from the narthex there are nine doorways. “The central or Imperial Door was reserved for the use of the emperor and his attendants, and provides the most perfect approach to the interior of the church.”

    Decorations and iconoclasm

    The decorations within the Hagia Sophia at the time of construction were probably very simple, images of crosses for instances. Over time this changed to include a variety of ornate mosaics.

    “There are a number of mosaics that have been added over the centuries, imperial portraits, images of the imperial family, images of Christ and different emperors, those have been added since Justinian’s day,” said Goodson in the documentary.

    During the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., there was a period of iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire that resulted in some of the mosaics being destroyed.

    “The controversy spanned roughly a century, during the years 726–87 and 815–43. In these decades, imperial legislation barred the production and use of figural images; simultaneously, the cross was promoted as the most acceptable decorative form for Byzantine churches,” writes Sarah Brooks, of James Madison University, in a Metropolitan Museum of Art article.
    The Apse Mosaic in the Hagia Sophia shows the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. It is 13 feet tall.
    The Apse Mosaic in the Hagia Sophia shows the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. It is 13 feet tall. 
    Credit: Artur Bogacki Shutterstock
    “Fear that the viewer misdirected his/her veneration toward the image rather than to the holy person represented in the image lay at the heart of this controversy.”

    At the end of this period decoration of the interior of Hagia Sophia resumed, each emperor adding their own images. One of the most well-known mosaics is located on the apse of the church showing a 13-foot-tall (4 meters) Virgin Mary with Jesus as a child. Dedicated on March 29, 867, it is located 30 meters (almost 100 feet) above the church floor, notes University of Sussex professor Liz James in a 2004 article published in the journal Art History.

    Conversion to mosque

    Another chapter in the Hagia Sophia’s life began in 1453. In that year the Byzantine Empire ended, with Constantinople falling to the armies of Mehmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
    The Byzantine Empire had been in decline for centuries and by 1453 the Hagia Sophia had fallen into disrepair, notes researcher Elisabeth Piltz in a 2005 British Archaeological Reports series book. Nevertheless, the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers and they decided to convert it into a mosque.

    “What a dome, that vies in rank with the nine spheres of heaven! In this work a perfect master has displayed the whole of the architectural science,” wrote Ottoman historian Tursun Beg during the 15th century (translation from Piltz’s book).

    Outside the church, four minarets would eventually be added, Kleiner writes (in a 2010 edition of his book) that these “four slender pencil-shaped minarets” are more than 200 feet (60 meters) tall and are “among the tallest ever constructed.”

    Changes occurred on the inside as well. Piltz writes that “after the Ottoman conquest the mosaics were hidden under yellow paint with the exception of the Theotokos [Virgin Mary with child] in the apse.” In addition “Monograms of the four caliphs were put on the pillars flanking the apse and the entrance of the nave.”

    The style of the Hagia Sophia, in particular its dome, would go on to influence Ottoman architecture, most notably in the development of the Blue Mosque, built in Istanbul during the 17th century. [Related Video: Enormous Roman Mosaic Unearthed in Turkey]

    Present-day museum

    In 1934, the government of Turkey secularized the Hagia Sophia and turned it into a museum. The Turkish Council of Ministers stated that due “to its historical significance, the conversion of the (Hagia Sophia) mosque, a unique architectural monument of art located in Istanbul, into a museum will please the entire Eastern world and its conversion to a museum will cause humanity to gain a new institution of knowledge.” [From Robert Nelson, "Hagia Sophia: 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument," University of Chicago Press, 2004)
    Research, repair and restoration work continues to this day and the Hagia Sophia is now an important site for tourism in Istanbul. It is a place that has been part of the cultural fabric of the city in both ancient and modern times.
    Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor
  •  
  • Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng--WLT0Xjc
  •  
  • Istanbul, Turkey: Hagia Sophia, 2:00 

  • More info about travel to Istanbul: http://www.ricksteves.com/europe/turk... Hagia Sophia has served over the centuries as one of the greatest houses of worship in both the Christian and Muslim worlds. Hagia Sophia marks the high point of Byzantine architecture and is the pinnacle of that society's 6th century glory days. It remains one of the most important and impressive structures on our planet.

    https://youtu.be/ng--WLT0Xjc





  •  
  • Byzantine mosaics of Ravenna, Italy at http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/byzantine-justinian.html
 
San Vitale is one of the most important surviving examples of Byzantine architecture and mosaic work. It was begun in 526 or 527 under Ostrogothic rule. It was consecrated in 547 and completed soon after. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris, Dr. Steven Zucker. Created by Beth Harris, Steven Zucker.

10:17

https://youtu.be/It3i-dKusIM



EARLY CHINESE CULTURE

    What early Chinese artistic, literary, and philosophical developments would have a lasting impact on Chinese culture?

Very few of the built edifices of ancient Chinese civilization have been found. We know that by the middle of the second millennium bce, Chinese leaders ruled from large capitals, rivaling those in the West in their size and splendor. Beneath present-day Zhengzhou, for instance, lies an early metropolitan center with massive earthen walls. Stone was scarce in this area, but abundant forests made wood plentiful, so it was used to build cities. As impressive as they were, cities built of wood were vulnerable to fire and military attack, and no sign of them remains. Nevertheless, we know a fair amount about early Chinese culture from the remains of its written language and the tombs of its rulers. Even the most ancient Chinese writing—found on oracle bones and ceremonial bronze vessels—is closely related to modern Chinese. And archeologists discovered that royal Chinese tombs, like Egyptian burial sites, contain furnishings, implements, luxury goods, and clothing that—together with the written record—give us a remarkably vivid picture of ancient China.

What Ancient Chinese Sounds Like - Poetry (English Subtitles)

鹿柴 Lu Chai Classical Chinese Poem | Learn Chinese Now, 4:50

Hi everyone today we are going to look at another classic Chinese Tang Dynasty poem, this time by poet 王維 Wáng Wéi (701 - 761 AD). Wang Wei was a Chinese government official during the Tang Dynasty, he was also a devout Buddhist, so he was sometimes referred to as 詩佛 Shī fó the Poetry Buddha. This poem is entitled 鹿 柴 Lù chái which was an ancient name for a Deer enclosure which would have been close to Wang Wei's house in the countryside. Now let us look at the first line: 空 山 不 見 人 Kōng shān bú jiàn rén Kong means empty and shan means mountain, you can see the shape of the character is something like a triangular mountain.(use picture to depict) Then the next three characters bu means not, jian means see, and ren means person or people. So the whole line can be translated as "In the empty mountains one cannot see anyone." Now to the next line: 但 聞 人 語 響 Dàn wén rén yǔ xiǎng Dan means but and it is still used in modern Chinese, then the character wen means to hear in ancient Chinese however it should be noted that the character 聽 tīng is used in modern Chinese to mean listen or hear, wen has now come to mean smell or taste. Then the next three characters ren yu xiang, ren yu means human language and xiang means a sound. So this is the "sound of human language." We can translate the whole line as "but one can hear the sound of people talking." These two lines describe the atmosphere near Wang Wei's countryside home, he was not completely in the mountain wilderness like a hermit, instead he lived in the peace of the countryside but still near human civilization, thus although he could not see anyone in the mountains, he could still hear the sound of people from nearby village or farm. The next line reads: 返 景 入 深 林 Fǎn jǐng rù shēn lín Fan means to return and jing means shadow but in this context means evening light or twilight. Then ru means to enter, shen means deep and lin means forest. So this line can be translated as: "The returning twilight enters the deep forest." The last line reads: 復 照 青 苔 上 Fù zhào qīng tái shàng Fu means to repeat, zhao means to illuminate, qing tai means green moss and shang means on. Remember from last time we said that Chinese put location words after the thing they are describing location in relation to, so qing tai shang, literally green moss on, means on the green moss and the whole line means: "Returning to shine upon the green moss." These two lines talk about how as the sun becomes lower in the sky at sunset the light is able to enter the deep forest again since it is shining horizontally entering through the side of the forest, whereas before when the light was coming from above it was blocked by the forest canopy. This happens twice per day, once at sunrise and once at sunset, so thus the light can again shine on the green moss. Thank you for watching guys and if you want to hear any more classical Chinese poetry, please leave your requests in the comments section below. We will see you next week. Zai jian Subscribe to Learn Chinese Now! http://www.youtube.com/learnchinesenow Ben on Twitter: http://www.twitter/com/benhedgesntd T-Shirts and other products: http://www.zazzle.com/laowaiapparel

https://youtu.be/SZdb8_x93gQ



Chinese Calligraphy

Sometime during the Bronze Age, the Chinese developed a writing system that used individual pictographic characters to stand for distinct ideas and specific spoken words. According to Chinese legend, this writing system was invented by the culture-hero Fu Xi (who also taught the clans to hunt and fish), inspired by both the constellations and bird and animal footprints. Abundant surviving examples of writing from around 1400 to 1200 bce—engraved with a sharp point on oracle bones made of turtle plastrons and ox scapulae—record answers received from the spirit world during rituals asking about the future. We know as much as we do about the day-to-day concerns of the early Chinese rulers from these oracular fragments, on which a special order of priests, or diviners, posed questions of importance and concern (Fig. 7.3). They might ask about the harvest, the outcome of a war, the threat of flood, the course of an illness, or the wisdom of an administrative decision. To find answers, bones were heated with hot pokers, causing fissures to form with a loud crack. The patterns of these fissures were interpreted, and the bones were then inscribed. The first Chinese signs were pictograms, which, as with the development of cuneiform in Mesopotamia (see Chapter 2, Closer Look, pages 40–41), soon became stylized, particularly after the brush became the principal writing instrument. The essence of Chinese written language is that a single written character has a fairly fixed significance, no matter how its pronunciation might vary over time or from place to place. This stability of meaning has allowed the Chinese language to remain remarkably constant through the ages. In the figure above right, 3,000 years separate the characters on the right from those on the left (Fig. 7.4).


0:02 / 2:11 Chinese Calligraphy 中國書法 - 谢順佳

Classical Chinese calligraphy by Shun Kai Tse 中國書法 - 谢順佳

https://youtu.be/r4ghtJolXC8



The Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700–1045 bce)

Chinese records say that King Tang established the Shang dynasty. The Shang state was a linked collection of villages, stretching across the plains of the lower Yellow River valley. But it was not a contiguous state with distinct borders; other villages separated some of the Shang villages from one another, and were frequently at war with the Shang. The royal family surrounded itself with shamans, who soon developed into a kind of nobility and, in turn, walled urban centers formed around the nobles’ palaces or temples. The proliferation of bronze vessels, finely carved jades, and luxury goods produced for the Shang elite suggests that well-organized centers of craft production were located nearby. The Shang nobility organized itself into armies—surviving inscriptions describe forces as large as 13,000 men—that controlled the countryside and protected the king.


3 mins SHANG DYNASTY EMERGING FROM MYTH, 2:48

https://youtu.be/dEYqzkbMZWg



The Zhou Dynasty (1027–256 bce)

The Shang believed that their leaders were the sole conduit to the heavenly ancestors. However, in 1027 bce, a rebel tribe known as the Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty, claiming that the Shang had lost the Mandate of Heaven by not ruling virtuously. The Zhou asserted that the legitimacy of a ruler derived from divine approval, and that the Shang had lost this favor because of their decadent extravagances. Even so, the Zhou took measures to intermarry with the elite whom they had overthrown and took pains to conserve and restore what they admired of Shang culture. In fact, both the Book of Changes and the yin-yang symbol were originated by the Shang but codified and written down by the Zhou.


The Zhou Dynasty, 1:34

https://youtu.be/4p7R0sSeMVg



The Chu State

When Chinese historian Sima Qian wrote the Shiji, or Historical Records, in 100 bce, he regarded Confucianism as the product of the northern Chinese dynasties—the Shang and the Zhou—and Daoism as a product of the southern state of Chu, which occupied most of present-day Hubei and Hunan provinces. He considered the people of Chu barbarians—shiftless, uneducated, living off the abundance of a land that knew nothing of the cold, harsh reality of winters in the north, and indifferent to government. They were, from this later point of view, an exotic people who worshiped fantastical ghosts and spirits (dragons, from the northern point of view, were not woven of the same fiber) through the agency of shamans and priests who led them in dancing, singing, and yinsi—excessive, even lewd, rites.


English story about China: 2. Ancient Greece and the State of Chu- The spirit for art, 4:44

There's an 'ancient Greece' in the ancient China during the same period, because of the similar spirit for art.

https://youtu.be/3CqE_UrkN3k



IMPERIAL CHINA

    How do the art and literature of the Qin and Han dynasties reflect the values of the imperial court?

At the same time that Rome rose to dominance in the West (see Chapter 6), a similar empire arose in China. But whereas Rome’s empire derived from outward expansion, China’s empire arose from consolidation at the center. From about the time of Confucius onward, seven states vied for control. They mobilized armies to battle one another; iron weapons replaced bronze; they organized bureaucracies and established legal systems; merchants gained political power; and a “hundred schools of thought” flowered.


The Political Development of Imperial China, 4:21

A rap by Mr. Bloom covering Chapter 16 from History Alive: The Medieval World.

https://youtu.be/1r7DeYkJedo



The Qin Dynasty (221–206 bce): Organization and Control

This period of warring states culminated when the western state Qin (the origin of our name for China) conquered the other states and unified them under the Qin Empire in 221 bce. Under the leadership of Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221–210 bce), who declared himself “First Emperor,” the Qin worked very quickly to achieve a stable society. To discourage nomadic invaders from the north, they built a wall from the Yellow Sea east of present-day Beijing far into Inner Mongolia, known today as the Great Wall of China (see Fig. 7.1).


Discovering China - The Qin Dynasty—China's First Dynasty, 2:25

The Qin Dynasty from 221 to 206 BC is considered China's first dynasty. Although China did have three ancient dynasties: the Xia, Shang and Zhou, Qin's ruler was the first to declare him self an emperor. He united China after centuries of division and ruled over an estimated population of twenty million people.

Now despite its glory, the Qin was a brutal and short-lived dynasty. Emperor Qin's objective was to rule "all under heaven," and he did this through military campaigns and a state philosophy of legalism, or the idea that misbehavior is met with harsh punishment in order to keep the populace in line.

The original state of Qin was located in the western area of what was China at the time. It was a royal domain allocated for raising horses. It then became one of seven warring states after the ancient Zhou dynasty spilt up. The young king of Qin started  his assault of other states in the year 230 BC and by 221 BC had defeated all six, unifying China.

He then sought to solidify this unification through a unification of culture. Qin unified the currency, weights and measures, Chinese characters and even the width of roads across the whole empire.
But emperor Qin was not popular among the people, his compulsory public works projects and high taxation put a heavy burden on the populace. The Qin emperor ordered the burning of all books on alternative philosophies than the one used by the Qin government, he then buried alive 460 people who violated this rule. His heavily centralized power structure also angered the nobility who's power was weakened.

In 210 BC, emperor Qin died, and his successor found himself faced with revolts. In 206 BC, a group of rebels, led by Lieutenant Liu Bang succeeded in toppling the Qin. Liu Bang established the Han dynasty which would last for four centuries.

Although it lasted for only 17 years and inflicted great suffering on the populace, the Qin dynasty left behind a legacy. The first Great Wall of China was built during the Qin to protect the country from invasions from the north. After the Qin emperor died, he was buried in a massive complex of tombs. In the 1974 Chinese farmers dug up some parts of a terracotta statue, this led to the discovery of 7000 terracotta warriors that had been buried with the emperor to protect him in the afterlife.

But what is more is that the Qin sewed the seeds of unification and led to later periods of prosperity and stability during the great dynasties that followed. We'll tell you about one of those, the Han dynasty, next time.

https://youtu.be/1bZXxGv52t8



The Han Dynasty (206 bce–220 ce): The Flowering of Culture 225

The Han Dynasty (206 bce–220 bce): The Flowering of Culture

In place of the Qin, the Han dynasty came to power, inaugurating over 400 years of intellectual and cultural growth. The Han emperors installed Confucianism as the official state philosophy and established an academy to train civil servants. Where the Qin had disenfranchised scholars, the Han honored them, even going so far as to give them an essential role in governing the country.

Han prosperity was constantly threatened by incursions of nomadic peoples to the north, chiefly the Huns, whom the Chinese called Xiongnu, and whose impact would later be felt as far away as Rome. In 138 bce, Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 bce) attempted to forge military alliances with the Huns, sending General Zhang Qian with 100 of his best fighting men into the northern territories. The Huns held General Zhang captive for ten years. When he returned, he spoke of horses that were far stronger and faster than those in China. Any army using them, he believed, would be unbeatable. In fact, horses could not be bred successfully in China owing to a lack of calcium in the region’s water and vegetation, and until General Zhang’s report, the Chinese had known horses only as small, shaggy creatures of Mongolian origin. To meet the Huns on their own terms, with cavalry instead of infantry, China needed horses from the steppes of western Asia.


Discovering China - The Han Dynasty-China's First Golden Age, 2:31

The Han Dynasty began in 206 BC when a man named Liu Bang, who had been born a peasant, led a group of generals to overthrow the Qin dynasty. This started a 400-year period of prosperity—sometimes referred to as China's first golden age.

The capital of the dynasty was at Chang'an—one of the biggest cities in the world at the time. The Han dynasty saw massive territorial expansion, with China's area almost doubling.
The Han defeated the tribes to North and signed treaties with the clans to the West. This made travel safer and led to the establishment of what became known as the Silk Road. This was the trade route connecting China with the Roman Empire thousands of miles away in Europe.

The Han also saw massive cultural developments, with Confucianism—which had been suppressed under the Qin dynasty—rising to become the state philosophy of China's aristocracy. Officials were evaluated on their conduct, according to Confucian philosophy and an Imperial University was established to train them.

It was also during the Han period that Buddhism spread to China. Buddhism's emphasis on compassion and universal salvation appealed to the masses. Along with Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism became one of China's three main religions that would dominate the faith of the Chinese people for the next two thousand years.

The Han dynasty gave rise to some of China's most well known historical figures, such as Sima Qian who wrote "The Record of the Grand Historian"—the definitive record of China's early history—and Han Xin, the general who helped Liu Bang establish the Han Dynasty.

The Han Dynasty was briefly interrupted in the year 9 AD when the nephew of the empress, Wang Mang, seized the throne. Fourteen years later, Liu Xiu—a descendant of Liu Bang—eventually toppled him. And the Han Dynasty, with 12 more emperors, continued for another two hundred years.
But like all dynasties in Chinese history, the Han could not last forever. It officially ended in the year 220 AD. Trouble at court and uprisings across the empire led to its eventual downfall. The warlord Dong Zhuo led troops into the capital kick-starting battles between various warlords.

Eventually, Cao Cao managed to establish the Wei state North of the Yangtze river. Sun Quan established the Wu state south of the Yangtze, and Liu Bei the Shu state in the west—starting a period known as the Three Kingdoms.

https://youtu.be/VS7pKZJ3zPs



Ancient India 231

ANCIENT INDIA

    How did the Hindu and Buddhist faiths help to shape the cultures of ancient India?

Indian civilization was born along the Indus River in the northwest corner of the Indian subcontinent in present-day Pakistan, somewhere around 2700 bce in an area known as Sind—from which the words India and Hindu originate (see Map 7.2). The earliest Indian peoples lived in at least two great cities in the Indus Valley, Mohenjo-Daro, on the banks of the Indus, and Harappa, on the River Ravi, downstream from present-day Lahore. These great cities thrived until around 1900 bce and were roughly contemporaneous with Sumerian Ur, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, and Minoan civilization in the Aegean.

The cities were discovered by chance in the early 1920s, and excavations have continued since. The best preserved of the sites is Mohenjo-Daro. Built atop a citadel is a complex of buildings, presumably a governmental or religious center, surrounded by a wall 50 feet high. Set among the buildings on the citadel is a giant pool (Fig. 7.13). Perhaps a public bath or a ritual space, its finely fitted bricks, laid on edge and bound together with gypsum plaster, made it watertight. The bricks on the side walls of the tank were covered with a thick layer of bitumen (natural tar) to keep water from seeping through the walls and up into the superstructure.


Why Don't Ancient Indian Temples Have Entrance & Exit Signs? Secret Revealed, 4:41
Read the full story here: http://goo.gl/Q0ZK2c

Hey guys, I am at the Darasuram Temple in India and wanted to show you something very interesting. As you can see there are lots of both local and foreign tourists that come to visit these temples and they often complain that there are no entrance or exit signs. So they get confused and don't know which way to get in and which way to get out because there are so many chambers and sub chambers in the temple.

Why don't Indian temples have entrance or exit signs? In fact, archeologists and religious experts will tell you that no such signboards or even writings have been found in ancient temples marking these doorways. This is mind boggling because Indians have been writing in languages like Tamil and Sanskrit for at least 2000 years and you can even see these writings in the very temple that I am currently researching on.

But I am gonna show you how intelligent the builders were many centuries ago. Let's say you are inside the sanctum and want to get out. Focus on the pillars and you will see the sculpture of this animal on all the pillars. Notice that the tails of all these animals are curved or twisted. All of them except one, which is straight. Just walk towards this pillar and that's the way you should get out. This is the ancient way of marking the exit sign.

Is this just a coincidence? No, because I am gonna show you the entrance sign as well. When you are outside and want to get in, you can see the front side of the same figure on all the pillars. Now you can see that the trunks of these figures are slightly curved and point up and even though you see the stairs right here, don't enter through this way because you haven't seen the entrance sign yet. Now, I am walking around and you can see that the trunks are all straight except one. This is the only sculpture with a twisted trunk. This is the way to properly enter this temple's chamber.
This is a classic example of how valuable ancient knowledge has been lost. In fact, I just rediscovered this after many centuries because I checked with the local priests and archeologists and they told me they had no idea about these signs.

Just think, the ancient builders who historians describe as unsophisticated people, have created these signs many centuries ago, this temple being at least 850 years old. And we, who are supposed to be modern and sophisticated people are actually not so perceptive and don't pay attention to these nuances.

Another remarkable feature is that there is no way you can see the exit sign from the outside because you don't need to see it as long as you are outside and it only becomes visible once you are inside and want to get out. And Vice Versa is also true. These sign boards if you will, need no maintenance and are immortal because they can't be destroyed. They are not just some external signs that can be removed and replaced, but they have been incorporated with the infrastructure of the temple.
Just remember, these little nuances have been lost in the last 500 years and modern temples don't have these carvings that mark entrance and exit signs. So if you ever visit an ancient Indian temple, do look for these sign boards.

Read the full story here: http://goo.gl/Q0ZK2c Twitter: https://twitter.com/phenomenalplace Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/phenomenalp... Website: http://www.phenomenalplace.com

https://youtu.be/4up9baE7pmQ



 Hinduism and the Vedic Tradition 233

Hinduism and the Vedic Tradition

The social castes were sanctioned by the religion the Aryans brought with them, a religion based on a set of sacred hymns to the Aryan gods. These hymns, called Vedas, were written in the Aryan language, Sanskrit, and they gave their name to an entire period of Indian civilization, the Vedic period (ca. 1500–322 bce). From the Vedas in turn came the Upanishads, a book of mystical and philosophical texts that date from sometime after 800 bce. Taken together, the Vedas and the Upanishads form the basis of the Hindu religion, with Brahman, the universal soul, at its center. The religion has no single body of doctrine, nor any standard set of practices. It is defined above all by the diversity of its beliefs and deities. Indeed, several images of mother goddesses, stones in the phallic form, as well as a seal with an image that resembles the Hindu god Shiva, have been excavated at various Indus sites, leading scholars to believe that certain aspects and concepts of Hinduism survived from the Indus civilizations and were incorporated into the Vedic religion.

The Upanishads argue that all existence is a fabric of false appearances. What appears to the senses is entirely illusory. Only Brahman is real. Thus, in a famous story illustrating the point, a tiger, orphaned as a cub, is raised by goats. It learns, as a matter of course, to eat grass and make goat sounds. But one day it meets another tiger, who takes it to a pool to look at itself. There, in its reflection in the water, it discovers its true nature. The individual soul needs to discover the same truth, a truth that will free it from the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth and unite it with the Brahman in nirvana, a place or state free from worry, pain, and the external world.


The Tradition of Vedic Chanting, 4:33

UNESCO: Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity - 2008 URL: http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/RL/... Description: The Vedas comprise a vast corpus of Sanskrit poetry, philosophical dialogue, myth, and ritual incantations developed and composed by Aryans over 3,500 years ago. Regarded by Hindus as the primary source of knowledge and the sacred foundation of their religion, the Vedas embody one of the worlds oldest surviving cultural traditions. The Vedic heritage embraces a multitude of texts and interpretations collected in four Vedas, commonly referred to as books of knowledge even though they have been transmitted orally. The Rig Veda is an anthology of sacred hymns; the Sama Veda features musical arrangements of hymns from the Rig Veda and other sources; the Yajur Veda abounds in prayers and sacrificial formulae used by priests; and the Atharna Veda includes incantations and spells. The Vedas also offer insight into the history of Hinduism and the early development of several artistic, scientific and philosophical concepts, such as the concept of zero. Expressed in the Vedic language, which is derived from classical Sanskrit, the verses of the Vedas were traditionally chanted during sacred rituals and recited daily in Vedic communities. The value of this tradition lies not only in the rich content of its oral literature but also in the ingenious techniques employed by the Brahmin priests in preserving the texts intact over thousands of years. To ensure that the sound of each word remains unaltered, practitioners are taught from childhood complex recitation techniques that are based on tonal accents, a unique manner of pronouncing each letter and specific speech combinations. Although the Vedas continue to play an important role in contemporary Indian life, only thirteen of the over one thousand Vedic recitation branches have survived. Moreover, four noted schools in Maharashtra (central India), Kerala and Karnataka (southern India) and Orissa (eastern India) are considered under imminent threat. Country(ies): India

https://youtu.be/qPcasmn0cRU



Buddhism: “The Path of Truth” 235

Buddhism: “The Path of Truth”

Because free thought and practice mark the Hindu religion, it is hardly surprising that other religious movements drew on it and developed from it. Buddhism is one of those. Its founder, Shakyamuni Buddha, lived from about 563 to 483 bce. He was born Prince Siddhartha Gautama, child of a ruler of the Shakya clan—Shakyamuni means “sage of the Shakyas”—and was raised to be a ruler himself. Troubled by what he perceived to be the suffering of all human beings, he abandoned the luxurious lifestyle of his father’s palace to live in the wilderness. For six years he meditated, finally attaining complete enlightenment while sitting under a banyan tree at Bodh Gaya. Shortly thereafter he gave his first teaching, at the Deer Park at Sarnath, expounding the Four Noble Truths:

    Life is suffering.

    This suffering has a cause, which is ignorance.

    Ignorance can be overcome and eliminated.

    The way to overcome this ignorance is by following the Eightfold Path of right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

Living with these truths in mind, one might overcome what Buddha believed to be the source of all human suffering—the desire for material things, which is the primary form of ignorance. In doing so, one would find release from the illusions of the world, from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, and ultimately reach nirvana. These principles are summed up in the Dhammapada, the most popular canonical text of Buddhism, which consists of 423 aphorisms, or sayings, attributed to Buddha and arranged by subject into 26 chapters (see Reading 7.8, pages 244–245). Its name is a compound consisting of dhamma, the vernacular form of the formal Sanskrit word dharma, mortal truth, and pada, meaning “foot” or “step”—hence it is “the path of truth.” The aphorisms are widely admired for their wisdom and their sometimes stunning beauty of expression.


Introduction to Buddhism | Belief | Oprah Winfrey Network, 3:19

Varun Soni, dean of Religious Life at the University of Southern California, explains the fourth largest religion in the world, Buddhism. Starting with the story of Prince Siddhartha, who wished to alleviate human suffering and became enlightened in order to help others, the religion does not focus on a god, but rather on self-empowerment and the belief that everyone is already a Buddha but not yet enlightened. For more on #Belief, visit Oprah.com.

https://youtu.be/Lxq-RiLb-6M



CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Silk Road

Under the Han (206 bce–220 bce), Chinese trade flourished. Western linen, wool, glass, and gold, Persian pistachios, and mustard originating in the Mediterranean, were imported in exchange for the silk, ceramics, fur, lacquered goods, and spices that made their way west along the “Silk Road” that stretched from the Yellow River across Asia to the Mediterranean (see Map 7.3). The road followed the westernmost spur of the Great Wall to the oasis town of Dunhuang, where it split into northern and southern routes, passing through smaller oasis towns until converging again at Kashgar on the western edge of the western Chinese deserts. From there, traders could proceed into present-day Afghanistan, south into India, or westward through present-day Uzbekistan, Iran, and Iraq into Syria and the port city of Antioch. Goods passed through many hands, trader to trader, before reaching the Mediterranean, and according to an official history of the Han dynasty compiled in the fifth century ce, it was not until 97 ce that one Gan Ying went “all the way to the Western sea and back.” According to Gan Ying, there he encountered an empire with “over four hundred walled cities” to which “tens of small states are subject”—some of them probably outposts of the Roman Empire, but others, like the city of Bam, with its towering citadel—first constructed in about 55 bce (Fig. 7.21)—Persian strongholds.

Goods and ideas spread along the Silk Road, as trade spurred the cultural interchange between East and West, India and China. As early as the first century bce, silk from China reached Rome, where it captured the Western imagination, but the secret of its manufacture remained a mystery in the West until the sixth century ce. Between the first and third centuries ce, Buddhist missionaries from India carried their religion over the Silk Road into Southeast Asia and north into China and Korea, where it quickly became the dominant religion. By the last half of the first millennium, the Chinese capital of Chang’an, at the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, hosted Korean, Japanese, Jewish, and Christian communities, and Chinese emperors maintained diplomatic relations with Persia. Finally, the Venetian merchant Marco Polo (ca. 1254–1324), bearing a letter of introduction from Pope Gregory X, crossed the Asian continent on the Silk Road in 1275. He arrived at the new Chinese capital of Beijing, and served in the imperial court for nearly two decades. His Travels, written after his return to Italy in 1292, constitute the first eyewitness account of China available in Europe.



The Silk Road: Connecting the ancient world through trade - Shannon Harris Castelo, 5:19

With modern technology, a global exchange of goods and ideas can happen at the click of a button. But what about 2,000 years ago? Shannon Harris Castelo unfolds the history of the 5,000-mile Silk Road, a network of multiple routes that used the common language of commerce to connect the world's major settlements, thread by thread.

Lesson by Shannon Harris Castelo, animation by Steff Lee.

https://youtu.be/vn3e37VWc0k



READINGS

            7.1 from the Book of Songs 241

The Book of Songs is the earliest collection of Chinese poetry. Like all subsequent Chinese poetry, for which these poems, not coincidentally, provide the tradition, the poems provide a telling glimpse into everyday Chinese life. But they also demonstrate the centrality of the natural world and its rhythms and cycles to Chinese thought and feeling.

            7.1a from the Book of Songs 221

The Book of Songs is the earliest collection of Chinese poetry. Like all subsequent Chinese poetry, for which these poems, not coincidentally, provide the tradition, the poems provide a telling glimpse into everyday Chinese life. But they also demonstrate the centrality of the natural world and its rhythms and cycles to Chinese thought and feeling.

            7.2 from the Dao De Jing 222




            7.3 from Confucius, the Analects 242

The Analects of Confucius are a collection of his dialogues and utterances, probably recorded by his disciples after his death. They reflect Confucius’s dream of an ideal society of hardworking, loyal people governed by wise, benevolent, and morally upright officials—a government based on moral principles that would be reflected in the behavior of its populace.

            7.4 from Emperor Wu’s “Heavenly Horses” 228

            7.5 Liu Xijun, “Lament” 228

            7.6 Fu Xuan, “To Be a Woman” 228

            7.7 from the Bhagavad Gita: Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War 242

The Bhagavad Gita constitutes the sixth book of the first-century ce epic Sanskrit poem, the Mahabharata. It represents, in many ways, a summation of Hindu thought and philosophy. The bulk of the poem consists of the reply of Krishna, an avatar, or incarnation, of Vishnu, to Arjuna, leader of the Pandavas, who on the battlefield has decided to lay down his arms. In the following passage, Arjuna declares his unwillingness to fight. The charioteer Sanjaya, the narrator of the entire Mahabharata, then introduces Krishna, who replies to Arjuna’s decision and goes on to describe, at Arjuna’s request, the characteristics of a man of “firm concentration and pure insight.”

            7.8 from the Dhammapada 244

The Dhammapada, or “path of truth,” consists of 423 sayings, or aphorisms, of Buddha divided by subject into 26 books. They are commonly thought to be the answers to questions put to Buddha on various occasions, and as such they constitute a summation of Buddhist thought. The following passages, consisting of different aphorisms from five different books, emphasize the Buddhist doctrine of self-denial and the wisdom inherent in pursuing the “path.”

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Tomb of Qin Shihuangdi 226

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Silk Road 239

PART TWO THE MEDIEVAL WORLD AND THE SHAPING OF CULTURE 200 CE–1400 246

During the last 300 years of the Roman Empire, Christianity gained a stronger and stronger foothold, until the Western Roman Empire collapsed in about 500 ce. The following Middle Ages span a period of about 1,000 years of European history, up to the beginning of the fifteenth century. Its opening centuries, until about 800 ce, were once commonly referred to as the “Dark Ages.” During this time, the great cultural achievements of the Greeks and Romans were forgotten, so-called barbarian tribes from the north overran the Continent, and ignorance reigned. But this era was followed by an age of remarkable innovation and achievement, marked by the ascendancy of three great religions—Christianity, Buddhism, and newborn Islam. Because of the way these three religions dominated their respective cultures, the centuries covered in Part Two might be best thought of as the Age of Faith.

This was the age of the monastery, the religious pilgrimage, the cathedral, the mosque, and the spread of Buddhism across Asia. By the sixth century, a new Christian mode of representation, reflecting a new ideal of beauty, had asserted itself in Byzantium, the Eastern Roman Empire. Unlike the Romans and Greeks, Byzantine artists showed little interest in depicting the visual appearance of the material world. They abandoned perspectival depth and rendered figures as highly stylized, almost geometric configurations. In other words, they depicted a spiritual rather than physical ideal.

In the first half of the seventh century, after the death of the prophet Muhammad, Islam began its rapid spread from Arabia across the Middle East to North Africa and into Spain. At the same time, in the rest of Europe, Christian and feudal traditions gradually merged. By the time Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800, fidelity to one’s chief could be understood as analogous to fidelity to one’s God. By the late twelfth century, this brand of loyalty had found its way into the social habits of court life, where it took the form known as courtly love. In the love songs of the troubadour poets, the loyalty that a knight or nobleman had once conferred upon his lord was now transferred to a lady.

Charlemagne’s passionate interest in education and the arts was broadcast across Europe through the development first of monastic schools and later of universities, which were themselves made possible by a resurgence of economic activity and trade. The Christian Crusades to recapture the Holy Land, principally Jerusalem, from Muslim control contributed to this economic revitalization, as did the practice of pilgrimage journeys to the Holy Land and to churches that housed sacred relics. The art of creating monumental stone sculpture was revived to decorate these churches, which grew ever larger to accommodate the throngs that visited them. The culmination of this trend was the Gothic cathedral, adorned with stained glass and rising to formerly unachieved heights. The sacred music of the liturgy became more complex and ornate as well, reflecting the architecture of the buildings in which it was played. To appeal to the masses of worshipers, the sculpture and painting that decorated these churches became increasingly naturalistic. Similarly, poetry and prose were more frequently written in the vernacular—the everyday language of the people—and less often in Latin. In both literature and art, the depiction of universal types, or generalized characters, gave way to the depiction of real characters and actual personalities.

We can begin to account for this shift by recognizing that, by the late Middle Ages, the center of intellectual life had shifted from the monastery to the town. From the great metropolis of Hangzhou, China, which Marco Polo visited in 1271, to the cities of Teotihuacán and Palenque in Mesoamerica, daily life was an increasingly urban experience. In Asia and the Americas, these centers reflected the aspirations and power of the ruling nobility. But in Europe, towns such as Florence and Siena flourished as a result of ever-enlarging trade networks. Now, suddenly, merchants and bankers began to assert themselves with as much or more power than either pope or king, ruling local governments and commissioning civic and religious works of architecture and art.

    8 The Flowering of Christianity FAITH AND THE POWER OF BELIEF IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM 249

THINKING AHEAD

    8.1 Outline the development of Judaic culture after the destruction of the Second Temple.

    8.2 Identify the forces at work in the spread of Christianity and differentiate between the new religion’s use of typology, symbolism, and iconography.

    8.3 Describe the Roman reaction to Christianity and explore the ways in which Roman traditions may have impacted the religion’s development.

    8.4 Characterize the new Byzantine style of art and discuss how it reflects the values of the Byzantine emperors, especially Justinian.

    8.5 Explain the role of images in Byzantine art and why they were subject to iconoclast attack.

        Developments in Judaic Culture 250

DEVELOPMENTS IN JUDAIC CULTURE

    How did Judaic culture evolve after the destruction of the Second Temple?

From the time of the Babylonian Captivity to the rise of rabbinic Judaism (the Judaism of the rabbis, the scholars and teachers of the Jewish faith), at about the time of the Roman destruction of the Second Temple, the Jewish religion had become increasingly messianic—that is, it prophesied that the world would end in apocalypse, the coming of God on the day of judgment, and that the postapocalyptic world would be led by a Messiah, or Anointed One, in everlasting peace. These feelings were first fueled in 168 bce, when the Seleucid king Antiochus IV tried to impose worship of the Greek gods on the Jews, placing a statue of Zeus in the Second Temple of Jerusalem and allowing pigs to be sacrificed there. The Jews were outraged. From their point of view, the Greek conquerors had not merely transformed the sacred temple into a pagan shrine, but had replaced the Ark with a “graven image.” The slaughter of pigs rendered the temple impure. Still worse, Antiochus made observance of the Hebrew law punishable by death. Led by Judas Maccabeus, a priest of the Maccabean family, the Jews revolted, defeating Antiochus, purifying the temple, and reestablishing Jewish control of the region for the period 142–63 bce. In 63 bce, the Romans, led by their great general Pompey, conquered Judea (present-day Israel).


Judaic Culture 101, 1:01

https://youtu.be/OORTUYAmA3M



Sectarianism and Revolt 250

Sectarianism and Revolt

It was a deeply unsettled time and place. In the early first century ce, large numbers of people claiming to be the Messiah and larger numbers of apocalyptic preachers roamed Judea. This situation was complicated by the growing sectarianism of Judaism itself. Much of what we know about this time comes from the writings of Josephus, a Jewish historian (ca. 37–ca. 100 bce). Josephus’ Jewish War, completed in the early 80s ce, outlines Jewish history from the rise of the Maccabees to the destruction of the temple in 70 ce and the subsequent fall of Masada. “There are three philosophical sects among the Jews,” Josephus writes. “The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees, a scribal group associated with the masses; of the second, the Sadducees, priests and high priests associated with the aristocracy; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes.” (For Josephus’ extended description of these sects, see Reading 8.1, pages 284–285.)

            The Rabbis and the Mishnah 251

With the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 ce and the subsequent Diaspora, the center and focal point of Jewish faith evaporated. From then on, Judaism developed as a religion in a sectarian manner. The sects, after all, had viewed the temple and temple rituals with deep skepticism and had practiced their religion outside the temple, in localized synagogues, or “houses of assembly,” engaging in daily prayer, studying the Torah, and observing the laws of purity more or less independently of priests. Yet despite growing sectarianism, a community of scholars known as Sanhedrin, who had met for centuries to discuss and interpret the Torah, continued to provide a strong intellectual center for the Jews. In the town of Yavneh, where the group had moved after the destruction of the First Temple by the Babylonians, ongoing study of the Torah and other traditional teachings known as the Oral Torah had been sufficient to maintain continuity about what it meant to live and think properly as Jews. After the Diaspora of the second century ce, however, it seemed likely that the Jews would be living for generations in many different places under widely varying circumstances, and without an institution such as the Sanhedrin, maintaining a strong, collective Jewish identity was unlikely.

The solution to this problem came from the rabbis, to whom, in the second to the sixth centuries ce, Jewish communities throughout the Mediterranean world turned for guidance and instruction. The rabbis, who were scholars functioning as both teachers and scribes, realized the importance of writing down the Oral Torah, a massive body of explanations and interpretations of the covenant, as well as traditional stories told to each new generation. In the early years of the third century ce, under the leadership of Rabbi Judah haNasi (ca. 165–220 ce), the Oral Torah was recorded in a work called the Mishnah.

Almost immediately, the work was viewed as inadequate. The Oral Torah was part of a dynamic intellectual tradition of applying what was perceived as the perfect and unchanging word of God to the circumstances and demands of the changing times. The Mishnah seemed too permanent, too dry, too incomplete. To capture some of the stimulating discussion characteristic of the Sanhedrin, as well as its traditional respect for well-reasoned but differing points of view, a commentary known as the Gemara began to surround the text of each passage of the Mishnah. The Gemara was a record of what had been debated, preserving disagreements as well as consensus. Commentaries on the commentaries continued to be added by successive generations of rabbis, and the Gemara did not take its final shape until around 700 ce. The combined Mishnah and Gemara came to be known as the Talmud.


A 1st Century Jew on Jesus, 2:31

https://youtu.be/6T3v42tyvmk



The Rise of Christianity 252

rise-of-christianity

https://www.tes.com/lessons/dcE-OzwNR8V5Pw/rise-of-christianity



THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY

    What forces contributed to the spread of the Christian religion and how did Christians make use of typology, symbolism, and iconography?

The development of Christianity, the religion that would have such a profound effect upon the history of the Western world, can only be understood in the context of Jewish history. It developed as one among many other minor sects of Judaism, at first so inconsequential that Josephus only briefly mentions it. Later theological writings, as opposed to actual historical accounts written at the time, tell us that in Judea’s sectarian climate, Jesus of Nazareth was born to Mary and Joseph of Judea in about 4 bce. At about the age of 30, Jesus began to lead the life of an itinerant rabbi. He preached repentance, compassion for the poor and meek, love of God and neighbor, and the imminence of the apocalypse, which he called the coming of the kingdom of God.

Although his teachings were steeped in the wisdom of the Jewish tradition, they antagonized both Jewish and Roman leaders. Jesus, in the spirit of reform, had challenged the commercialization of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, especially the practice of money-changing within its sacred precincts, alienating the Sadducee sect that managed it. After his followers identified him as the Messiah, or Savior—he did not make the claim for himself—both conservative Jewish leaders and Roman rulers were threatened. The proclamation by his followers that he was the son of God amounted to a crime against the Roman state, since the emperor was considered to be the only divine human on earth. In fact, since Jews were monotheistic and refused to worship other gods, including the emperor, their beliefs were a political threat to the Romans. The Christian sect’s belief in the divinity of Jesus posed a special problem.


The Influence of Greece on Early Christianity, 3:18

What was the relationship of ancient Greek culture to early Christianity? This seminar will open with two topics of significance in the early development of Christianity: the image (or icon) and the Jesus story itself. The course will also include lectures on the tragic paradigm in Greek poetry (Homer and Sophocles) and a discussion of the soul in Plato's Phaedo. Then we trace the Hellenization of the ancient Mediterranean, beginning with the conquests of Alexander the Great and their influence on the diffusion of Hellenic philosophy and culture. We will also discuss the Logos in the Gospel of John, as well as how the Apostle Paul fits into ancient Epicureanism. The seminar will conclude with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine and the Council of Nicaea, and examine the fusion of Judaism and Platonism in the formation of the Nicene Creed in 325 CE. Find out more at: http://hsp.arizona.edu

https://youtu.be/PmE7ZMpWjRw



The Evangelists 252

The Evangelists

Upon his death, Jesus’ reputation grew as his evangelists spread the word of his life and resurrection (the word evangelist comes from the Greek evangelos, meaning “bearer of good”—and note the root angel in the word as well). Preeminent among these was Paul, who had persecuted Jews in Judea before converting to the new faith in Damascus (in present-day Syria) in 35 ce. Paul’s epistles, or letters, are the earliest writings of the new Christian faith. In letters written to churches he founded or visited in Asia Minor, Greece, Macedonia, and Rome, which comprise 14 books of the Christian Scriptures, he argues the nature of religious truth and interprets the life of Christ—his preferred name for Jesus, one that he coined. Christ means, literally, “the Anointed One.” It refers to the Jewish tradition of anointing priests, kings, and prophets with oil, and the fact that by Jesus’ time Jews had come to expect a savior who embodied all the qualities of priest, king, and prophet. In true sectarian tradition, for Paul, the only correct expression of Judaism included faith in Christ. Paul conflated Jewish tradition, then, with his belief that Jesus’ Crucifixion was the act of his salvation of humankind. He argued that Christ was blameless and suffered on the cross to pay for the sins of humanity. Resurrection, he believed, was at the heart of the Christian faith, but redemption was by no means automatic—sinners had to show their faith in Christ and his salvation. Faith, he argues in his Epistle to the Church in Rome, ensures salvation (Reading 8.2):

            Symbols and Iconography in Christian Thinking and Art 254

The new Christian faith did not immediately abandon its traditions as a Jewish sect. Jesus, for instance, never thought of himself as anything other than a Jew. All of his associates and disciples were Jews. He regularly worshiped in Jewish communal worship and he preached from the Torah, the authority of which he never denied. The major distinction was that Christian Jews believed in Jesus’ Resurrection and status as Messiah, while non-Christian Jews did not. Christian Jews regarded the failure of the larger Jewish community to recognize the importance of Jesus as reason to separate themselves from that community to pursue what they believed to be the true will of God. Not until sometime in the early second century ce did Christianity cease to be a Jewish sect. By then, Christians had abandoned Jewish rituals, including circumcision, but even as it slowly distinguished itself from its Jewish roots, Christianity had to come to terms with those roots. In doing so, it found a distinctive way to accept the Hebrew Scriptures.

Christians believed the stories in the Hebrew Scriptures prefigured the life of Jesus. For example, Adam and Eve’s fall from grace in the Garden of Eden—the original sin that was believed to doom all of humanity—was seen as anticipating the necessity of God’s sacrifice of his son, Jesus, to atone for the sins of humankind. Similarly, Christians interpreted Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son, Isaac, as prefiguring God’s sacrifice of his son. This view of history is called typology, from the Greek tupos meaning “example” or “figure.” Thus Solomon, in his wisdom, is a type for Christ.

Very little early Christian art survives, and most of what we have dates from the third and fourth centuries. In paintings decorating catacombs, underground cemeteries, and a few sculptures, certain themes and elements are so prevalent that we can assume they reflect relatively long-standing representational traditions. In almost all of these works, it is not so much the literal meaning of the image that matters, but rather its symbolic significance. Likewise, the aesthetic dimension of the work is clearly less important than its message. A very common image is that of Christ as the Good Shepherd, which derives from Jesus’ promise, “I am the good shepherd. A good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep” (John 10:11). The overwhelming message of this symbolism involves the desire of the departed to join Jesus’ flock in heaven, to be miraculously reborn like Jonah. As the Lamb of God, a reference to the age-old role of the lamb in sacrificial offerings, Jesus is, of course, both shepherd and sheep—guardian of his flock and God the Father’s sacrificial lamb. In fact, it is unclear whether images such as the freestanding representation of The Good Shepherd (Fig. 8.4) represent Christ or symbolize a more general concept of God caring for his flock, perhaps even capturing a sheep for sacrifice. The naturalism of the sculpture echoes Classical and Hellenistic traditions. We see this too in monumental funerary sculpture, such as the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (see Closer Look, pages 256–257). The shepherd adopts a contrapposto pose, reminiscent of Polyclitus’ Doryphoros of the fifth century bce (see Fig. 5.4 in Chapter 5). His body is confidently modeled beneath the drapery of his clothing. He turns as if engaged with some other person or object outside the scope of the sculpture itself, animating the space around him. And the sheep he carries on his back seems to struggle to set itself free.


Why Do We Have Four Gospels? 4:57

Have you ever wondered why there were 4 gospels written instead of just one? Stick around and find out why.

Hey everyone, welcome back my name is Allen Parr and today we are answering the question, “Why do we have 4 gospels instead of just one?”

The first thing we have to realize is that each gospel was written by a different person for a difference purpose to a specific group of people.

During the time when these Gospels were written there was all sorts of information circulating around written about Jesus. There were healings, miracles, sermons, teachings, parables. Stories about His life, etc.

Each gospel writer carefully selected from this group to convince their particular audience that Jesus was indeed God. So let's look at Matthew

PURPOSE: To convince the Jewish people that Jesus was the promised Messiah whom THEY had just crucified.

How does he do it? Knowing that the Jews believed in the authority of the OT, Matthew used more OT Scriptures than the other writers to show how Jesus was the fulfillment of over 330 prophecies written about Him in the OT. ii. Focuses more on how Jesus was the fulfillment of over 330 prophecies written about Him in the OT. 5. Mark a. PURPOSE: To convince the Romans that Jesus was the promised Messiah. So Mark had to get into the mind of a Roman and ask, “What is it that would convince me to believe that Jesus is indeed God?” b. How does he do it? i. His gospel is the shortest because he omitted things about Jesus’ life that would probably not convince a Roman to believe in Jesus. ii. If you’re a Roman you don’t care where Jesus was born and who His great, great granddaddy is? Just tell me what He can do for ME! 1. Genealogy & Nativity 2. Jesus’ long teachings 3. Omits most OT references iii. Mark knew that a Roman would be impressed with a God who performed miracles, healings and raised people from the dead. So Mark focused moreso on what Jesus did rather than what Jesus said. 6. Luke – Luke was a Gentile (non-Jew) who was writing primarily to a Gentile audience. When Jesus was alive there were all these groups that the Jews considered to be rejects (lepers, prostitutes, Samaritans, Gentiles, Tax Collectors, sinners, etc.) So, Luke says, you know what, “I’m going to write a gospel that will show people that Jesus didn’t just come for the good people, the religious people, the highly aristocratic Jew.” No, Jesus came for people like you and I who messed up our lives, made poor decisions, etc. And so Luke wrote to convince these people that Jesus came for them. a. Luke includes stories in his gospel that are not found in any of the other 3 gospels to prove that Jesus came not just for the religious Jewish people but for people who messed up their life. (Prodigal Son, Thief on the cross, prostitute, ten lepers, etc.) b. So next time you read Luke I want you to notice how Luke wrote to convince people that if you’ve messed up your life, if you need grace or you feel like you’ve made too many mistakes, Luke writes a gospel focused on grace! 7. John – John’s gospel is unique in that 93% of its content is not found in the other three gospels. John was writing to a general audience and his purpose was to prove that Jesus was God. He did this by focusing on 7 statements that Jesus made about Himself and 8 miracles that Jesus performed during His earthly ministry in hopes of convincing his audience that Jesus is indeed God.

https://youtu.be/ggIXPM8syhI



Christian Rome 258

    What was the Roman reaction to Christianity and in what ways did Roman tradition influence the religion’s development?

Christianity spread rapidly across the Roman Empire (Map 8.1). As the map indicates, Christian areas of the Empire increased dramatically from 200 to 400 ce, and as Christian authority increased, Roman authority naturally waned. The emperor Constantine’s predecessor, Diocletian (see Chapter 6, Continuity & Change), had unleashed a furious persecution of Christians that lasted for eight years beginning in 303, but he also moved to cement Roman authority by implementing a scheme of government known as the tetrarchy, a four-part monarchy. Diocletian ruled from Solana, a city on the Adriatic near present-day Split, Croatia, and controlled the East, with the other regions of the Empire governed by monarchs in Milan, the Balkans, and Gaul. In a sculpture representing the four (Fig. 8.6), they are almost indistinguishable from one another, except that the two senior Tetrarchs are bearded and their juniors clean-shaven. They hold identical bird-headed swords and wear flat caps from Pannonia. This Roman province was bordered on the north and east by the Danube River in present-day Central Europe, which was the meeting place of the Eastern and Western empires. Their sameness symbolizes their equality, just as their embrace symbolizes their solidarity. Even the sculpture’s material is symbolic: Porphyry is a deep-purple Egyptian stone traditionally reserved for imperial portraits.

This shift of the Empire’s administration from Rome to its provincial capitals had dramatic implications for Rome itself. Perhaps most important was Diocletian’s removal to Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). There, he almost completely deified the role of the emperor, presenting himself more as the divine manifestation of the gods than as a leader of a citizen-state. He dressed in robes of blue- and gold-threaded silk, glittering with jewels, to symbolize sky and sun. He had his fingernails gilded and gold dust sprinkled in his hair to create the sense of a halo or nimbus encircling his head. When he entered the throne room, servants sprinkled perfume behind him and fan-bearers spread the scent through the room. All kneeled in his presence. He was addressed as dominus, “lord,” and his right to rule, he claimed, was derived not from the people but from God.


Christianity in Rome, 5:09

https://youtu.be/BuLQV8cf1aI



The Nicene Creed 259

Constantine recognized that Diocletian’s scheme for controlling the Empire was, in most respects, sound. Particularly important was an imperial presence near the eastern and Danubian frontiers of the Empire. To provide this imperial presence in the East, in 324 ce, Constantine founded the city of Constantinople, present-day Istanbul, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium. The city was dedicated with both pagan rites and Christian ceremonies on May 11, 330. Constantine’s own Christianity became more and more pronounced in his new eastern capital. Though he did not persecute pagans, he officially rejected pagan practices, openly favored Christians as officials, and admitted Church clergy to his court. Perhaps his most important act was to convene the first ecumenical, or worldwide, council of Church leaders in 325 ce at Nicea (present-day Iznik), a site just southeast of Constantinople, in order to address, particularly, the claims of Bishop Arius of Alexandria. Arius argued that Father and Son were not of the same substance, and therefore not coequal and not coeternal. The council rejected the Arian position and produced a document, the Nicene Creed, that unified the Church behind a prescribed doctrine, or dogma, creating, in effect, an orthodox faith. Church leaders believed that by memorizing the Creed, laypeople would be able to easily identify deviations from orthodox Christianity.


The Creed, 2:56

When you recite the Creed, are you being real or are you being a robot? Do you even know what you are saying? Is there a difference between believing there is a God and believing in God?

https://youtu.be/0YNeTwWU1RE



The Abandonment of Classicism in Art 260

Roman art was transformed in this period as well. For instance, one of Constantine’s first projects after his victory over his rival Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in Rome was to construct an impressive triple arch in celebration (Fig. 8.7), for which he raided the artworks of other Roman monuments. Comparing the reliefs made for Constantine’s arch, particularly the horizontal panel that shows Constantine Addressing the People, with the circular roundels (round reliefs) above it, provides insight into the changes in the art and culture of this period that the Christian faith inspired. The roundels come from a monument to Hadrian made almost 200 years earlier. In one roundel (Fig. 8.8), Hadrian and two companions stand before the statue of Apollo. The space is illusionistic, rendered realistically so that the figures seem to stand well in front of the sculpture. The horse on the right emerges from behind its master on a diagonal that emphasizes a logical progression from background to foreground. The draperies of the figures fall naturalistically.


christians and ancient Rome, 5:20

https://youtu.be/oASDecHeZu8



Roman Influences on Christian Churches 262

The community that developed around the new Christian liturgy embodied in the Nicene Creed required a physical church, and Constantine obliged with a building that became a model for many subsequent churches: Saint Peter’s Basilica, begun in 320 on the site of Peter’s tomb in Rome (Figs. 8.11 and 8.12). Its original dimensions are difficult to fathom, but an eighteenth-century print of a nearly contemporary church in Rome, Saint Paul’s Outside the Walls, gives us a fair idea (Fig. 8.13). The church was as long, as high, and as wide as the Roman basilicas upon which it was modeled (see Figs. 6.35 and 6.36 in Chapter 6). It was approached by a set of stairs to a podium, reminiscent of the Roman Temple of Fortuna Virilis (see Figs. 6.7 and 6.8 in Chapter 6). Entering through a triple-arched gateway (again reminiscent of Roman triumphal arches), visitors found themselves in a colonnaded atrium with a fountain in the center (reminiscent of the Roman domus—perhaps suggesting the “House of God”; see Fig. 6.29 in Chapter 6).


Early Basilica Churches, 5:03

The establishment of the early basilica church was a revolution in the church proving to be major cornerstone in the connection between architecture and religion.
Video Bibliography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlwN7... - Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Paris - Sacré-Cœur - HD https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=61IaM... - St. Mark's Basilica | Eastern Influences (Venice, Italy) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XIFm... - St Mark's Basilica - Venice - Italy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Ry_v... - Vatican: Inside St. Peter's Basilica
Script During the period 300 Anno Domini the reign of Constantinople over the Roman Empire the state religion was converted to Christianity, thus having a significant impact on the sacred buildings that were to be built following the monumental decision. The early basilica church evolved from a traditional house church becoming one of the world’s most artistic structures, this model was a cornerstone in the development of church architecture. The early basilica churches consisted of an assembly hall, temple and a private house. The basilica’s unique structure included a long nave with column aisles lit by numerous windows while the altar was given a new refurbishment and view becoming more open to the congregation inside. A key part of the early basilica churches was its domes and bell tower giving a unique architectural statement to be recognised as a basilica. The Basilica’s also included stunning mosaics depicting various spiritual events or figures of the Christian belief including a variety of saints.

St. Mark’s Basilica is one of the world most significant and oldest basilicas; consecrated in 1117 due to its many golden symbols and mosaics it is known as the church of Gold. The basilica’s statues, relics and architecture were used to convey a strong belief in the divine nature of Christianity as seen through the influence of the saints and God. During the early years of Christianity the church used architecture as a form of worship and replication of the grandeur that was related to heaven and the pure and perfect nature of God. St. Peter’s basilica is the most recognized church as it is the world’s largest consecrated in 1626 it is also a significant basilica as it is one of the world’s most influential structures. St. Peters basilica was artistically influenced by many renowned architects including Michelangelo. Originally St. Peters Basilica followed the basic model of the early basilica church in the year 360. Roman emperor Constantine ordered the church to be built during the 4th century and serve as one of the major Christian churches in Rome at the time. The original church however was destroyed in the 16th century as the construction of the new church had begun. Many of the world’s early basilica churches were of ancient Roman architecture which has evolved through many historical influences. Each basilica had its own spiritual significance conveyed in several ways including a unique style of architecture for each basilica or an icon saint portrayed through mosaics and statues.

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Paris is an iconic basilica that was consecrated late in 1919 however was influenced by many early basilica icons and decorations including items from early 18th century churches. The Basilica was dedicated to the dead soldiers of the Franco-Prussian War during a time where France was suffering from a moral decline after the French Revolution. The Basilica thus was used as symbol of order and righteousness which were key aspects shown through the life of Jesus. These Basilicas in many aspects demonstrated a union after the East-West schism through the aspects and influences of both the western and Eastern Church conveyed through the churches architecture and symbols.

Early basilica churches were by far the most significant abiotic figures of the church’s history as they have evolved over the many years and survived through each event in the history of Christianity. The Christian church has changed from the humble home church to something that has been showcased as spiritual and architectural landmark across the world.

https://youtu.be/O1HVlFQ-t3M



Greek and Roman Myths in Christianity 264

The design makes clear, in fact, the ways in which Christianity incorporated into itself many Greek and Roman mythic traditions—a practice known as syncretism, the reconciliation of different rites and practices into a single philosophy or religion. This occurred not only in the design of Christian churches but also in the symbolism of its art and literature—and it makes perfect sense. How better to convert pagan peoples than to present your religious program in their own terms? After all, the Greek wine god Dionysus had, like Christ, promised human immortality in the manner of the grapevine itself, which appears to die each fall only to be reborn in the spring. Just as Christians had found prefigurings of Christ in the Hebrew Bible, it was possible to argue that Dionysus was a pagan type of Christ.

            Augustine and Early Christian Philosophy 266

There is one other aspect of Mithras’ cult that we also know—he was the god of truth and light. How much the Mithras cult influenced the Church Fathers is unclear, but light played an important role in their writing, and images of light appear often in the writings of early Christians. For instance, the Roman prelate Ambrose (339–397), Bishop of Milan, refers to God as the “Light of light, light’s living spring” in his “Ancient Morning Hymn.” Perhaps the most important of the early Church Fathers, Augustine of Hippo (present-day Annaba, Algeria), describes the moment of his conversion to Christianity as one in which he was infused with “the light of full certainty.”

        The Byzantine Empire and Its Church 268

    How does Byzantine art differ from earlier, Classical models and how does it reflect the values of the empire and its church?

Constantine had built his new capital at Constantinople in 325 ce in no small part because Rome was too vulnerable to attack from Germanic tribes. Located on a highly defensible peninsula, Constantinople was far less susceptible to threat, and indeed, while Rome finally collapsed after successive Germanic invasions in 476, Constantinople would serve as the center of Christian culture throughout the early Middle Ages, surviving until 1453 when Ottoman Turks finally succeeded in overrunning it.

In Constantine’s Constantinople, Christian basilicas stood next to Roman baths, across from a Roman palace and Senate, the former connected to a Roman hippodrome, all but the basilicas elaborately decorated with pagan art and sculpture gathered from across the Empire (Map 8.2).

            Justinian’s Empire 269

After Rome collapsed in 476, Odoacer, a Germanic leader, named himself King of Italy (r. 476–93), which he governed from the northern Italian city of Ravenna. When the Ostrogoth (“Eastern Goth”) king Theodoric the Great overthrew Odoacer in 493 (he would rule Italy until 526), the Byzantine emperors tolerated him, largely because he was Christian and had been raised in the imperial palace in Constantinople. But after a new, young emperor, Justinian (r. 527–65), assumed the Byzantine throne, things quickly changed. Justinian launched a massive campaign to rebuild Constantinople, including the construction of a giant new Hagia Sophia (Fig. 8.19) at the site of the old one when the latter was burned to the ground in 532 by rioting civic “clubs”—that probably were more like modern “gangs.” The riots briefly caused Justinian to consider abandoning Constantinople, but his queen, Theodora, persuaded him to stay: “If you wish to save yourself, O Emperor,” she is reported to have counseled, “that is easy. For we have much money, there is the sea, here are the boats. But think whether after you have been saved you may not come to feel that you would have preferred to die.” Justinian may well have begun construction of the new Hagia Sophia to  divert attention from the domestic turmoil stirred up by the warring gangs. And he may have conceived his imperial adventuring to serve the same end (Map 8.3). In 535, he retook North Africa from the Visigoths, and a year later, he launched a campaign, headed by his general Belisarius, to retake Italy from the successors of Theodoric. But through his massive building program, in particular, Justinian aimed to assert not only his political leadership but his spiritual authority as well. His rule was divine, as his divine works underscored.

            Ravenna and the Western Empire 274

The most extensive examples of Byzantine art survive in Ravenna, a relatively small city in northern Italy near the Adriatic Sea. (In the Eastern Empire, conquering Muslims were not nearly so interested in preserving Christian art and architecture as their Christian counterparts in the West.) Ravenna’s art was the result of over 250 years of Byzantine rule, beginning in 402 when Honorius, son of Theodosius I, made it the capital of the Western Empire. Surrounded by marshes and easily defended from the waves of Germanic invasion that struck at Rome, by the fifth and sixth centuries, Ravenna was the most prosperous city in the West, the economic, political, and religious center of Western culture. Its art reflected its stature.

Honorius was succeeded by the first of several women to rise to positions of power in the Byzantine world, the empress Galla Placidia, whose name means “the gentle, or mild, woman of Gaul.” Galla Placidia was Honorius’ half-sister. The Goths captured her in Rome in 410, where she became the wife of the Goth ruler. By 416, her Goth husband dead, she returned to Ravenna and married the consul Constantius, who apparently tried to usurp the throne. Ultimately, she ruled as Galla Placidia Augusta until 450.

In Ravenna, Galla Placidia built a large basilica dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist. (Only the columns, capitals, and bases of the original church survive in the present San Giovanni Evangelista.) The story goes that on her return to Ravenna, while caught in a severe storm at sea, she prayed to Saint John for deliverance, promising to build him a church if she survived. She also built a second large, cross-shaped church, Santa Croce, which reputedly contained a relic of the True Cross, the one upon which Christ had been sacrificed.

        The Later Byzantine Empire 277

    What is the role of the image in Byzantine art and why did iconoclasts attack it?

Strange as it may seem, Justinian and Theodora never actually set foot in Ravenna, let alone San Vitale, and their depiction on its walls is probably best understood as a symbol of the relations between Church and State in the Byzantine Empire. Intimately interrelated and mutually dependent, the two balanced one another. Thus, while Maximian, the bishop of Ravenna, stands a little forward of Justinian in the San Vitale mosaic, Justinian’s arm and the paten it holds lie (somewhat improbably) in front of Maximian. It is easy to understand, then, how the century and a half of military and political setbacks that followed Justinian’s rule were interpreted in Byzantium as Church-related. Germanic tribes overran Italy and the Balkans. Persian forces sacked Jerusalem in 614. But even more important was the rise of Islam after the death of Muhammad in 632 (see Chapter 9). Although the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (r. 610–41) recaptured Jerusalem in 620, the Muslim Arabs took it in 638. Within two years, the Muslim Arabs had conquered Syria, Palestine, and Iraq. In 642, the Byzantine army abandoned Alexandria, and Islam in effect controlled all of what once had been Byzantine Asia Minor. Constantinople itself did not fall, but it was besieged twice, from 674 to 678 and from 717 to 718. Only its invincible walls held the Muslim invaders at bay.

            The Iconoclast Controversy 278

The sudden rise of Islam as a powerful military force had a chilling effect on Byzantine art. The Byzantine emperor Leo III (r. 717–41), who came to power during the second Muslim siege of Constantinople, began to formulate a position opposing the use of holy images. He understood that the Muslims, who were still regarded as Christian heretics, had barred images from their mosques and, so the logic went, their military successes against the Byzantine Empire were a sign both of God’s approval of their religious practice and disapproval of Byzantium’s. Like the Muslims, Leo argued that God had prohibited religious images in the Ten Commandments—“Thou shalt not make any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them nor serve them” (Exodus 20:4–5). Therefore, anyone worshiping such images was an idolater and was offending God. The solution was to ban images.

Thus was inaugurated a program of iconoclasm, from the Greek eikon (“icon” or “image”) and klao (to “break” or “destroy”), the practice of destroying religious images. By the eighth century, the icon had a rich history in Byzantium. Mosaic icons decorated all churches, and most homes had an icon stand at the front door which visitors greeted even before greeting their host. Among the earliest examples of icons are a set of paintings on wooden panels from Saint Catherine’s monastery, Mount Sinai, among them a Theotokos and Child (Fig. 8.31). Theotokos means “God-bearing,” an epithet defining Mary as the Mother of God, an official Orthodox Church view after 431. If Mary is the mother of Jesus, the Church argued, and if Jesus is God, then Mary is the Mother of God. Such images, and the doctrine associated with them, were expected to stir the viewer to prayer. Mary’s eyes are averted from the viewer’s, but the Christ Child, like the two military saints, Theodore (left) and George, who flank the central pair, looks straight out. The two angels behind raise their eyes to the sky, down from which God’s hand descends in blessing. The words of the sixth-century Byzantine poet Agathias (ca. 536–82) are useful here: “The mortal man who beholds the image directs his mind to a higher contemplation. … The eyes encourage deep thoughts, and art is able by means of colors to ferry over the prayer of the mind.” Thus, the icon was in some sense a vessel of prayer directed to the saint, and, given Mary’s military escort, must have offered the viewer her protection.

            Tradition and Innovation: The Icon in the Second Golden Age 279

 When the Macedonian dynasty (867–1056) initiated by Basil I came to power, the Empire enjoyed a cultural rebirth of art and architecture, often referred to as the Second Golden Age. Although the Empire’s reach was somewhat reduced, its wealthy autocracy could claim control of present-day Turkey and other areas around the Black Sea, the Balkan peninsula including Greece, and southern Italy, including Sicily. It also exerted influence over Russia, Ukraine, and Venice, its major trading partner in the Adriatic.

The artists of the Macedonian era turned to both Classical and Justinian models for their church decoration, lending the traditional icon a more naturalistic air and an almost Hellenistic emotional appeal. While images of Christ on the cross had occasionally appeared in earlier centuries, after the iconoclast controversy, they appeared with greater frequency. A particularly fine example survives at Daphni, near Athens, Greece, in the Church of the Dormition (from the Latin word for “sleep” and referring to the assumption into heaven of the Virgin Mary at the moment of her death) (Fig. 8.33). The image remains completely traditional in its reverse perspective (noticeable particularly on the platform at Christ’s feet) and in its refusal to create a realistic spatial setting, opting instead for the spiritual space of its golden background. But the nudity of Christ and the graceful gestures of the Virgin and Saint John, the draperies of their clothing falling almost softly in comparison to the stiff folds of the Justinian and Theodora mosaics at San Vitale, are clearly inspired by Classical antecedents. Even more Classical is the pure human emotion that the figures convey. Where early Christian art had emphasized the Saviour’s power, wisdom, and personal strength, this image hints at his vulnerability, the human pathos of his sacrifice. The arc of blood and water springing from his side, referring to both the Eucharist and the Baptism, connects his “passion” to our own.

        READINGS

            8.1 from Josephus, The Jewish War, Book 2, “The Three Sects” 284

At the beginning of The Jewish War, its author introduces himself as “Joseph, son of Matthias, an ethnic Hebrew, a priest from Jerusalem.” He had fought the Romans in the First Jewish-Roman War beginning in 66 ce, as a commander in Galilee, but after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 ce, he apparently joined Titus’ entourage when it returned to Rome with all its spoils. Despite living rather comfortably under the patronage of the Flavian emperors, he remained, in his own eyes at least, a loyal and observant Jew, intent on advocating for the Jewish people in the hostile atmosphere of the Roman Empire.

Josephus wrote all his works, including The Jewish War, in Rome. His is the most thorough account we have of Roman-Jewish relations in the first century ce. It also provides much information about Jewish sectarian thought, since he blamed the Jewish War on “unrepresentative and over-zealous fanatics” among the Jews—sects, that is, other than the aristocratic Pharisees to which he belonged. The passage from The Jewish War excerpted here concentrates on one of the “overzealous” sects, the Essenes.

            8.2 from the Bible, Romans 5:1–11 252

            8.3 from the Bible, Matthew 6:25–33 254

            8.4 The Nicene Creed 259

            8.5 from Augustine’s Confessions 285

What do you believe motivated Augustine to write his Confessions?

Of all the Latin Church fathers, Augustine of Hippo was the most influential. His Confessions are unique in the history of early Christianity because they represent the personal struggle of an individual to overcome his love of worldly pleasures and come, instead, to love God. The distinction he draws between the rewards of the physical appetites as opposed to those of spiritual knowledge, between the demands of the body and those of the soul, are fundamental to the development of Christian doctrine. In the first of the two passages excerpted below, the famous episode of “The Pear Tree” in Book 2, he describes what can only be called his darkest moment, when, in his sixteenth year, he stole a neighbor’s pears. Later, in Book 8, still leading a dissolute life as a student but despairing of his lifestyle, he describes his conversion to Christianity in a garden near Carthage at the age of 33.

            8.5a from Augustine, Confessions 266

            8.6 from Augustine’s The City of God 286

The following passage is representative of Augustine’s use of allegory in The City of God. In allegory, meanings of an abstract or spiritual nature are revealed in material and concrete forms. Thus, here, Augustine sees Noah’s ark as an allegorical figure for, first, the wooden cross upon which Christ was crucified, then the lives of the saints, and then the Church itself.

Augustine’s allegory is based on the fact that both the ark and the cross were made of wood. How does he extend and expand on this analogy?

            8.6a from Augustine, The City of God 267

            8.7 Ambrose’s “Ancient Morning Hymn” 286

Ambrose was a Roman aristocrat, a generation older than Augustine, who became the bishop of Milan in 374, about 13 years before Augustine’s conversion to Christianity in a garden near Carthage. A great mediator between different factions of the Church, he was also the first to compose hymns to be sung by the entire congregation. The simplicity of his diction and the direct optimism embodied in his imagery go a long way toward accounting for the popularity of his hymns—to say nothing of their survival in the liturgy. In short, the crowds could both enjoy singing his verses and identify with his vision.

Both Ambrose’s hymn and the Egyptian Akhenaten’s Hymn to the Sun (see Reading 3.3 in Chapter 3) are addressed to the sun. How do they otherwise compare?


St. Ambrose HD, 3:25

Saint Ambrose, also known as Ambrose of Milan, is one of the four original doctors of the Church. He was the Bishop of Milan and one of the most important theological figures of the 4th century. Ambrose was born around 340 AD to a Roman Christian family. When Ambrose was just an infant, a swarm of bees landed on his face and left behind a single drop of honey. He was educated in Rome, where he studied law, literature and rhetoric. Ambrose received a place on the council, and was made consular prefect, or the Governor, of Liguria and Emilia around 372 AD. He remained Governor until 374 when he became the Bishop of Milan, due to popular demand. Within a week's time, Ambrose was baptized, ordained and duly consecrated as the bishop of Milan on December 7, 374. Ambrose was generous to the poor, making him widely popular and often more politically powerful than even the emperor. His preaching abilities impressed Augustine of Hippo and in 387, it was Ambrose who baptized Augustine. According to legend, Ambrose tried to put an end to Arianism in Milan. He often attempted to theologically dispute their propositions. Ambrose refused to turn over any churches to the Arians. When Milan was taken by Magnus Maximus, Ambrose stayed and is credited with doing a great service to the sufferers during this time. He passed away on April 4, 397, and his body remains in the church of St. Ambrogio in Milan. Ambrose introduced successful reforms for public worship. He was a great influence on many Popes, and is credited with composing the Antiphonal Chant. St. Ambrose is the Confessor and Doctor of the Church. He is the patron saint of bee keepers, beggars, learning and Milan, and his feast day is celebrated on December 7.

https://youtu.be/6F5qe03D4AA

           

8.8 from Procopius, On Justinian’s Buildings (ca. 537) 270

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 256

            MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Byzantine Mural Mosaics 272

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE Byzantine Influences 281


Assignment 1: Essay – Exploring Ancient Mysteries
Due Week 4 and worth 100 points
Choose one (1) of the topics below and develop a three to four (3-4) paragraph essay (of at least 250-500 words) which adequately address the topic you have chosen.
Topic Choices







  • There have been many theories regarding how the pyramids at Giza were constructed. Most experts agree that they were constructed as burial monuments for pharaohs, but “how” these ancient people constructed monuments of such great size without modern machinery is a mystery which is still being debated.
  • No one can say for certain what happened to the great urban Mayan civilization, but theories abound and include varied possible alternatives to explain the relatively abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the Mayan civilization.
  • Tutankhamen died young, at approximately eighteen (18) years of age. However, his cause of death has been the subject of quite varied scholarly theories and conclusions. Did he die of an injury, of illness, of murder, or something else?.
  • Minoan Crete was a major civilization in its time, but several theories have been advanced to explain its demise, including speculations associating it with mythical Atlantis. What were the causes of Minoan Civilization's decline?
  • Great Zimbabwe is an enormous complex of structures in East Africa. Since the builders and occupants left no written records, several theories have developed as to the identity of its builders and the functions of the structures. Which theory makes the most sense?
  • The monumental size and complexity of the Tomb of Shihuangdi is astounding, yet its location and construction details were to be kept secret. What was the emperor’s purpose for such an elaborate, secret burial place?
  • Other topic choice recommended and approved by the professor and supported by the grading rubric.
Write a three to four (3-4) paragraph paper in which you:
  1. Clearly state the “mystery” and provide a brief summary of at least two (2) reasonable and scholarly theories which could explain the mystery. Because some theories may sound far-fetched, include the source or promoter of each theory – such as a scientist, a historian, a theologian, etc.
  2. After summarizing at least two (2) scholarly theories, identify one (1) of the theories as the most plausible and provide at least two (2) convincing reasons why the theory you have chosen is the best one to explain the mystery. This will involve some critical reasoning skills on your part.
  3. Use at least two (2) sources plus the class textbook. (Three [3] sources total as the minimum) Note: Wikipedia and other similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources. You are highly encouraged to use the Resource Center tab at the top of your Blackboard page.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA style format. Both in-text citations and a References list are required. Citations and references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. (Note: Students can find APA style materials located in the course shell for guidance).
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. For our purposes, you may omit any abstract page.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
  • Explain how key social, cultural, and artistic contributions contribute to historical changes.
  • Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.
  • Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions.
  • Identify major historical developments in world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
  • Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.
Buddhism

Pre-Built Course Content

Buddhism FisherBriefPPT_Ch5_JAT.ppt

Buddhism Review

Pre-Built Course Content

Supplemental Lecture 1
  • Early Chinese Culture
  • Imperial China
  • Ancient China
https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/111/1116/Week2-1116/Lecture1/player.html
Supplemental Lecture 2
  • Developments in China
  • India and Southeast Asian Civilizations
https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/111/1116/Week2-1116/Lecture2/player.html
Pre-Built Course Content
Powerpoint Introduction to Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism Notes
Pre-Built Course Content
Confucianism

Confucius & Confucianism, 8:21

http://youtu.be/Ximqppmkfc4


Art & Architecture of Buddhism

The Hindu Temple, 4:50

An introduction to the art and architecture of the Hindu temples of India.

http://youtu.be/Yiupwfu_h0k



Chandragupta Maurya Video | The Mauryan Empire History | Chanakya Niti Education Video, 8:32

http://youtu.be/7ISmwH6ShrE


Week 4 Explore

Hide Details

China and Its Great Wall
Constantinople's Hagia Sophia
MUSIC FOLDER

HUM111 Music for Week 4

Hide Details

In this week's readings (Chaps. 7-8), there is no direct mention of a musical selection. However, there is much we can learn about ancient music with a little exploration.
ANCIENT MUSIC: We have visuals and even some remains of musical instruments from early cultures (like Mesopotamia), and some ancient literary references to music and instruments. We even have some lyrics. However, they did not have sheet music or recording, so it is very difficult to reconstruct what any ancient music sounded like until we get to the later age of some traditional religious chants and music that have been passed down. But, it will be Week 5 (chaps. 9-10) before we reach that point. However, here in Week 4, we can still learn a great deal about ancient music of various cultures, and we can be grateful for a few attempts to reconstruct the sound.
Week 4: Chapters 7-8
MUSIC of ancient CHINA
Chapter 7--
  1. 221-222 - These pages discuss evidence for early Chinese music. See fig. 7.7 . A large list of different musical instruments is provided.
  2. 228-229, 241 - These pages discuss Yue Fu songs of the common people of China, and poems are given on these pages that served as song lyrics.
See for a good summation of ancient Chinese music an some lists and pictures of ancient musical instruments: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/much/hd_much.htm. Also, see http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/culture/traditional-music.htm for a summary.
Perhaps not ancient, but here is a traditional Chinese song played on a traditional instrument: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfgqHwBdsXw.
---------------------
MUSIC of Ancient India
Chapter 7, p. 233: This page mentions the ancient hymns of India called the Vedas.
The ancient Vedas, by tradition, are usually chanted. Often the chanting is combined with meditation and prayer. See examples by watching and listening to the first ten minutes or so of this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgR9sdy6y8A. It has musical demonstrations of the Vedas and some explanation.
This musician explains and demonstrates a traditional Raga musical composition of India: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bFzS6upIW4.
-------------------------------------
Chapter 8---Music of Early Christianity
The musical heritage of the early Christians was rooted in the Jewish psalm and hymn traditions, because Christianity emerged from Judaism. And, the non-Jewish Christians also brought with them the musical heritage of Greece and Rome. Other than the fact that they did sing regularly, we know little of how the early Christian music sounded. Gradually this was changed as traditional chants and hymns would be passed down from memory and eventually forms of musical notation would be developed to help reconstruct the sound.
  1. 264, 266-268 (with pp. 286-7 and http://www.preces-latinae.org/thesaurus/Hymni/Splendor.html and http://www.smithcreekmusic.com/Hymnology/Latin.Hymnody/Ambrose.html )
These pages show music already a custom n the church by the 300s AD. Ambrose became Bishop of Milan in Italy in 374 AD, and he penned what is normally called "Ancient Morning Hymn". This song and others were simple and melodic and often became part of the regular worship liturgy. However, figuring what it sounded like is difficult.
2. 277 (fig. 8.30): Please read this page, which includes Augustine's famous description of music in the church. This page also mentions Boethius who presented the classifications used for different classes of music. The churches at Ravenna, Italy, had a splendid musical traditions throughout the city's Byzantine period and then the Middle Ages.
In several future weeks and chapters we will have much more on music in religious contexts, and with sounds and visuals.
-------------------------------------
Part 2
The Medieval World and the Shaping of Culture
200 CE-1400
Chapter 8 The Flowering of Christianity
Faith and the Power of Belief in the Early First Millennium
Thinking Ahead
8.1 Outline the development of Judaic culture after the destruction of the Second Temple.
8.2 Identify the forces at work in the spread of Christianity and differentiate between the new religion's use of typology, symbolism, and iconography.
8.3 Describe the Roman reaction to Christianity and explore the ways in which Roman traditions may have impacted the religion's development.
8.4 Characterize the new Byzantine style of art and discuss how it reflects the values of the Byzantine emperors, especially Justinian.
8.5 Explain the role of images in Byzantine art and why they were subject to iconoclast attack.
DEVELOPMENTS IN JUDAIC CULTURE
Sectarianism and Revolt
The Rabbis and the Mishnah
The Rise of Christianity
The Evangelists
The Gnostic Gospels
The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Symbols and Iconography in Christian Thinking and Art
Closer Look
The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
CHRISTIAN ROME
The Nicene Creed
The Abandonment of Classicism in Art
Roman Influences on Christian Churches
Greek and Roman Myths in Christianity
Augustine and Early Christian Philosophy
Confessions and The City of God
Augustine, Ambrose, and Music in the Liturgy
THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND ITS CHURCH
Pre-Built Course Content
Justinian's Empire
Hagia Sophia
Saint Catherine's Monastery
Materials & Techniques
Byzantine Mural Mosaics
Ravenna and the Western Empire
Church Building under Theodoric
San Vitale
Music in Ravenna
THE LATER BYZANTINE EMPIRE
The Iconoclast Controversy
Tradition and Innovation: The Icon in the Second Golden Age
Continuity & Change
Byzantine Influences
Supplemental Lecture 3
  • Developments in Judaic Culture
  • The Rise of Christianity
  • Christian Rome
  • Roman and Greek Influences on Christian Churches and Rituals
  • Augustine and Early Christian Philosophy
  • The Byzantine Empire and its Church
  • Ravenaa and the Western Empire
  • The Later Byzantine Empire
https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/111/1116/Week4-1116/Lecture2/player.html
DISCUSSION
Week 4 Discussion Option A
"China and its Great Wall" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • Describe two (2) specific aspects about the Great Wall of China, such as facts about its size, length, purposes, varied materials, labor force, and its phases of construction. Consider the various purposes of such a wall and its impact for good or bad, and compare the Chinese wall in this respect to some specific wall of more modern times.
Explore
China and Its Great Wall
Week 4 Discussion Option B
"Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia" Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • In considering Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia, describe the primary techniques that the architects used to keep such a large dome from collapsing. Explain the key aspects of the design that allow light inside of the Hagia Sophia, and speculate on the comments that Augustine might have had on the importance of this design feature. Of the Byzantine mosaics in Chapter 8 and in the Explore area, identify the one (1) that you enjoy most. Then, explain the message that it was intended to communicate to the medieval worshipper. Identify one (1) specific work of art in modern times that communicates in some similar way, whether for religious, political, or ideological purposes.
Explore
Constantinople's Hagia Sophia

    7 Emerging Empires in the East URBAN LIFE AND IMPERIAL MAJESTY IN CHINA AND INDIA 217

        Early Chinese Culture 218

            Chinese Calligraphy 218

            The Shang Dynasty (ca. 1700–1045 bce) 219

            The Zhou Dynasty (1027–256 bce) 220

            The Chu State 224

        Imperial China 225

            The Qin Dynasty (221–206 bce): Organization and Control 225

            The Han Dynasty (206 bce–220 ce): The Flowering of Culture 225

        Ancient India 231

            Hinduism and the Vedic Tradition 233

            Buddhism: “The Path of Truth” 235

        READINGS

            7.1 from the Book of Songs 241

            7.1a from the Book of Songs 221

            7.2 from the Dao De Jing 222

            7.3 from Confucius, the Analects 242

            7.4 from Emperor Wu’s “Heavenly Horses” 228

            7.5 Liu Xijun, “Lament” 228

            7.6 Fu Xuan, “To Be a Woman” 228

            7.7 from the Bhagavad Gita: Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War 242

            7.8 from the Dhammapada 244

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Tomb of Qin Shihuangdi 226

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Silk Road 239

PART TWO THE MEDIEVAL WORLD AND THE SHAPING OF CULTURE 200 CE–1400 246

    8 The Flowering of Christianity FAITH AND THE POWER OF BELIEF IN THE EARLY FIRST MILLENNIUM 249

        Developments in Judaic Culture 250

            Sectarianism and Revolt 250

            The Rabbis and the Mishnah 251

        The Rise of Christianity 252

            The Evangelists 252

            Symbols and Iconography in Christian Thinking and Art 254

        Christian Rome 258

            The Nicene Creed 259

            The Abandonment of Classicism in Art 260

            Roman Influences on Christian Churches 262

            Greek and Roman Myths in Christianity 264

            Augustine and Early Christian Philosophy 266

        The Byzantine Empire and Its Church 268

            Justinian’s Empire 269

            Ravenna and the Western Empire 274

        The Later Byzantine Empire 277

            The Iconoclast Controversy 278

            Tradition and Innovation: The Icon in the Second Golden Age 279

        READINGS

            8.1 from Josephus, The Jewish War, Book 2, “The Three Sects” 284

            8.2 from the Bible, Romans 5:1–11 252

            8.3 from the Bible, Matthew 6:25–33 254

            8.4 The Nicene Creed 259

            8.5 from Augustine’s Confessions 285

            8.5a from Augustine, Confessions 266

            8.6 from Augustine’s The City of God 286

            8.6a from Augustine, The City of God 267

            8.7 Ambrose’s “Ancient Morning Hymn” 286

            8.8 from Procopius, On Justinian’s Buildings (ca. 537) 270

        FEATURES

            CLOSER LOOK The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 256

            MATERIALS & TECHNIQUES Byzantine Mural Mosaics 272

            CONTINUITY & CHANGE Byzantine Influences 281


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why has Qin Shihuangdi's actual tomb never been excavated?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It may be surrounded by a river of mercury
    Correct Answer:
     
    It may be surrounded by a river of mercury

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why do Daoists advocate living in total simplicity?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To understand qi
    Correct Answer:
     
    To understand qi

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is the writing inscribed on the ancient oracle bones easily understood today?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In which river's valley did the Chinese people first settle around 7000 BCE?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Yellow River
    Correct Answer:
     
    Yellow River

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What does the yin-yang symbolize?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things
    Correct Answer:
     
    The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following did Boethius consider the highest form of music?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Musica mundana
    Correct Answer:
     
    Musica mundana

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Justinian choose the Sinai peninsula as the site for St. Catherine's Monastery?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    This was the location of God's first address to Moses
    Correct Answer:
     
    This was the location of God's first address to Moses

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was early Christianity syncretistic, incorporating into itself pagan mythic traditions?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms
    Correct Answer:
     
    To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why in 325 CE did Constantine move his capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To provide an imperial presence in the East
    Correct Answer:
     
    To provide an imperial presence in the East

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did the emperor Justinian begin construction of the Hagia Sophia in 532 CE?
Given Answer:
Correct 
To divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs
Correct Answer:
 
To divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader
    Correct Answer:
     
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why, around 483 BCE, were eight of the earliest stupas built?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts
    Correct Answer:
     
    To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What does the yin-yang symbolize?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things
    Correct Answer:
     
    The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the Zhou claim they were able to overthrow the Shang dynasty?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Shang had lost the Mandate of Heaven by not ruling virtuously
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Shang had lost the Mandate of Heaven by not ruling virtuously

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is the writing inscribed on the ancient oracle bones easily understood today?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Which of the following did Boethius consider the highest form of music?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Musica mundana
    Correct Answer:
     
    Musica mundana

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why around 168 BCE did the Jewish religion start becoming increasingly messianic?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Seleucids tried to impose worship of Greek gods on the Jews
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Seleucids tried to impose worship of Greek gods on the Jews

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was early Christianity syncretistic, incorporating into itself pagan mythic traditions?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms
    Correct Answer:
     
    To convert pagans by presenting Christianity in their terms

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat
    Correct Answer:
     
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did the Byzantine emperor Leo III inaugurate a program of iconoclasm?
Given Answer:
Correct 
He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images
Correct Answer:
 
He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images



Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why have archaeologists been unable to find many ancient Chinese edifices?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Most were built of wood, which did not survive time's ravages
    Correct Answer:
     
    Most were built of wood, which did not survive time's ravages

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What lies at the core of Confucianism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people
    Correct Answer:
     
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to Chinese legend, what inspired Fu Xi's invention of a pictographic writing system?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Constellations and bird and animal footprints
    Correct Answer:
     
    Constellations and bird and animal footprints

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why do sensuous form, vibrant color, a profusion of ornament, and rich texture dominate Indian art?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To capture the essence of the divine
    Correct Answer:
     
    To capture the essence of the divine

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is considered to be the greatest artistic achievement of the Shang dynasty?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Bronze casting
    Correct Answer:
     
    Bronze casting

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Jesus of Nazareth identify himself as the Messiah?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He never made this claim; his followers did
    Correct Answer:
     
    He never made this claim; his followers did

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat
    Correct Answer:
     
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was the Nicene Creed so important?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It unified the church behind a prescribed doctrine.
    Correct Answer:
     
    It unified the church behind a prescribed doctrine.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to our class text, why did the developing Church ban the Gnostic texts?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They were at odds with what would become normative belief
    Correct Answer:
     
    They were at odds with what would become normative belief

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did Justinian choose the Sinai peninsula as the site for St. Catherine's Monastery?
Given Answer:
Correct 
This was the location of God's first address to Moses
Correct Answer:
 
This was the location of God's first address to Moses


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What lies at the core of Confucianism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people
    Correct Answer:
     
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is the writing inscribed on the ancient oracle bones easily understood today?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why has Qin Shihuangdi's actual tomb never been excavated?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It may be surrounded by a river of mercury
    Correct Answer:
     
    It may be surrounded by a river of mercury

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In which river's valley did the Chinese people first settle around 7000 BCE?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Yellow River
    Correct Answer:
     
    Yellow River

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the Zhou claim they were able to overthrow the Shang dynasty?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The Shang had lost the Mandate of Heaven by not ruling virtuously
    Correct Answer:
     
    The Shang had lost the Mandate of Heaven by not ruling virtuously

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What about its design made Justinian's San Vitale church in Ravenna unique?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Its octagonal shape
    Correct Answer:
     
    Its octagonal shape

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat
    Correct Answer:
     
    It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the San Vitale artists depict their subjects in reverse perspective and in shallow space?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image
    Correct Answer:
     
    To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    According to our class text, why did the developing Church ban the Gnostic texts?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    They were too similar to Indian philosophy and deemed pagan
    Correct Answer:
     
    They were at odds with what would become normative belief

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did the Byzantine emperor Leo III inaugurate a program of iconoclasm?
Given Answer:
Correct 
He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images
Correct Answer:
 
He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader
    Correct Answer:
     
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Qin Shihuangdi order the building of the Great Wall of China?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north
    Correct Answer:
     
    To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why have archaeologists been unable to find many ancient Chinese edifices?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Most were built of wood, which did not survive time's ravages
    Correct Answer:
     
    Most were built of wood, which did not survive time's ravages

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In which river's valley did the Chinese people first settle around 7000 BCE?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Yellow River
    Correct Answer:
     
    Yellow River

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why do Daoists advocate living in total simplicity?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To understand qi
    Correct Answer:
     
    To understand qi

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did the San Vitale artists depict their subjects in reverse perspective and in shallow space?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image
    Correct Answer:
     
    To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why had Judaism split into three distinct sects by the early first century CE?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Difference in philosophy and key religious beliefs
    Correct Answer:
     
    Difference in philosophy and key religious beliefs

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Why in 325 CE did Constantine move his capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople?
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Rome was too landlocked for his building programs
    Correct Answer:
     
    To provide an imperial presence in the East

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    According to our class text, why did the developing Church ban the Gnostic texts?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They were at odds with what would become normative belief
    Correct Answer:
     
    They were at odds with what would become normative belief

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Why did the emperor Justinian begin construction of the Hagia Sophia in 532 CE?
Given Answer:
Correct 
To divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs
Correct Answer:
 
To divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Confucianism become extremely popular among Chinese leaders and the artists they patronized?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Its emphasis on respect for age, authority, and morality
    Correct Answer:
     
    Its emphasis on respect for age, authority, and morality

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader
    Correct Answer:
     
    He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    To what does the Yi Jing (Book of Changes) provide a guide?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Interpreting the workings of the universe
    Correct Answer:
     
    Interpreting the workings of the universe

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What lies at the core of Confucianism?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people
    Correct Answer:
     
    Traditional Chinese values of self-discipline and proper relations among people

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In which river's valley did the Chinese people first settle around 7000 BCE?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Yellow River
    Correct Answer:
     
    Yellow River

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why are the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke known as the synoptic gospels?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They tell the same stories, in the same sequence, differing only in details
    Correct Answer:
     
    They tell the same stories, in the same sequence, differing only in details

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why did Jesus of Nazareth identify himself as the Messiah?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    He never made this claim; his followers did
    Correct Answer:
     
    He never made this claim; his followers did

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why was the Nicene Creed so important?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It unified the church behind a prescribed doctrine.
    Correct Answer:
     
    It unified the church behind a prescribed doctrine.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Augustine of Hippo's Confessions particularly noteworthy as a literary work?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    It is the first Western autobiography
    Correct Answer:
     
    It is the first Western autobiography

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
According to our class text, why did the developing Church ban the Gnostic texts?
Given Answer:
Correct 
They were at odds with what would become normative belief
Correct Answer:
 
They were at odds with what would become normative belief


Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Mali's Mansa Moussa cause the value of gold in Egypt to fall in 1334? Given Answer: Correct He distributed so much gold to the poor Correct Answer: He distributed so much gold to the poor out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why perhaps were conquered Africans eager to convert to Islam? Given Answer: Correct To avoid enslavement Correct Answer: To avoid enslavement out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why in the Qur'an are Muslim women advised to dress modestly? Given Answer: Correct To avoid harassment Correct Answer: To avoid harassment out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why in 610 CE did the Archangel Gabriel first visit Mohammad? Given Answer: Correct To deliver messages from the one and only God Correct Answer: To deliver messages from the one and only God out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Charlemagne admire the monastery of St. Gall? Given Answer: Correct Its functional, orderly arrangement Correct Answer: Its functional, orderly arrangement out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What in the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy made it a popular pilgrimage destination? Given Answer: Correct The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods Correct Answer: The relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles? Given Answer: Correct Military support and goods or produce Correct Answer: Military support and goods or produce out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Given Answer: Correct Beowulf Correct Answer: Beowulf out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What medieval cult is connected to the courtly love literature? Given Answer: Correct The Cult of the Virgin Correct Answer: The Cult of the Virgin
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why does a mosque feature a qibla? Given Answer: Correct To indicate Mecca's direction Correct Answer: To indicate Mecca's direction out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct What structure inspired the design of most mosques? Given Answer: Correct Muhammad's house in Medina Correct Answer: Muhammad's house in Medina out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Spanish Jews welcome the Muslim invasion? Given Answer: Correct The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them Correct Answer: The Visigoth rulers had persecuted them out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Why do Muslims believe that the Qur'an cannot be translated? Given Answer: Correct It is the direct word of God Correct Answer: It is the direct word of God out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct How are the surahs in the Qur'an arranged? Given Answer: Correct Longest to shortest Correct Answer: Longest to shortest out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Beowulf considered an English poem even through its events take place in Scandinavia? Given Answer: Correct It is written in Old English Correct Answer: It is written in Old English out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct In the Song of Roland, why are the Saracens able to ambush Roland's army? Given Answer: Correct Roland is betrayed by Ganelon Correct Answer: Roland is betrayed by Ganelon out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why does Beowulf travel from Denmark to Sweden? Given Answer: Correct To kill the monster Grendel Correct Answer: To kill the monster Grendel out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles? Given Answer: Correct Military support and goods or produce Correct Answer: Military support and goods or produce out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Given Answer: Correct Beowulf Correct Answer: Beowulf
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why was the Silk Road so important in China's development? Given Answer: Correct It spurred the cultural interchange between East and West, India and China Correct Answer: It spurred the cultural interchange between East and West, India and China out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why is the writing inscribed on the ancient oracle bones easily understood today? Given Answer: Correct The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant Correct Answer: The Chinese written language has remained remarkably constant out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct To what does the Yi Jing (Book of Changes) provide a guide? Given Answer: Correct Interpreting the workings of the universe Correct Answer: Interpreting the workings of the universe out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct According to Chinese legend, what inspired Fu Xi's invention of a pictographic writing system? Given Answer: Correct Constellations and bird and animal footprints Correct Answer: Constellations and bird and animal footprints out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism? Given Answer: Correct He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader Correct Answer: He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Byzantine emperor Leo III inaugurate a program of iconoclasm? Given Answer: Correct He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images Correct Answer: He argued that God in the Ten Commandments had prohibited images out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Why, by the fifth and sixth centuries, was Ravenna the most prosperous city in the West? Given Answer: Correct Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion Correct Answer: Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Incorrect Which of the following did Boethius consider the highest form of music? Given Answer: Incorrect Musica humana Correct Answer: Musica mundana out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why did early Christians develop symbols to identify themselves to each other? Given Answer: Correct They feared persecution for their faith Correct Answer: They feared persecution for their faith out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Why had Judaism split into three distinct sects by the early first century CE? Given Answer: Correct Difference in philosophy and key religious beliefs Correct Answer: Difference in philosophy and key religious beliefs
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why was Cai Lun's invention of cellulose-based paper so significant? Given Answer: Correct It enabled China to develop widespread literacy Correct Answer: It enabled China to develop widespread literacy out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Incorrect Why did Prince Siddhartha Gautama leave the palace to live in the wilderness for 6 years? Given Answer: Incorrect He was actively seeking the Four Noble Truths Correct Answer: He was troubled by the suffering of all human beings out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Confucianism become extremely popular among Chinese leaders and the artists they patronized? Given Answer: Correct Its emphasis on respect for age, authority, and morality Correct Answer: Its emphasis on respect for age, authority, and morality out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct In which river's valley did the Chinese people first settle around 7000 BCE? Given Answer: Correct Yellow River Correct Answer: Yellow River out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Ashoka decry violence in 261 BCE and turn to Buddhism? Given Answer: Correct He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader Correct Answer: He was appalled by the carnage he had caused as warrior and leader out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Jesus of Nazareth identify himself as the Messiah? Given Answer: Correct He never made this claim; his followers did Correct Answer: He never made this claim; his followers did out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What was the occupation of the two men Justinian appointed to design the Hagia Sophia? Given Answer: Correct Mathematicians Correct Answer: Mathematicians out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct On what Roman style did Constantine base St. Peter's in Rome? Given Answer: Correct Basilica Correct Answer: Basilica out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why, by the fifth and sixth centuries, was Ravenna the most prosperous city in the West? Given Answer: Correct Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion Correct Answer: Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Which of the following did Boethius consider the highest form of music? Given Answer: Correct Musica mundana Correct Answer: Musica mundana
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Why, around 483 BCE, were eight of the earliest stupas built? Given Answer: Correct To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts Correct Answer: To contain Buddha's remains, which were divided into eight parts out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Qin Shihuangdi order the building of the Great Wall of China? Given Answer: Correct To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north Correct Answer: To discourage invasion from nomadic invaders from the north out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct To what does the Yi Jing (Book of Changes) provide a guide? Given Answer: Correct Interpreting the workings of the universe Correct Answer: Interpreting the workings of the universe out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What does the yin-yang symbolize? Given Answer: Correct The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things Correct Answer: The perpetual interplay and mutual relation among all things out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct According to Chinese legend, what inspired Fu Xi's invention of a pictographic writing system? Given Answer: Correct Constellations and bird and animal footprints Correct Answer: Constellations and bird and animal footprints out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why, by the fifth and sixth centuries, was Ravenna the most prosperous city in the West? Given Answer: Correct Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion Correct Answer: Its natural defenses against Germanic invasion out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Which sect is associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls? Given Answer: Correct Essenes Correct Answer: Essenes out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Masada one of the most symbolic sites in all of Israel? Given Answer: Correct It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat Correct Answer: It represents the sacrifice of Jews rather than submit to Roman defeat out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Augustine of Hippo's Confessions particularly noteworthy as a literary work? Given Answer: Correct It is the first Western autobiography Correct Answer: It is the first Western autobiography out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the San Vitale artists depict their subjects in reverse perspective and in shallow space? Given Answer: Correct To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image Correct Answer: To reject earthly illusion for the sacred space of the image