Monday, October 31, 2016

REL 212 Week 5 Shintoism (and Zoroastrianism) Fall 2016

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 - 7:40; and, at 9:00 pm - 9:10 pm. I will take roll early (no Discussion this week) at 10:00 before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.


To Do List

  • Read:
    • Chapter 7: Shinto and Zoroastrianism
  • View the lectures contained in the course shell 
  • Complete and submit the World View Chart Assignment
  • Complete the Midterm Exam covering Chapters 1 through 6






Daoism and Confucianism

Daoism Confucianism


REL212: Human Nature and Religious Practices & Rituals







Join Strayer professor Dr. Meg Rinck as she discusses how a religion's view of human existence leads to practices and rituals.
REL212: Human Nature and Religious Practices & Rituals, 4:00

Join Strayer professor Dr. Meg Rinck as she discusses how a religion's view of human existence leads to practices and rituals.

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/REL/212/1152/Week%205/Lecture%201/lecture.html

Pre-Built Course Content

Pre-Built Course Content


Shinto

Intro to Shinto, 3:47

https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/REL/212/1152/Week%205/Lecture%202/lecture.html

Shinto

Shinto Review


Religion in Japan, 3:55

https://youtu.be/mWRSjieo0CY






 






Map of Japan. Courtesy of the Asian Art Museum.
Japan is an island country consisting of four major and numerous smaller islands. The islands lie in an arc across the Pacific coast of northeastern Asia, forming a part of the volcanic “Rim of Fire.” From north to south this chain of islands measures more than 1,500 miles, but it is only about 130 miles across; its total landmass is just under 150 thousand square miles. If placed alongside the Pacific coast of North America, the Japanese islands would extend from northern Washington State to the southern tip of Baja California in Mexico, and as a result Japan has a wide variation in climate.
Japan’s closest neighbors are Russia, Korea and China. In early history the Korean Peninsula acted as a bridge between Japan and the vast expanse of China, where a great civilization emerged—later on, Japan made connections with China directly by sea. As an island people, the Japanese have been aware of their physical isolation since ancient times, and this isolation has had many positive aspects. For much of Japan’s history, the seas protected it from invasion. The Japanese also controlled international contact by expanding, narrowing, and sometimes terminating diplomatic relations with other nations.
Despite such concern with managing contact with the outside world, many Japanese have admired, been curious about, and studied aspects of foreign cultures whenever they have reached their home shores. During closed periods, they digested foreign influences and, based on their tastes and necessities, transformed those influences into distinctly Japanese forms and styles.


Buddhism was officially transmitted to Japan in 525, when the monarch of the Korean kingdom of Baekje sent a mission to Japan with gifts, including an image of the Buddha, several ritual objects, and sacred texts. Buddhism's journey from India to China, Korea, and Japan had taken about a thousand years.
The arrival of Buddhism—which is quite different from kami worship, the ancient native belief system—created political struggles between pro- and anti-Buddhist groups. Eventually, the adherents of Buddhism prevailed, and the new religion became firmly established under imperial sponsorship.
Buddhism also brought with it a political structure, advanced technologies, and sophisticated cultural practices—including music, dance, a new writing system, and above all, elaborate Buddhist art—that would revolutionize many aspects of Japanese life.
Today, some thirteen schools of Buddhism exist in Japan, and the majority of the population professes to be Buddhist. There are about 80,000 temples with some 150,000 priests as well as several colleges dedicated chiefly to Buddhist studies.

Zen Buddhism, 3:21

An introduction to Zen, a form of Buddhism that emphasizes seeking one's own Buddha nature through meditation.  Learn more about Buddhism in Japan on the education.asianart.org. . Created by Asian Art Museum.

Zen Buddhism 

We had understood from the section on Buddhism how in Japan a unique variety of Buddhism--Zen--emerged.
 
https://youtu.be/_WAi2fwUqN4






Female Shinto Spirit
Enlarge this image. Female Shinto spirit, Heian period (794–1185) or Kamakura period (1185–1333), approx. 1100–1200. Japan. Wood with traces of pigment. Courtesy of the Asian Art Museum, Transfer from the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Gift of Mrs. Herbert Fleishacker, B69S36.This figure represents a Shinto goddess; her name is not known. She is depicted as an aristocratic woman, dressed in a thick kimono-like garment. Shinto images like this one were not meant to be seen but were kept hidden in movable cabinets in a special part of shrines, where they were privately worshiped. Since ancient times, the Japanese worshiped spirits (kami) who were believed to exist abundantly in such forms of the natural world as mountains, rocks, waterfalls, and trees. As such, they were not depicted in human form, male or female. It was only in the ninth century, under the strong influence of Buddhist image-making, kami began to be depicted in human form.

Takachiho-gawara. Here is the sacred ground of the descent to earth of Ninigi-no-Mikoto (the grandson of Amaterasu).




Read: Chapter 7: Shinto

Shinto and Japan

https://www.librarything.com/catalog/gmicksmith&collection=-1&deepsearch=Japan

At the conclusion of World War II, the role of the Emperor and his religious authority as head of the Shinto religion was restricted by American authorities. The restriction of Shintoism was an idea incorporated in the 1947 constitution as dictated under the terms of the peace treaty. 

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and is the ceremonial head of state of Japan's system of constitutional monarchy. According to the 1947 constitution, he is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Historically, he is also the highest authority of the Shinto religion as he and his family are said to be the direct descendants of the sun-goddess Amaterasu,[1] and his importance also lies in dealing with heavenly affairs, including Shinto ritual and rites throughout the nation.

In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō (天皇), which means "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado (帝) for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete.[2]
 
Currently, the Emperor of Japan is the only remaining monarch in the world reigning under the title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world.[3]

In the Kojiki or Nihon Shoki, a book of Japanese history finished in the eighth century, it is said that Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu.

Unlike most constitutional monarchies, the Emperor is not the nominal Chief Executive. Article 65 of the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader.

The Emperor is also not the (ceremonial) commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.

The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 also explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister.

The Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions.

Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government."

 It also stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state" (Article 3).

Article 4 also states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law.


Shinto FisherBriefPPT_Ch7.ppt




kami, gods, Shinto, Amaterasu, 2:20

https://youtu.be/F19TJW3SKtg





This video presents "Shintoism: Mystical Spirit of the East." 1:52

http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA_1/religion/MRK/videos/myreligionkit/Shintoism_MyLab.html

There are tens of thousands of Shinto shrines in Japan. Some of the major ones are shown.

Shinto

Shinto (神道 Shintō?), also called kami-no-michi,[note 1] is the ethnic religion of the people of Japan. It focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.[2] Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology.[3]

Shinto today is a term that applies to the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami),[4] suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, and applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods.[3]


The word Shinto ("way of the gods") was adopted, originally as Jindō[5] or Shindō,[6] from the written Chinese Shendao (神道, pinyin: shén dào),[7][note 2] combining two kanji: "shin" (?), meaning "spirit" or kami; and "" (?), meaning a philosophical path or study (from the Chinese word dào).[3][7] The oldest recorded usage of the word Shindo is from the second half of the 6th century.[6] Kami are defined in English as "spirits", "essences" or "gods", referring to the energy generating the phenomena.[8] Since Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, kami refers to the divinity, or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, trees, rivers, animals, places, and even people can be said to possess the nature of kami.[8] Kami and people are not separate; they exist within the same world and share its interrelated complexity.[3]


Shinto is the largest religion in Japan, practiced by nearly 80% of the population, yet only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys.[4][9] This is because "Shinto" has different meanings in Japan: most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional "Shinto" religion,[10] and since there are no formal rituals to become a member of "folk Shinto", "Shinto membership" is often estimated counting those who join organised Shinto sects.[11] Shinto has 81,000 shrines and 85,000 priests in the country.[9]


According to Inoue (2003):


In modern scholarship, the term is often used with reference to kami worship and related theologies, rituals and practices. In these contexts, "Shinto" takes on the meaning of "Japan’s traditional religion", as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and so forth.[12]
For many non-Japanese, the word kami is associated with World War II.

At the time, Shinto was associated with the suicidal actions of Japanese pilots during warfare against the United States.

Kamikaze (神風?, [kamikaꜜze]; "divine wind" or "spirit wind"), officially Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (特別攻撃隊 "Special Attack Unit"?), abbreviated as Tokkō Tai (特攻隊?), and used as a verb as Tokkō (特攻 "special attack"?), were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks. During World War II, about 3,860 kamikaze pilots died, and about 19% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship.[1]

Kamikaze aircraft were essentially pilot-guided explosive missiles, purpose-built or converted from conventional aircraft. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" (体当たり; 体当り, taiatari) in planes laden with some combination of explosives, bombs, torpedoes and full fuel tanks; accuracy was much better than a conventional attack, the payload and explosion larger.

A kamikaze could sustain damage which would disable a conventional attacker and still achieve its objective. The goal of crippling or destroying large numbers of Allied ships, particularly aircraft carriers, was considered by the Empire of Japan to be a just reason for sacrificing pilots and aircraft.

These attacks, which began in October 1944, followed several critical military defeats for the Japanese. They had long since lost aerial dominance due to outdated aircraft and the loss of experienced pilots. On a macroeconomic scale, Japan suffered from a diminishing capacity for war, and a rapidly declining industrial capacity relative to the Allies. Despite these problems, the Japanese government expressed its reluctance to surrender. In combination, these factors led to the use of kamikaze tactics as Allied forces advanced towards the Japanese home islands.



USS Bunker Hill was hit by kamikazes piloted by Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa (photo above) and Lieutenant Junior Grade Seizō Yasunori on 11 May 1945. 389 personnel were killed or missing and 264 wounded from a crew of 2,600.[2]
While the term "kamikaze" usually refers to the aerial strikes, it has also been applied to various other suicide attacks. The Japanese military also used or made plans for non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those involving submarines, human torpedoes, speedboats and divers.

The tradition of death instead of defeat, capture, and perceived shame was deeply entrenched in Japanese military culture. It was one of the primary traditions in the samurai life and the Bushido code: loyalty and honour until death, as the Japanese perceived it.[3][4][5][6][7]





Shinto priest and priestess.

Origin of All Things



Izanami-no-Mikoto and Izanagi-no-Mikoto, by Kobayashi Eitaku, late 19th century.


The generation of the Japanese archipelago is expressed mythologically as the action of two gods: Izanagi ("He-who-invites") and Izanami ("She-who-is-invited").[22] The interaction of these two principles begets the islands of Japan and a further group of kami.[22]

The events are described in the Kojiki as follows:

  • Izanagi-no-Mikoto (male) and Izanami-no-Mikoto (female) were called by all the myriad gods and asked to help each other to create a new land which was to become Japan.
  • They were given a spear with which they stirred the water, and when removed water dripped from the end, an island was created in the great nothingness.
  • They lived on this island, and created a palace. Within the palace was large pole.
  • When they wished to bear offspring, they performed a ritual each rounding a pole, male to the left and female to the right, the female greeting the male first.
  • They had two children (islands) which turned out badly and they cast them out. They decided that the ritual had been done incorrectly the first time.
  • They repeated the ritual but according to the correct laws of nature, the male spoke first.
  • They then gave birth to the eight perfect islands of the Japanese archipelago.
  • After the islands, they gave birth to the other Kami. Izanami-no-Mikoto died in childbirth, however, and Izanagi-no-Mikoto tried to revive her.
  • His attempts to deny the laws of life and death have bad consequences.
In the myth, the birth of the god of fire (Kagu-Tsuchi) causes the death of Izanami, who descends into Yomi-no-kuni, the netherworld. Izanagi chases her there, but runs away when he finds the dead figure of his spouse.[22] As he returns to the land of the living, Amaterasu (the sun goddess) is born from his left eye, Tsukiyomi (the moon deity) from his right eye, and Susanoo (the storm deity) is born from Izanagi's nose.[22]

Shinto mythology: Tsukuyomi and Amaterasu, 2:58

https://youtu.be/IfK4E1lKpBg





Little Known Japanese Myth of Cosmogony 日本の天地開闢神話(イザナギ以前) 6:09

Kojiki and Nihon Shoki are two oldest chronicles of Japan, composed of Shinto myths. Most Japanese assume that the mythical history of Japan starts with the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanami, two parental deities. The truth is, however, that both Kojiki and Nihon Shoki describe various deities, Kotoamatsukami, preceding the couple gods. Moreover, they tell that these earliest gods also created the earth. Their existence is little taught to Japanese perhaps because it contradicts the standard, national foundation myth. A first-year student group of the Dept. of Philosophy and Religion at Taisho University introduces this issue.

http://youtu.be/rRqsTwMZHGg

Kojiki and Nihon Shoki are two oldest chronicles of Japan, composed of Shinto myths. Most Japanese assume that the mythical history of Japan starts with the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanami, two parental deities. The truth is, however, that both Kojiki and Nihon Shoki describe various deities, Kotoamatsukami, preceding the couple gods. Moreover, they tell that these earliest gods also created the earth. Their existence is little taught to Japanese perhaps because it contradicts the standard, national foundation myth. A first-year student group of the Dept. of Philosophy and Religion at Taisho University introduces this issue.

http://youtu.be/rRqsTwMZHGg




Amaterasu, The Sun Goddess, 8:50

Asian Art Museum Storyteller, Liz Nichols, tells a Japanese story about Amaterasu, the sun goddess, in the museum's Japan galleries.

https://youtu.be/A3w9qKqHyF0



Creation, 3:57

https://youtu.be/CH-8QHTlj-A



Nature of God/Creator


Beliefs, 1:40

https://youtu.be/vufhO3goauU





(3/7) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto" Part 1(2/3) - Shinto, "talking about Shinto gods" 4:45
(No. 3) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 1(2/3) - Shinto, "talking about Kami or Shinto gods"

Have you ever heard the word, kami?
Kami is generally translated as gods, I suppose.
But Kami is Not a god in fact. I talked briefly about Kami or Shinto gods on this video.
------------------------------
Do you know what Shinto, Japan's indigenous religion is like?

The more you learn about Shinto, the better you'll know of the Japanese. And also, you might find most of the Japanese culture is based on the idea of Shinto.

I made some videos about the Shikinensengu, which is the most important and biggest ritual in Shinto.
That's because I think this Shikinensengu ritual is the very best event that shows the quintessence of Shinto.

If you learn about the Shikinensengu, I think you could know part of the Japanese belief and also you would find what the Japanese view of life and death as well as the Japanese view of nature is like.
-----------------------------
The videos are composed of 7 videos and each of the videos is about 5 minutes long.

I'd be happy if this video series could help you deepen your understanding of Shinto and the Shikinensengu.

Thank you.
----------------------------
----------------------------
The videos of this series are as follows.

1) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Introduction
http://youtu.be/dECNF3AExWw
---------
2) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 1(1/3) - Shinto, "talking about Shinto"
http://youtu.be/etsL86EBHKE

3) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 1(2/3) - Shinto, "talking about Kami or Shinto gods"
http://youtu.be/ganlcgrfs4I

4) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 1(3/3) - Shinto, "three keywords to understand Shinto more"
http://youtu.be/-s-pwnz5lJI
--------
5) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 2 - about Ise-jingu shrine
http://youtu.be/Tesyum48QEU
--------
6) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 3(1/2) - the Shikinensengu, "What is the Shikinensengu?"
http://youtu.be/fk4dWdUaVvQ

7) "the Shikinensengu - the spirit of Shinto"
Part 3(2/2) - the Shikinensengu, "what the Shikinensengu lets us know"
http://youtu.be/af1QRU1ShPo
----------------------------
----------------------------
今年(平成25年)は、伊勢神宮において第62回式年遷宮が執り行われます。
より多くの海外からの観光客の方々に、日本のことを知って頂くべく、式年遷宮および神 ­道について簡単に、自分なりではありますがまとめてみました。



https://youtu.be/ganlcgrfs4I



View of Human Nature

View of Good and Evil

View of "Salvation"

View of After Life

It is common for families to participate in ceremonies for children at a shrine, yet have a Buddhist funeral at the time of death mostly due to the negative Japanese conception of the afterlife and death as well as Buddhism's historical monopoly on funeral rites. In old Japanese legends, it is often claimed that the dead go to a place called yomi (黄泉), a gloomy underground realm with a river separating the living from the dead mentioned in the legend of Izanami and Izanagi. This yomi is very close to the Greek Hades; however, later myths include notions of resurrection and even Elysium-like descriptions such as in the legend of Okuninushi and Susanoo. Shinto tends to hold negative views on death and corpses as a source of pollution called kegare. However, death is also viewed as a path towards apotheosis in Shintoism as can be evidenced by how legendary individuals become enshrined after death. Perhaps the most famous would be Emperor Ojin who was enshrined as Hachiman the God of War after his death.

Unlike many religions, one does not need to publicly profess belief in Shinto to be a believer. Whenever a child is born in Japan, a local Shinto shrine adds the child's name to a list kept at the shrine and declares him or her a "family child" (氏子 ujiko?). After death an ujiko becomes a "family spirit", or "family kami" (氏神 ujigami?). One may choose to have one's name added to another list when moving and then be listed at both places. Names can be added to the list without consent and regardless of the beliefs of the person added to the list. This is not considered an imposition of belief, but a sign of being welcomed by the local kami, with the promise of addition to the pantheon of kami after death.

Shrines

 

Ise Grand Shrine—Honden at Naiku. After 1871, it is the apex of the 80000 Shinto Shrines

The principal worship of kami is done at public shrines or worship at small home shrines called kamidana (神棚, lit. "god-shelf"). The public shrine is a building or place that functions as a conduit for kami. A fewer number of shrines are also natural places called mori. The most common of the mori are sacred groves of trees, or mountains, or waterfalls. All shrines are open to the public at some times or throughout the year.



Izumo Taisha—haiden and Honden, one of the oldest shrines in Japan

While many of the public shrines are elaborate structures, all are characteristic Japanese architectural styles of different periods depending on their age. Shrines are fronted by a distinctive Japanese gate (鳥居, torii) made of two uprights and two crossbars denoting the separation between common space and sacred space. The torii have 20 styles and matching buildings based on the enshrined kami and lineage.

 

Tsubaki Grand Shrine—Haiden, one of the oldest shrines in Japan

There are a number of symbolic and real barriers that exist between the normal world and the shrine grounds including: statues of protection, gates, fences, ropes, and other delineations of ordinary to sacred space. Usually there will be only one or sometimes two approaches to the Shrine for the public and all will have the torii over the way. In shrine compounds, there are a haiden (拝殿) or public hall of worship, heiden (幣殿) or hall of offerings and the honden (本殿) or the main hall. The innermost precinct of the grounds is the honden or worship hall, which is entered only by the high priest, or worshippers on certain occasions. The honden houses the symbol of the enshrined kami.


 

Fushimi Inari—Main Gate, one of the oldest shrines in Japan

The heart of the shrine is periodic rituals, spiritual events in parishioners' lives, and festivals. All of this is organized by priests who are both spiritual conduits and administrators. Shrines are private institutions, and are supported financially by the congregation and visitors. Some shrines may have festivals that attract hundreds of thousands, especially in the New Year season.

 

Isonokami—Haiden, a historically significant Imperial National Treasure

Practices and Rituals

Practices
 
Waving Cat, :30

The maneki-neko (Japanese: 招き猫?, literally "beckoning cat") is a common Japanese figurine (lucky charm, talisman) which is often believed to bring good luck to the owner. In modern times, they are usually made of ceramic or plastic. The figurine depicts a cat (traditionally a calico Japanese Bobtail) beckoning with an upright paw, and is usually displayed in—often at the entrance of—shops, restaurants, pachinko parlors, and other businesses. Some of the sculptures are electric or battery-powered and have a slow-moving paw beckoning. The maneki-neko is sometimes also called the welcoming cat, lucky cat, money cat, happy cat, beckoning cat, or fortune cat in English.

Maneki-neko comes in different colors, styles and degrees of ornateness. Common colors are white, black, gold and sometimes red. In addition to ceramic figurines, maneki-neko can be found as keychains, piggy banks, air fresheners, house-plant pots, and miscellaneous ornaments, as well as large statues. It is also sometimes called the "Chinese lucky cat" due to its popularity among Chinese merchants.
There are numerous versions of the legend; this is just one.

The temple cat: The story goes that a wealthy feudal lord named Ii Naotaka (sometimes the story says it was the Emperor), was taking shelter under a tree near Gōtoku-ji temple (in Setagaya, Tokyo) during a thunderstorm. The lord saw the temple priest's cat beckoning to him and followed; a moment later the tree was struck by lightning. The wealthy man became friends with the poor priest and the temple became prosperous. When the cat died, supposedly the first maneki-neko was made in his honor.

https://youtu.be/LjDqseIoWKk



Amaterasu Omikami Shinto ceremony: Winter season changes, 6:54

https://youtu.be/sbJ24TxGVI4

 

Omairi
 


Temizu Basin—Itsukushima Jinja
Any person may visit a shrine and one need not be Shinto to do this. Doing so is called Omairi. Typically there are a few basic steps to visiting a shrine.
  • At any entrance gate, bow respectfully before passing through.
  • If there is a hand washing basin provided, perform Temizu: take the dipper in your right hand and scoop up water. Pour some onto your left hand, then transfer the dipper to your left hand and pour some onto your right hand. Transfer the dipper to your right hand again, cup your left palm, and pour water into it, from which you will take the water into your mouth (never drink directly from the dipper), silently swish it around in your mouth (do not drink), then quietly spit it out into your cupped left hand (not into the reservoir). Then, holding the handle of the dipper in both hands, turn it vertically so that the remaining water washes over the handle. Then replace it where you found it.
  • Approach the shrine; if there is a bell, you may ring the bell first (or after depositing a donation); if there is a box for donations, leave a modest one in relation to your means; then bow twice, clap twice, and hold the second clap with your hands held together in front of your heart for a closing bow after your prayers.
  • There is variation in how this basic visitation may go, and depending on the time of year and holidays there may also be other rituals attached to visitations.
  • Be sincere and respectful to the staff and other visitors, and if at all possible, be quiet. Do be aware that there are places one should not go on the shrine grounds. Do not wear shoes inside any buildings.

Harae


The rite of ritual purification usually done daily at a shrine is a ceremony of offerings and prayers of several forms. Shinsen (food offerings of fruit, fish, and vegetables), Tamagushi (sakaki tree branches), Shio (salt), Gohan (rice), Mochi (rice cake), and Sake (rice wine) are all typical offerings. On holidays and other special occasions the inner shrine doors may be opened and special offerings made.

Offerings to the kami
Tamagushi offering at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū
Offerings at Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America
Mochi offered at Meiji Jingū
Sake offerings at Itsukushima Shrine
Tamagushi and food offerings (shinsen) offered at Katori-jingū

Misogi


Misogi means purification. Misogi harai or Misogi Shūhō (禊修法) is the term for water purification.
The practice of purification by ritual use of water while reciting prayers is typically done daily by regular practitioners, and when possible by lay practitioners. There is a defined set of prayers and physical activities that precede and occur during the ritual. This will usually be performed at a shrine, in a natural setting, but can be done anywhere there is clean running water.[7]

The basic performance of this is the hand and mouth washing (Temizu 手水) done at the entrance to a shrine. The more dedicated believer may perform misogi by standing beneath a waterfall or performing the ritual ablutions in a river.[25] This practice comes from Shinto history, when the kami Izanagi-no-Mikoto first performed misogi after returning from the land of Yomi, where he was made impure by Izanami-no-Mikoto after her death.

Imi

Another form of ritual cleanliness is avoidance, which means that a taboo is placed upon certain persons or acts. To illustrate, one would not visit a shrine if a close relative in the household had died recently. Killing is generally unclean and is to be avoided. When one is performing acts that harm the land or other living things, prayers and rituals are performed to placate the Kami of the area. This type of cleanliness is usually performed to prevent ill outcomes.

Amulets and talismans


A woman tying her fortune written on a white piece of paper (omikuji) to a frame at Kasuga Shrine
Main article: Ema (Shinto)
Ema are small wooden plaques that wishes or desires are written upon and left at a place in the shrine grounds so that one may get a wish or desire fulfilled. They have a picture on them and are frequently associated with the larger Shrines.[26]

Ofuda are talismans—made of paper, wood, or metal—that are issued at shrines. They are inscribed with the names of kamis and are used for protection in the home. They are typically placed in the home at a kamidana. Ofuda may be kept anywhere, as long as they are in their protective pouches, but there are several rules about the proper placement of kamidana. They are also renewed annually.[26]

Omamori are personal-protection amulets that sold by shrines. They are frequently used to ward off bad luck and to gain better health. More recently, there are also amulets to promote good driving, good business, and success at school. Their history lies with Buddhist practice of selling amulets.[26]
Omikuji are paper lots upon which personal fortunes are written.[26]

A daruma is a round, paper doll of the Indian monk, Bodhidharma. The recipient makes a wish and paints one eye; when the goal is accomplished, the recipient paints the other eye. While this is a Buddhist practice, darumas can be found at shrines, as well. These dolls are very common.[26]

Other protective items include dorei, which are earthenware bells that are used to pray for good fortune. These bells are usually in the shapes of the zodiacal animals:[26] hamaya, which are symbolic arrows for the fight against evil and bad luck;[26] and Inuhariko, which are paper dogs that are used to induce and to bless good births.[26]

Ise Grand Shrine, Naikū god Shinto Japan Amaterasu, 1:00

The Inner Shrine, Naikū (also officially known as "Kotai Jingū"), is located in the town of Uji-tachi, south of central Ise City, and is dedicated to the worship of Amaterasu-ōmikami. The Outer Shrine, Gekū (also officially known as "Toyouke Daijingu"), is located about six kilometers from Naikū and dedicated to Toyouke no ōmikami, the deity of agriculture and industry.Besides Naikū and Gekū, there are an additional 123 Shinto shrines in Ise City and the surrounding areas, 91 of them connected to Naikū and 32 to Gekū.
https://youtu.be/J_Twn4hscgU



Amulets and Protection
Kamidana (home shrine) with kagamimochi and Ofuda
Daruma of various sizes
Hamaya at Ikuta Shrine
Various Omamori from Shrines in Japan and Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America
Ema dedicated at Sewa Jinja

Kagura


Kagura traditional dance, Katori Jingu, Katori City
Kagura is the ancient Shinto ritual dance of shamanic origin. The word "kagura" is thought to be a contracted form of kami no kura or "seat of the kami" or the "site where the kami is received."[27] There is a mythological tale of how kagura dance came into existence. The sun goddess Amaterasu became very upset at her brother so she hid in a cave. All of the other gods and goddesses were concerned and wanted her to come outside. Ame-no-uzeme began to dance and create a noisy commotion in order to entice Amaterasu to come out. The kami (gods) tricked Amaterasu by telling her there was a better sun goddess in the heavens. Amaterasu came out and light returned to the universe.[7]

Music plays a very important role in the kagura performance. Everything from the setup of the instruments to the most subtle sounds and the arrangement of the music is crucial to encouraging the kami to come down and dance. The songs are used as magical devices to summon the gods and as prayers for blessings. Rhythm patterns of five and seven are common, possibly relating to the Shinto belief of the twelve generations of heavenly and earthly deities. There is also vocal accompaniment called kami uta in which the drummer sings sacred songs to the gods. Often the vocal accompaniment is overshadowed by the drumming and instruments, reinforcing that the vocal aspect of the music is more for incantation rather than aesthetics.[28]

In both ancient Japanese collections, the Nihongi and Kojiki, Ame-no-uzeme’s dance is described as asobi, which in old Japanese language means a ceremony that is designed to appease the spirits of the departed, and which was conducted at funeral ceremonies. Therefore, kagura is a rite of tama shizume, of pacifying the spirits of the departed. In the Heian period (8th–12th centuries) this was one of the important rites at the Imperial Court and had found its fixed place in the tama shizume festival in the eleventh month. At this festival people sing as accompaniment to the dance: "Depart! Depart! Be cleansed and go! Be purified and leave!"[29] This rite of purification is also known as chinkon. It was used for securing and strengthening the soul of a dying person. It was closely related to the ritual of tama furi (shaking the spirit), to call back the departed soul of the dead or to energize a weakened spirit. Spirit pacification and rejuvenation were usually achieved by songs and dances, also called asobi. The ritual of chinkon continued to be performed on the emperors of Japan, thought to be descendents of Amaterasu. It is possible that this ritual is connected with the ritual to revive the sun goddess during the low point of the winter solstice.[30]

There is a division between the kagura that is performed at the Imperial palace and the shrines related to it, and the kagura that is performed in the countryside. Folk kagura, or kagura from the countryside is divided according to region. The following descriptions relate to sato kagura, kagura that is from the countryside. The main types are: miko kagura, Ise kagura, Izumo kagura, and shishi kagura.


A miko (woman consecrated to a Shinto deity) at Inari Shrine.
Miko kagura is the oldest type of kagura and is danced by women in Shinto shrines and during folk festivals. The ancient miko were shamanesses, but are now considered priestesses in the service of the Shinto Shrines. Miko kagura originally was a shamanic trance dance, but later, it became an art and was interpreted as a prayer dance. It is performed in many of the larger Shinto shrines and is characterized by slow, elegant, circular movements, by emphasis on the four directions and by the central use of torimono (objects dancers carry in their hands), especially the fan and bells.[31]

Ise kagura is a collective name for rituals that are based upon the yudate (boiling water rites of Shugendō origin) ritual. It includes miko dances as well as dancing of the torimono type. The kami are believed to be present in the pot of boiling water, so the dancers dip their torimono in the water and sprinkle it in the four directions and on the observers for purification and blessing.[32]

Izumo kagura is centered in the Sada shrine of Izumo, Shimane prefecture. It has two types: torimono ma, unmasked dances that include held objects, and shinno (sacred No), dramatic masked dances based on myths. Izumo kagura appears to be the most popular type of kagura.[32]

Shishi kagura also known as the Shugen-No tradition, uses the dance of a shishi (lion or mountain animal) mask as the image and presence of the deity. It includes the Ise daikagura group and the yamabushi kagura and bangaku groups of the Tohoku area (Northeastern Japan). Ise daikagura employs a large red Chinese type of lion head which can move its ears. The lion head of the yamabushi kagura schools is black and can click its teeth. Unlike other kagura types in which the kami appear only temporarily, during the shishi kagura the kami is constantly present in the shishi head mask. During the Edo period, the lion dances became showy and acrobatic losing its touch with spirituality. However, the yamabushi kagura tradition has retained its ritualistic and religious nature.[32]

Originally, the practice of kagura involved authentic possession by the kami invoked. In modern-day Japan it appears to be difficult to find authentic ritual possession, called kamigakari, in kagura dance. However, it is common to see choreographed possession in the dances. Actual possession is not taking place but elements of possession such as losing control and high jumps are applied in the dance.

Japan Blog #16: Death Ceremony, 9:58

This was my host Grandad's Dad's 50th Death Year ceremony. I felt incredibly honored to even be there, but i felt like being sick with nerves when i was invited to take part in it, it was the first time i had ever even seen it... but apparently everyone wanted me to join in because i'm part of the family. It is because of reasons like this that i love Japan and my host family, being able to be involved in Ancient ceremonies which i'm sure that very few Gaijin will ever get to do. I love my host family and my life here and i truly felt honored to be involved in this. The Japanese spoken in very old Japanese, describing his life, when he died, when he was born, etc.

http://youtu.be/NV9cNO4pqmE



Shinto Morning Shrine Ritual, 5:39

Shinto Matsuri or serving rituals are designed to pay respects to to the might of a kami nature spirits. Through the visible rituals and offering the kami increase their spirit-force, and humans enjoy the kami's power. In this morning routine the Kami of the waterfall are given offering of rice (earth), fresh plants (water), incense (Wind) and saki (Fire).

http://youtu.be/gcbaJKe-VKQ





Shinto purification ritual after a ceremonial children's sumo tournament at the Kamigamo Jinja in Kyoto.

Impurity

Shinto teaches that certain deeds create a kind of ritual impurity that one should want cleansed for one's own peace of mind and good fortune rather than because impurity is wrong. Wrong deeds are called "impurity" (穢れ kegare?), which is opposed to "purity" (清め kiyome?). Normal days are called "day" (ke), and festive days are called "sunny" or, simply, "good" (hare).[24]

Those who are killed without being shown gratitude for their sacrifice will hold a grudge (怨み urami?) (grudge) and become powerful and evil kami who seek revenge (aragami).[citation needed] Additionally, if anyone is injured on the grounds of a shrine, the area must be ritually purified.

Haraegushi (祓串) for purification

Purification

Purification rites called Harae are a vital part of Shinto. They are done on a daily, weekly, seasonal, lunar, and annual basis. These rituals are the lifeblood[citation needed] of the practice of Shinto. Such ceremonies have also been adapted to modern life. New buildings made in Japan are frequently blessed by a Shinto priest called kannushi (神主?) during the groundbreaking ceremony (Jichinsai 地鎮祭), and many cars made in Japan have been blessed as part of the assembly process. Moreover, many Japanese businesses built outside Japan have had ceremonies performed by a Shinto priest, with occasionally an annual visitation by the priest to re-purify.

Celebrations and Festivals

Historical records

There is no core sacred text in Shinto, as the Bible is in Christianity or Qur'an is in Islam. Instead there are books of lore and history which provide stories and background to many Shinto beliefs.[7]
  • The Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) The oldest book of Japanese history, it describes the origin myths of Japan and the Imperial Family beginning from 628.[7]
  • The Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki (Continuing Chronicles of Japan) describes events up to 697. Some of the stories in the Nihongi are more detailed, but contradictory, to the stories of the Kojiki.
  • The Rikkokushi (Six National Histories) includes the Shoku Nihongi and Nihon Shoki.
  • The Jinnō Shōtōki (a study of Shinto and Japanese politics and history) written in the 14th century

Origins

Further information: Koshinto
Shinto has very ancient roots in the Japanese islands. The recorded history dates to the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), but archeological records date back significantly further. Both are compilations of prior oral traditions. The Kojiki establishes the Japanese imperial family as the foundation of Japanese culture, being the descendants of Amaterasu Omikami.[33] There is also a creation myth and a genealogy of the gods. The Nihonshoki was more interested in creating a structural system of government, foreign policy, religious hierarchy, and domestic social order.

There is an internal system of historical Shinto development that configures the relationships between Shinto and other religious practices over its long history; the inside and outside Kami (spirits). The inside or ujigami (uji meaning clan) Kami roles that supports cohesion and continuation of established roles and patterns; and the hitogami or outside Kami, bringing innovation, new beliefs, new messages, and some instability.

Jomon peoples of Japan used natural housing, predated rice farming, and frequently were hunter-gatherers; the physical evidence for ritual practices are difficult to document. There are many locations of stone ritual structures, refined burial practices and early Torii that lend to the continuity of primal Shinto. The Jomon had a clan-based tribal system developed similar to much of the world's indigenous people. In the context of this clan based system, local beliefs developed naturally and when assimilation between clans occurred, they also took on some beliefs of the neighboring tribes. At some point there was a recognition that the ancestors created the current generations and the reverence of ancestors (tama) took shape. There was some trade amongst the indigenous peoples within Japanese islands and the mainland, as well as some varying migrations. The trade and interchange of people helped the growth and complexity of the peoples spirituality by exposure to new beliefs. The natural spirituality of the people appeared to be based on the worship of nature forces or mono, and the natural elements to which they all depended.

The gradual introduction of methodical religious and government organizations from mainland Asia starting around 300 BCE seeded the reactive changes in primal Shinto over the next 700 years to a more formalized system. These changes were directed internally by the various clans frequently as a syncratic cultural event to outside influences. Eventually as the Yamato gained power a formalization process began. The genesis of the Imperial household and subsequent creation of the Kojiki helped facilitate the continuity needed for this long term development through modern history. There is today a balance between outside influences of Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Abrahamic, Hindu and secular beliefs. In more modern times Shinto has developed new branches and forms on a regular basis, including leaving Japan.

REFERENCES

KYU SAKAMOTO- "SUKIYAKI" (W/LYRICS IN "SHOW MORE" SECTION), 3:07

http://youtu.be/_zpOc9n7dlI

A #1 hit in 1963. ""Ue o Muite Arukō" (上を向いて歩こう?, "[I] Will Walk Looking Up") is a Japanese-language song that was performed by Japanese crooner Kyu Sakamoto, and written by lyricist Rokusuke Ei and composer Hachidai Nakamura. It is best known under the alternative title "Sukiyaki" in Anglophone countries. The song reached the top of the Billboard Hot 100 charts in the United States in 1963, and remains the only Japanese-language song ever to have done so. In addition, it was and still is one of the few non-English songs, other than Italian, French, Spanish, and German, to have reached the top of the US charts. It is one of the best-selling singles of all time, having sold over 13 million copies worldwide. The original Kyu Sakamoto recording also went to number eighteen on the R&B chart. In addition, the single spent five weeks at number one on the Middle of the Road charts.

The recording was originally released in Japan by Toshiba in 1961. It topped the Popular Music Selling Record chart in the Japanese magazine Music Life for three months, and was ranked as the number one song of 1961 in Japan. The lyrics tell the story of a man who looks up and whistles while he is walking so that his tears will not fall. The verses of the song describe his memories and feelings. Rokusuke Ei wrote this song while coming back from a protest against the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan and feeling dejected about the failure of the protest movement, but the lyrics were rendered purposefully generic so that they might refer to any lost love. The English-language lyrics of the version recorded by A Taste of Honey are not a translation of the original Japanese lyrics, but instead a completely different set of lyrics arranged to the same basic melody.

The title Sukiyaki, a Japanese hot pot dish, actually has nothing to do with the lyrics or the meaning of the song; the word served the purpose only because it was short, catchy, recognizably Japanese, and more familiar to most English speakers. A Newsweek Magazine columnist noted that the re-titling was like issuing "Moon River" in Japan under the title "Beef Stew." (Wikipedia)

"Sakamoto joined a local band in 1958 when he was just 16 year old. He had learned to play the trumpet at school, and taught himself guitar and piano. Due to feuding relationship for prominence with other band members that usually ended up with fist fights, Kyu Sakamoto left the band in the same year to further his studies at a university. The study came to an abrupt end when the band 'Danny Lida and the Paradise King' he joined at the same time won an award with him singing as the lead singer, gaining them a contract with JVC Records. Soon after Sakamoto left the band and began his solo career in singing with a contract with Toshiba Records Company. From 1961-1985 Sakamoto enjoyed an entertainment career as solo singers untill his sudden demise in a plane crash in 1985. It was reported that he managed to scribble some lines of words to his wife and daughters moments before the tragedy took place. He married his wife Yukiko Kashiwagi in 1971. They had two daughters, Hanako and Maiko Sakamoto. The Japanese government honoured Kyu Sakamoto for his contribution to national fame by issuing a stamp, commemorating him and the song he made famous - Sukiyaki. He was buried at the temple ground of Minato, Tokyo. "


(http://alancykok.blogspot.com/2012/02...)
LYRICS: ( English Translation):
I look up while I walk
So the tears won't fall
Remembering those spring days
But tonight I'm all alone
I look up while I walk
Counting the stars with teary eyes
Remembering those summer days
But tonight I'm all alone
Happiness lies beyond the clouds
Happiness lies above the sky
I look up while I walk
So the tears won't fall
I cry while I walk
For I am alone tonight
Remembering those autumn days
But tonight I'm all alone
Sadness hides in the shadow of the stars
Sadness hides in the shadow of the moon
I look up while I walk
So the tears won't fall
My heart is filled with sorrow
For tonight I am alone
For tonight I am alone



REFERENCES

Shinto music and dance -Suzukayama- Hiroshima Japan 35:13

https://youtu.be/pv4o8kkAM8Q



“Shinto (“the way of the gods”) is the indigenous faith of the Japanese people
and as old as Japan itself. It remains Japan’s major religion alongside Buddhism.”
http://www.japan-guide.com
1. ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
Shinto
The Kami are known to have created the universe. Kami means ‘god’s’. This is
told in the Kojiki, (“Records of Ancient Matters”). The Kojiki tells of the Kami
beginning as the center of heaven, then giving birth and growth to all other Kami through
the Kami brother and sister. They also gave birth to Japan’s Eight Great Islands.”
https://shintoreligion.wikispaces.com/Shinto-Origins
2. NATURE OF GOD/CREATOR
Shinto
In Shinto, there is no faith in the concept of the absolute one god who is the
creator of both nature and human beings. The ancient Japanese had never divided
material and spiritual existence, but considered that the both were inseparable, seeing
everything to be spiritual. They did not draw a border between a certain object and the
work of that object. According to the Shinto myth, there was one thing in the beginning
of this universe. Later that was divided into two things: Heaven and Earth. Shinto does
not acknowledge the existence of the substantial difference or discontinuation between
Kami and man, nature and human beings. Shinto is basically the faith in the life-giving
power.”
www.world-religions-professor.com/shintogods.html
Week 5 Shinto
3
3. VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE
Shinto
Shinto holds a generally positive view of human nature. A common Shinto
saying is ‘man is Kami’s child’. This means that a person was given life by Kami and
that his nature is therefore sacred. Daily life is made possible by Kami and the
personality and life of people are worthy of respect. An individual must revere the basic
human rights of everyone as well of his own.”.
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Shinto/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-
of-Existence
4. VIEW OF GOOD AND EVIL
Shinto
“Purity is at the heart of Shinto’s understanding of good and evil. Impurity in
Shinto refers to anything which separates them from Kami, and from ‘musubi’, the
creative a harmonizing power. Pollution or sin makes them impure.
www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/beliefs/purity.shtml
5. VIEW OF SALVATION
Shinto
“In Shinto, the concept of salvation is based on the belief that all living things
have an essence, soul or spirit known as Kami. Rather than living in a glorified Heaven,
Kami lives among the people. Some Kami are more powerful than others. Some are even
deified. But all Kami must be honored. People who die violently, lead unhappy lives or
Week 5 Shinto
4
have no family to care for their Kami becomes hungry ghosts, causing trouble for the
living.
http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.com/shinto-salvation
6. VIEW OF AFTER LIFE
Shinto
Shinto beliefs in accordance with the afterlife believe that the human spirit is to
remain forever as like the spirit of Kami. The spirits live in another world; this is
mentioned in the Kojiki. It tells that the Kami is present in both worlds. The most known
other world is named ‘the other world of Heaven’ in which the most respected and
admired deities dwell. It believes the spirits of the dead can visit and connect with this
present world and time if called on through a ritual or a festival. By holding these
festivals, it also fulfills the belief that Kami and ancestral spirits will protect their
descendants. Shinto is not focused on life after death but life in this world
https://shintoreligion.wikispaces.com/Shinto-Origins
“Death is considered a source of impurity, and is left to Buddhism to deal with.
Consequently, there are virtually no Shinto cemeteries, and most funerals are held in
Buddhist style.”
http://www.japan-guide.com
7. PRACTICES AND RITUALS
Shinto
“Shinto rituals are a central component of most of the national festivals in Japan,
as well as the more specialized events at particular shrines and other sacred sites. The
Week 5 Shinto
5
most common type of ritual involves purification symbolically purifying oneself or an
objects before interacting with the Kami. Other common rituals include the formal
reading of prayers from ancient collections, and making food and drink offerings to the
Kami, which is later shared in a communal meal.”
http://www.world-religions-professor.com/shintorituals.html
8. CELEBRATIONS AND FESTIVALS
Shinto
“The word ‘matsuri’ can refer to any occasion for offering thanks and praise to a
deity at a shrine. It comes from a word meaning ‘to entertain’. Matsuri is also used to
refer to Shinto festivals.



 
“Shinto festivals generally combine solemn rituals with joyful celebration, and
can include drunken and loutish behavior. Festivals center on a particular Kami, who is
treated as the guest of honor at the event. The celebrations are very physical events, and
may include processions, dramatic performances, sumo wrestling, and feasting.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/holydays/matsuri.shtml

Shintoism (Powtoon)

4:35

https://youtu.be/d4Qj78_iEVo



What Is? 1:33

https://youtu.be/xsWvxIE649U




Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna,[1] is one of the world's oldest religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique... among the major religions of the world."[2] Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian Prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra),[3] he exalted their deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, (Wise Lord) as its Supreme Being.[4]

Leading characteristics, such as messianism, heaven and hell, and free will influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam.[5] With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE, Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the 5th-century BCE,[4] and including a Mithraic Median prototype and Zurvanist Sassanid successor it served as the state religion of the pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BCE to 650 CE.

Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia.[6] Recent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.6 million, with most living in India and Iran.[7][8][n 2] Besides the Zoroastrian diaspora, the older Mithraic faith Yazdânism is still practised amongst the Kurds.[n 3]

The religious philosophy of Zoroaster divided the early Iranian gods.[9] The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta.[10] In Zoroastrianism, the creator Ahura Mazda, through the Spenta Mainyu (Good Spirit, "Bounteous Immortals")[11] is an all-good "father" of Asha (Truth, “order, justice,")[12][13] in opposition to Druj (“falsehood, deceit”)[14][15] and no evil originates from "him".[16] "He" and his works are evident to humanity through the six primary Amesha Spentas[17] and the host of other Yazatas, through whom worship of Mazda is ultimately directed. Spenta Mainyu adjoined unto "truth"[18] oppose the Spirit's opposite,[19][20] Angra Mainyu and its forces born of Akəm Manah (“evil thinking”).[21]

Zoroastrianism has no major theological divisions, though it is not uniform; modern-era influences having a significant impact on individual and local beliefs, practices, values and vocabulary, sometimes merging with tradition and in other cases displacing it.[22] In Zoroastrianism, the purpose in life is to "be among those who renew the world...to make the world progress towards perfection". Its basic maxims include:
Humata, Hukhta, Huvarshta, which mean: Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds.
There is only one path and that is the path of Truth.

Do the right thing because it is the right thing to do, and then all beneficial rewards will come to you also.
The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, which includes the writings of Zoroaster known as the Gathas, enigmatic poems that define the religion's precepts, and the Yasna, the scripture. The full name by which Zoroaster addressed the deity is: Ahura, The Lord Creator, and Mazda, Supremely Wise.
He proclaimed that there is only one God, the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe. He also stated that human beings are given a right of choice, and because of cause and effect are also responsible for the consequences of their choices.

Zoroaster's teachings focused on responsibility, and did not introduce a devil, per se. The contesting force to Ahura Mazda was called Angra Mainyu, or angry spirit. Post-Zoroastrian scripture introduced the concept of Ahriman, the Devil, which was effectively a personification of Angra Mainyu.[23]

Biography, 1:22

https://youtu.be/NXCMpXqh2vU




Zoroaster

Zoroastrianism was founded by Zoroaster (or Zarathustra), later deemed a prophet, in ancient Iran. The precise date of the founding of Zoroastrianism is uncertain. Zoroaster was born in either Northeast Iran or Southwest Afghanistan. He was born into a culture with a polytheistic religion, which included animal sacrifice[69] and the ritual use of intoxicants, quite similar to early forms of Hinduism in India. Zoroaster's birth and early life are little documented. What is known is recorded in the Gathas—the core of the Avesta, which contains hymns thought to be composed by Zoroaster himself. Born into the Spitama clan, he worked as a priest. He had a wife, three sons, and three daughters.

Zoroaster rejected the religion of the Bronze Age Iranians, with their many gods and oppressive class structure, in which the Karvis and Karapans (princes and priests) controlled the ordinary people. He also opposed animal sacrifices and the use of the hallucinogenic Haoma plant (possibly a species of ephedra) in rituals, but held the rooster as a "symbol of light"[70] and associated it with "good against evil"[71] because of his heraldic actions. Vision of Zoroaster

According to Zoroastrian belief, when Zoroaster was 30 years old, he went into the Daiti river to draw water for a Haoma ceremony; when he emerged, he received a vision of Vohu Manah. After this, Vohu Manah took him to the other six Amesha Spentas, where he received the completion of his vision.[72] This vision radically transformed his view of the world, and he tried to teach this view to others. Zoroaster believed in one creator God, teaching that only one God was worthy of worship. Some of the deities of the old religion, the Daevas (Devas in Sanskrit), appeared to delight in war and strife. Zoroaster said these were evil spirits, workers of Angra Mainyu.

Zoroaster's ideas were not taken up quickly; he originally only had one convert: his cousin Maidhyoimanha.[73] The local religious authorities opposed his ideas, considering that their faith, power, and particularly their rituals, were threatened by Zoroaster's teaching against over-ritualising religious ceremonies. Many did not like Zoroaster's downgrading of the Daevas to evil spirits. After 12 years of little success, Zoroaster left his home.

In the country of King Vishtaspa in Bactria, the king and queen heard Zoroaster debating with the religious leaders of the land and decided to accept Zoroaster's ideas as the official religion of their kingdom. Zoroaster died in his late 70s. Very little is known of the time between Zoroaster and the Achaemenian period, except that Zoroastrianism spread to Western Iran. By the time of the founding of the Achaemenid Empire, Zoroastrianism was already a well-established religion.

6:33

Cartoon Zoroastrianism
 
A video that the life of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster and the essence of his teachings.

This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd., an education innovations company based in Mumbai, India. http://www.mexuseducation.com, http://www.ikenstore.in

https://youtu.be/oIEmmndKRSs



Brief History of Zoroastrianism, 3:28


https://youtu.be/6y8BZONPmiM




The roots of Zoroastrianism are thought to have emerged from a common prehistoric Indo-Iranian religious system dating back to the early 2nd millennium BCE.[33] The prophet Zoroaster himself, though traditionally dated to the 6th century BC, is thought by many modern historians to have been a reformer of the polytheistic Iranian religion who lived in the 10th century BC.[34] Zoroastrianism as a religion was not firmly established until several centuries later. Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the mid-5th century BCE. Herodotus' The Histories (completed c. 440 BCE) includes a description of Greater Iranian society with what may be recognizably Zoroastrian features, including exposure of the dead.

The Histories is a primary source of information on the early period of the Achaemenid era (648–330 BCE), in particular with respect to the role of the Magi. According to Herodotus i.101, the Magi were the sixth tribe of the Medians (until the unification of the Persian empire under Cyrus the Great, all Iranians were referred to as "Mede" or "Mada" by the peoples of the Ancient World), who appear to have been the priestly caste of the Mesopotamian-influenced branch of Zoroastrianism today known as Zurvanism, and who wielded considerable influence at the courts of the Median emperors.

The Zoroastrian Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent was the largest ancient empire in recorded history at 8.0 million km2 (480 BCE).[35]

Following the unification of the Median and Persian empires in 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great and, later, his son Cambyses II curtailed the powers of the Magi after they had attempted to sow dissent following their loss of influence. In 522 BCE, the Magi revolted and set up a rival claimant to the throne. The usurper, pretending to be Cyrus' younger son Smerdis, took power shortly thereafter.[36] Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations" acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herodotus iii. 68).

Darius I and later Achaemenid emperors acknowledged their devotion to Ahura Mazda in inscriptions, as attested to several times in the Behistun inscription, and appear to have continued the model of coexistence with other religions. Whether Darius was a follower of Zoroaster has not been conclusively established, since devotion to Ahura Mazda was (at the time) not necessarily an indication of an adherence to Zoroaster's teaching. A number of the Zoroastrian texts that today are part of the greater compendium of the Avesta have been attributed to that period. This calendar attributed to the Achaemenid period is still in use today. Additionally, the divinities, or yazatas, are present-day Zoroastrian angels (Dhalla, 1938).

According to later Zoroastrian legend (Denkard and the Book of Arda Viraf), many sacred texts were lost when Alexander the Great's troops invaded Persepolis and subsequently destroyed the royal library there. Diodorus Siculus's Bibliotheca historica, which was completed circa 60 BCE, appears to substantiate this Zoroastrian legend (Diod. 17.72.2–17.72.6). According to one archaeological examination, the ruins of the palace of Xerxes bear traces of having been burned (Stolze, 1882). Whether a vast collection of (semi-)religious texts "written on parchment in gold ink", as suggested by the Denkard, actually existed remains a matter of speculation, but is unlikely. Given that many of the Denkards statements-as-fact have since been refuted among scholars, the tale of the library is widely accepted to be fictional (Kellens, 2002).

The religion would be professed many centuries following the demise of the Achaemenids in mainland Persia and the core regions of the former Achaemenid Empire, most notably Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus. In the Cappadocian kingdom, whose territory was formerly an Achaemenid possession, Persian colonists, cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, continued to practice the faith [Zoroastrianism] of their forefathers; and there Strabo, observing in the first century B.C., records (XV.3.15) that these "fire kindlers" possessed many "holy places of the Persian Gods", as well as fire temples.[37] Strabo furthermore relates, were "noteworthy enclosures; and in their midst there is an altar, on which there is a large quantity of ashes and where the magi keep the fire ever burning."[37] Through and after the Hellenistic periods in the aforementioned regions, the religion would be strongly revived as a major thing.

Most of the Sassanid Empire was overthrown by the Arabs over the course of 16 years in the 7th century. Although the administration of the state was rapidly Islamicized and subsumed under the Umayyad Caliphate, in the beginning "there was little serious pressure" exerted on newly subjected people to adopt Islam.[43]

Because of their sheer numbers, the conquered Zoroastrians had to be treated as dhimmis (despite doubts of the validity of this identification that persisted down the centuries),[44] which made them eligible for protection. Islamic jurists took the stance that only Muslims could be perfectly moral, but "unbelievers might as well be left to their iniquities, so long as these did not vex their overlords."[44]

The Arabs adopted the Sassanid tax-system, both the land-tax levied on land owners and the poll-tax levied on individuals,[44] called jizya, a tax levied on non-Muslims (i.e., the dhimmis). In time, this poll-tax came to be used as a means to humble the non-Muslims, and a number of laws and restrictions evolved to emphasize their inferior status.

Under Abbasid rule, Muslim Iranians (who by then were in the majority) increasingly found ways to taunt Zoroastrians, and distressing them became a popular sport. For example, in the 9th century, a deeply venerated cypress tree in Khorasan (which Parthian-era legend supposed had been planted by Zoroaster himself) was felled for the construction of a palace in Baghdad, 2,000 miles (3,200 km) away.

In the 10th century, on the day that a Tower of Silence had been completed at much trouble and expense, a Muslim official contrived to get up onto it, and to call the adhan (the Muslim call to prayer) from its walls. This was made a pretext to annex the building.[45]

Another popular means to distress Zoroastrians was to maltreat dogs, as these animals are sacred in Zoroastrianism. Such baiting, which was to continue down the centuries, was indulged in by all; not only by high officials, but by the general uneducated population as well.

The first edict, adapted from an Arsacid and Sassanid one (but in those to the advantage of Zoroastrians), was that only a Muslim could own Muslim slaves or indentured servants. Thus, a bonded individual owned by a Zoroastrian could automatically become a freeman by converting to Islam. The other edict was that if one male member of a Zoroastrian family converted to Islam, he instantly inherited all its property.

Despite economic and social incentives to convert, Zoroastrianism remained strong in some regions, particularly in those furthest away from the Caliphate capital at Baghdad. In Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), resistance to Islam required the 9th-century Arab commander Qutaiba to convert his province four times. The first three times the citizens reverted to their old religion. Finally, the governor made their religion "difficult for them in every way", turned the local fire temple into a mosque, and encouraged the local population to attend Friday prayers by paying each attendee two dirhams.[48] The cities where Arab governors resided were particularly vulnerable to such pressures, and in these cases the Zoroastrians were left with no choice but to either conform or migrate to regions that had a more amicable administration.[48]
Due to Islamic oppression and bigotry, Zoroastrians have fled to India, Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Persia, and an expatriate community has formed in the United States (some from India), and to a lesser extent in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.

Spread, 1:26 (watch)

See the spread of the religion known as Zoroastrianism. It also includes Manichaeism but not any of the other religions that are associated with Zoroastrianism.

https://youtu.be/CuEGCNw3S_8

Zoroastrianism is often compared with the Manichaeism. Nominally an Iranian religion, it has its origins in the Middle-Eastern Gnosticism. Superficially such a comparison seem apt, as both are dualistic and Manichaeism adopted many of the Yazatas for its own pantheon. Gherardo Gnoli, in The Encyclopaedia of Religion, says that "we can assert that Manichaeism has its roots in the Iranian religious tradition and that its relationship to Mazdaism, or Zoroastrianism, is more or less like that of Christianity to Judaism".[66]

They are however quite different.[67] Manichaeism equated evil with matter and good with spirit, and was therefore particularly suitable as a doctrinal basis for every form of asceticism and many forms of mysticism. Zoroastrianism, on the other hand, rejects every form of asceticism, has no dualism of matter and spirit (only of good and evil), and sees the spiritual world as not very different from the natural one (the word "paradise", or pairi.daeza, applies equally to both.)

Manichaeism's basic doctrine was that the world and all corporeal bodies were constructed from the substance of Satan, an idea that is fundamentally at odds with the Zoroastrian notion of a world that was created by God and that is all good, and any corruption of it is an effect of the bad. From what may be inferred from many Manichean texts and a few Zoroastrian sources, the adherents of the two religions (or at least their respective priesthoods) despised each other intensely.



Morgan Freeman's Story of God, 6:42

Zoroastrians believe that there is one universal, transcendent, supreme god, Ahura Mazda, or the "Wise Lord". (Ahura means "Being" and Mazda means "Mind" in Avestan language).[25] Zoroaster keeps the two attributes separate as two different concepts in most of the Gathas and also consciously uses a masculine word for one concept and a feminine for the other, as if to distract from an anthropomorphism of his divinity. Zoroaster claimed that Ahura Mazda is almighty, though not omnipotent.

Other scholars assert that since Zoroastrianism's divinity covers both being and mind as immanent entities, it is better described as a belief in an immanent self-creating universe with consciousness as its special attribute, thereby putting Zoroastranism in the pantheistic fold where it can be easily traced to its shared origin with Indian Brahmanism.[26][27] In any case, Ahura Mazda's creation—evident is widely agreed as asha, truth and order—is the antithesis of chaos, which is evident as druj, falsehood and disorder. The resulting conflict involves the entire universe, including humanity, which has an active role to play in the conflict.[28]

In Zoroastrian tradition, the "chaotic" is represented by Angra Mainyu (also referred to as "Ahriman"), the "Destructive Principle", while the benevolent is represented through Ahura Mazda's Spenta Mainyu, the instrument or "Bounteous Principle" of the act of creation. It is through Spenta Mainyu that transcendental Ahura Mazda is immanent in humankind, and through which the Creator interacts with the world. According to Zoroastrian cosmology, in articulating the Ahuna Vairya formula, Ahura Mazda made His ultimate triumph evident to Angra Mainyu. As expressions and aspects of Creation, Ahura Mazda emanated the Amesha Spentas ("Bounteous Immortals"), that are each the hypostasis and representative of one aspect of that Creation. These Amesha Spenta are in turn assisted by a league of lesser principles, the Yazatas, each "Worthy of Worship" and each again a hypostasis of a moral or physical aspect of creation.

Zoroastrian theology includes a duty to protect nature. This has led some to proclaim it as the "world's first ecological religion." Scholars have argued that, since the protections are part of a ritual, they stem from theology rather than ecology. Others have responded that, since the scripture calls for the protection of water, earth, fire, air, as once of its strongest precepts, it is, in effect, an ecological religion: "It is not surprising that Mazdaism (another term for Zoroastrianism) is called the first ecological religion. The reverence for Yazatas (divine spirits) emphasizes the preservation of nature (Avesta: Yasnas 1.19, 3.4, 16.9; Yashts 6.3-4, 10.13)." [29]

https://youtu.be/s0K3vEBG3sk



Towers of Silence Trailer, 4:55

https://youtu.be/dMXvsg1bN-s



Selects from Zoroastrian Rituals (Towers of Silence): Rituals, 2:22

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtAFDN3I0oQ

https://youtu.be/rtAFDN3I0oQ




TOWER OF SILENCE (ZOROASTRIANISM FUNERAL & DISPOSAL), Ritual Funeral, 4:04

https://youtu.be/opSPc44s9_o



Zoroastrians Celebrate Fire Festival in Iran: Fire Festival, 2:31

One of the worlds last and largest communities of Zoroastrians celebrates its annual fire festival in Iran, where the government has recently been more accepting of its pre-Islamic Persian heritage. WSJ's Bill Spindle reports.

https://youtu.be/pB78CnYJfIY



Prayer, 2:31

"Zoroastrian rituals and prayers are solemnized in the presence of a Fire, which is scrupulously tended with sandalwood and frankincence and kept buning in a silver urn in the inner sanctum of every Zoroastrian "fire-temple" also called a Darbe Mehr (door of devotion). Fire is revered as a visual symbol of the Inner Light, the devine spark, that burns in each and every heart; a physical representation of the Illuminated Mind, Enlightenment and Truth. It is important to note that Zoroastirans do not "worship fire" as the religion denounces the worship of any idols or dieties." The mobed (priest) wears a mouth veil to prevent contamination of the fire. "Ashem Vohu, vahishtem asti, Ushta asti, ushta ahmai Hyat ashai, vahishtai ashem -To think a good thought, to speak a good word, to do a good deed, is the best. Everlasting happiness to those who follow the Path of Asha" The World Religions class observing this prayer are wearing hats and head coverings as a sign of respect to the sanctity of the place of worship. It is very special and rare for nonpractitioners to be allowed into the inner sanctum.

https://youtu.be/EoZ1nFfUUpQ




Saving the Zoroastrians (The Feed): Saving 3:53


https://youtu.be/TePcJ6v5fpg



BBC News Keeping Zoroastrianism alive after 3,000 years: Keep Alive, 2:52

BBC News Keeping Zoroastrianism alive after 3,000 years

https://youtu.be/a4ezRTvDrqw




Cosmogony

Creation of the universe

According to the Zoroastrian story of creation, Ahura Mazda existed in light in goodness above, while Angra Mainyu existed in darkness and ignorance below. They have existed independently of each other for all time, and manifest contrary substances. Ahura Mazda first created seven abstract heavenly beings called Amesha Spentas, who support him and represent beneficent aspects, along with numerous yazads, lesser beings worthy of worship. He then created the universe itself in order to ensnare evil. Ahura Mazda created the floating, egg-shaped universe in two parts: first the spiritual (menog) and 3,000 years later, the physical (getig). Ahura Mazda then created Gayomard, the archetypical perfect man, and the first bull.[74]

While Ahura Mazda created the universe and humankind, Angra Mainyu, whose instinct is to destroy, miscreated demons, evil yazads, and noxious creatures (khrafstar) such as snakes, ants, and flies. Angra Mainyu created an opposite, evil being for each good being, except for humans, which he found he could not match. Angra Mainyu invaded the universe through the base of the sky, inflicting Gayomard and the bull with suffering and death. However, the evil forces were trapped in the universe and could not retreat. The dying primordial man and bull emitted seeds. From the bull's seed grew all beneficial plants and animals of the world, and from the man's seed grew a plant whose leaves became the first human couple. Humans thus struggle in a two-fold universe trapped with evil. The evils of this physical world are not products of an inherent weakness, but are the fault of Angra Mainyu's assault on creation. This assault turned the perfectly flat, peaceful, and ever day-lit world into a mountainous, violent place that is half night.[74]

1 Hour of Japanese Instrumental Music, 1:01:35

https://youtu.be/lyieFu7BnHE




Zoroastrianism Music, 14:37

Music from Feza Radio - http://fezaeu.net. Fire loop by Michael Edwards - http://vimeo.com/53193776

https://youtu.be/2pKwrgw-PWk




Beyond the Sound Bites

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (Pub.L. 82–414, 66 Stat. 163, enacted June 27, 1952), also known as the McCarran–Walter Act, restricted immigration into the U.S. and is codified under Title 8 of the United States Code (8 U.S.C. ch. 12). The Act governs primarily immigration to and citizenship in the United States. It has been in effect since December 24, 1952.

The Act was sponsored by two Democrats; H.R. 5678 was named after its sponsors, Senator Pat McCarran (D-Nevada), and Congressman Francis Walter (D-Pennsylvania).

Speaking in the Senate on March 2, 1953, the Democrat, McCarran, said (Senator Pat McCarran, Cong. Rec., March 2, 1953, p. 1518):

I believe that this nation is the last hope of Western civilization and if this oasis of the world shall be overrun, perverted, contaminated or destroyed, then the last flickering light of humanity will be extinguished. I take no issue with those who would praise the contributions which have been made to our society by people of many races, of varied creeds and colors. ... However, we have in the United States today hard-core, indigestible blocs which have not become integrated into the American way of life, but which, on the contrary are its deadly enemies. Today, as never before, untold millions are storming our gates for admission and those gates are cracking under the strain. The solution of the problems of Europe and Asia will not come through a transplanting of those problems en masse to the United States. ... I do not intend to become prophetic, but if the enemies of this legislation succeed in riddling it to pieces, or in amending it beyond recognition, they will have contributed more to promote this nation's downfall than any other group since we achieved our independence as a nation.
America is the last hope of Western Civilization and if overrun by any creed (such as Islamism) or any race (i.e., Hispanic or others) that does not assimilate or are enemies of America the nation will decline as a result.

In fact, Federal law does permit a president to ban those who are deemed security risks from entering the country. The relevant passage states:

"Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate. Whenever the Attorney General finds that a commercial airline has failed to comply with regulations of the Attorney General relating to requirements of airlines for the detection of fraudulent documents used by passengers traveling to the United States (including the training of personnel in such detection), the Attorney General may suspend the entry of some or all aliens transported to the United States by such airline."

Cf. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/8/1182

During the latest controversy over immigration, Khizr Khan spoke alongside his wife Ghazala Khan at the Democratic National Convention. On behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the Democratic nominee for president, Khizr Khan questioned Donald Trump’s policies on immigration—specifically his plan to bar Muslim migration from regions afflicted with rampant terrorism into America temporarily until the United States can figure out the situation.
Khan brought out a pocket Constitution, claiming inaccurately that Trump’s plans were unconstitutional. That’s not true, as Congress has already granted such power to the president under the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952—allowing the president to bar migration of any alien or class of aliens the president sees as a threat to the United States for any reason at any time. Such a class of aliens could be Muslims, or it could be people from a specific region of the world, or any other class—such as someone’s race, weight, height, age, national origin, religion, or anything else.


Merkel must go’: Protesters demand German chancellor to go amid migration & security concerns, 2:05

https://youtu.be/GoeVH92LWB0



The Department of Homeland Security states 8,000 Syrian immigrants get special treatment to stay: projection that 50,000 more will enter the U.S. It is estimated that the Syrians will cost $4 Billion.


Muslims 50% More Air Time Than Benghazi Mom

01/khizr-khans-trump-criticisms-receive-50x-more-time-pat-smith
 
Muslim vs. Muslim Over Khan Dispute

http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2016/07/31/muslim-trump-supporter-clashes-with-muslim-comedian-in-fiery-on-air-debate-over-capt-khan/


WEEK 5 SHINTO Cosmogony - Origin of the Universe
Origin of the Universe of Shinto is that Shinto people believe that the universe was created for them by their Gods. Their creation story is as follows;Heaven and earth were mixed together in a huge cloud and as time went by the lighter clouds rose above, forming heaven and the heavier clouds dropped forming a muddy ocean. In between the heaven and the earth, a flower grew and out of it came the first God, Izanagi. Izanagi then created the two Gods Izangi and Izangi's wife/sister Izanami. These two Gods were given the job of finishing the creation of the universe. The two Gods stood on the rainbow Ama-n0-ukihasha and Izangi plunged a spear into the ocean. When the spear was pulled out the drips of water off the spear formed the first of the Japanese archipelago. They then settled on the Island and from here they made the surrounding Islands. Izanami died giving birth so Izangi went to the underworld to retrieve her but instead they parted forever. Upon Izanami's return to the Islands he started his cleansing rites and in doing so he created the Goddess of the seas and the Goddess of the moon by washing his left and right eyes. He then created the God of storms out of his nostril and after all this was done he created the first humans. Shinto nature of god & creator is called kami. The best English translation of kami is 'spirits', but this is an over-simplification of a complex concept - kami can be elements of the landscape or forces of nature. Kami are close to human beings and respond to human prayers. They can influence the course of natural forces, and human events.Shinto tradition says that there are eight million million kami in Japan. The idea that kami are the same as God stems in part from the use of the word kami to translate the word 'God' in some 19th century translations of the Bible into Japanese.This caused a great deal of confusion even among Japanese: the Shinto theologian Ueda Kenji estimated in 1990 that nearly 65% of entering students now associate the Japanese term kami with some version of the Western concept of a supreme being.The next section shows that kami are actually very different from the Western concept of God.
Nature of God/Creator
Shintoists would say that this is because human beings are simply incapable of forming a true understanding of the nature of kami. To make understanding easier kami are often described as divine beings, as spirits or gods. But kami are not much like the gods of other faiths: Kami are not divine like the transcendent and omnipotent deities found in many religions. Kami are not omnipotent. Kami are not perfect - they sometimes make mistakes and behave badly. Kami are not inherently different in kind from human beings or nature - they are just a higher manifestation of the life energy... an extraordinary or awesome version. Kami don't exist in a supernatural universe - they live in the same world as human beings and the world of nature Kami include the gods that created the universe, but can also include: The spirits that inhabit many living beings Some beings themselves Elements of the landscape, like mountains and lakes Powerful forces of nature, like storms and earthquakes human beings who became kami after their deaths. Human nature in Japan has been blessed with a rich natural climate, and it enjoys clearly demarcated seasons of spring, summer, fall, and winter. This continuous cycle of four seasons has provided a richness and bounty to the lives of the Japanese people. Deeply indebted to the blessing of nature, the Japanese people came to acknowledge spiritual powers which brought about life, fertility, and prosperity. The natural life-power which gave birth to things was called Musubi (divine power of growth), and this divine musubi - namely, a divine nature and power - was perceived in the manifold workings and phenomena of nature. At the same time, the Japanese people have long revered their ancestors who enormously contributed to the goodness of a society by enthronement of their spirits as the divine. These deities are classified by individual names in accordance with the specific nature of their spiritual powers. No hierarchy is found among most of the Japanese deities, but they form a single divine realm centered on Amaterasu Omikami, a representation of the sun, and revered as ancestor of the Japanese people including the Imperial Family. Since the Japanese people felt the blessings and workings of the divine within such a broad variety of natural phenomena, they came to hold the ideal of a life which was in harmony with and united with nature. Mountains with heroic peaks, deep valleys, and the wide ocean were also viewed as dwellings for the divine, and other natural objects such as evergreen trees and huge rocks were considered to be media or symbols of divine spirits. The divine spirit dwells in all of nature, and brings joy and bounty to our lives. Through intimate contact with nature, the Japanese people have continued to imbibe its breath of life. Shinto ethics start from the basic idea that human beings are good, and that the world is good. Evil enters the world from outside, brought by evil spirits. These affect human beings in a similar way to disease, and reduce their ability to resist temptation. When human beings act wrongly, they bring pollution and sin upon themselves, which obstructs the flow of life and blessing from the kami. Things which are usually regarded as bad in Shinto are: things which disturb kami, things which disturb the worship of kami, things which disrupt the harmony of the world, things which disrupt the natural world, things which disrupt the social order, things which disrupt the group of which one is a member (BBC © 2014) Salvation in Shinto, a religion indigenous to Japan, the concept of salvation is based on the belief that all living things have an essence, soul or spirit known as "kami." Rather than living in a glorified Heaven,
View of Human Nature
View of Good & Evil
View of Salvation
kami live among us. Some kami are more powerful than others. Some are even deified. But all kami must be honored. People who die violently, lead unhappy lives, or have no family to care for their kami become hungry ghosts, causing trouble for the living (Debra Kraft). Unlike many religions, one does not need to publicly profess belief in Shintō to be a Shintōist. Whenever a child is born in Japan, a local Shintō shrine adds the child’s name to a list kept at the shrine and declares him or her ujiko, lit. name child. After death an ujiko becomes an ujigami, lit. name kami. One may choose to have one’s name added to another list when moving and then be listed at both places. Names can be added to the list without consent and regardless of the beliefs of the person added to the list. However, this is not considered an imposition of belief, but a sign of the welcome of the area kami, with the promise of addition to the pantheon of kami after death. Those children who die before addition to the list are called mizuko, lit. water child, and believed to cause troubles and plagues. Mizuko are often worshipped in a Shintō shrine dedicated to stilling their anger and sadness. These shrines have become more popular with the growth of abortion in modern Japan. Because Shintō has co-existed with Buddhism for well over a millennium, it is very difficult to disentangle Shintō and Buddhist beliefs about the world. One might say that where Buddhism emphasizes the afterlife and ending the cycle of rebirths, Shintō emphasizes this life and finding happiness within it. Though Buddhism and Shintō have very different perspectives on the world, most Japanese do not see any need to reconcile these two very different religions and practice both. Thus, it is common for people to practice Shintō in life yet have a Buddhist funeral. Their different perspectives on the afterlife are seen as complementing each other, and frequently the ritual practice of one will have an origin in the other. Shinto rituals are a central component of most of the national festivals in Japan, as well as of the more specialized events at particular shrines and other sacred sites. Most often they are performed by male priests who are assisted by a female shrine functionary called a miko, who often is a shaman. The most common type of ritual involves purification - symbolically purifying oneself or an object before interacting with the kami (Shinto gods). Purification is done with water (rinsing, washing, bathing) or with the priest's wand. Other common rituals include the formal reading of prayers from ancient collections, and making food and drink offerings to the kami (which is later shared in a communal meal). Again, these are done by priests. Shinto rituals are usually just one part of a type of large public festival called a matsuri, which is the main kind of celebration in Shinto. Hundreds and thousands of them fill the calendar thought the year. They are community-oriented festival which mark all sorts of things: seasons in nature, the New Year, chrysanthemum blooms, cherry blossoms, events from the Shinto mythologies, Japanese history, agricultural traditions and more. Other Shinto rituals are performed during smaller, more local or even private festivals. These mark stages of life, such as births, rites of passage in the early years of a child's life, marriages, and funerals. Finally, there are common rituals performed by individuals when they visit shrines - ritual washing, making offerings, clapping hands, and bowing. Important to remember here is that all these rituals are designed for communication with the gods, or kami. Sometimes that communication is one-way (from the human to the kami) in which people express thanks, make requests and offer praise to the kami. At other times, that communication is two-way (from human to
View of After Life
Practices and Rituals
kami and from kami too human) in which people use the priest or miko as a mediator between them and the kami to get answers to important questions or to learn solutions to problems in their lives. Regardless, these rituals do for the Shinto community what other rituals do for the people of every other religion: provide a means of worshipping and encountering whatever is considered divine or "ultimate" in way that is meaningful and brings order to life in a world that often feels chaotic. The word matsuri can refer to any occasion for offering thanks and praise to a deity at a shrine. It comes from a word meaning 'to entertain' or 'to serve'. Matsuri is also used to refer to Shinto festivals. Shinto festivals generally combine solemn rituals with joyful celebration, and these celebrations can include drunken and loutish behaviour. Some writers have found a religious meaning in the vulgar behaviour as a sort of sacred transgression. To Western eyes the combination of extreme solemnity and vulgar revelry can seem irreverent, but the mix of very different moods is an important feature that may encapsulate the intimate relationship that Shinto has with the world as it really exists. Festivals centre on particular kami, who are treated as the guests of honour at the event. The celebrations are very physical events, and may include processions, dramatic performances, sumo wrestling, and feasting. They are bright, colourful, and loud, aromatic with the smells of food, and involve much activity - these performance elements perhaps parallel in their own way the importance of aesthetic and sensual pleasingness in shrine worship. The processions often feature a mikoshi, a 'divine palanquin', used to carry a kami (or an image of a kami). The mikoshi is often described as a portable altar or portable shrine. The procession of the mikoshi is effectively a visit by the kami of the shrine to the local community that is devoted to them, and is thought to confer a blessing on that community. Because Shinto originates in the agricultural prehistory of Japan, most of its festivals are tied to the farming seasons. http://562605110806211704.weehttp://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/relhttp://www.jref.com/articles/shintbly.com/origins-of-the-igions/shinto/beliefs/kami_1.shtmo.27/ universe.html l http://www.world-religions-http://www.jinjahoncho.or.jp/en/http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.cprofessor.com/shintorituals.html view/ om/shinto-salvation-3538.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/holydays/matsuri.shtml


Week 5 Shinto “The goddess of the sun, Amaterasu, was born from the left eye of the god Izanagi. The god of the wind Susanoo, was born from his nose, and the god Tsukiyomi was born from his right eye. Izanagi gave Amaterasu charge of the heavens, Susanoo of “The most ancient forms of spirituality in Japan were probably linked to the spirits perceived in the natural world-the kami.” This is the defining feature in Shintoism. Shintoism is a polytheistic religion. Amaterasu is the sun goddess. p.224 Shinto view of human nature is that people are basically good and they are part of the natural realm which is sacred. They have a kinship with nature, natural beauty and symmetry are very important. They organize their lives around the seasons. P.222, 223 “In the traditions collectively referred to as Shinto the world is beautiful and full of helpful spirits. Ritual impurity is a serious problem that obscures our originally pristine nature; it may offend the kami and bring about calamities, such as drought, famine, or Shinto worshippers view salvation by welcoming the kami into everyday life. “Salvation therefore means making the ordinary sacred so that life here and now becomes the best it can be.” “The Shinto religion teaches that every human has an eternal soul or spirit. After death, it is believed that the spirits inhabit the other world, where deities reside. There is not one other world, but several, including takamanohara (heaven, where the “To properly encourage the spirit of the kami to dwell in a shrine, long and complex ceremonies are needed.” “Everything has symbolic importance, so rites are conducted with great care.” p.230,231 Shintoism has many water purification rituals. Many followers of Shinto have a Common features of popular Japanese culture are shrine worship as a festival. They are throughout a person’s life. The first is 4 months before a baby is born, this is when the soul enters the baby. These festivals continue with shrine initiation by the deity the sea, and Tsukyomi of the night.” p.225 war. The quality of impurity or misfortune is called tsumi or kegare. The body and mind must be purified so that the person can be connected with kami that are clean, bright, right, and straight.” p.232 principal deities reside), yomi (the underworld and domain of the divine mother of Japan) and tokoyo (located somewhere past the sea). The other world is neither a paradise where the good are rewarded, nor a hell where the bad are punished. It is very much like this world.” http://classroom.synonym.com/after-death-beliefs-japanese-people-17439.html shrine in their own home. Ancestor worship is very important. when the baby is about one month old. In traditional family’s there are many more milestones; age thirteen, sixteen, marriage, turning seventy-seven, all are celebrated with spiritual awareness and ritualism. New Years is one of the biggest celebrations they have. Wk. 5 sources Fisher, M.P. (2014) Living Religions Pearson: Upper Saddle River, NJ text text Text http://www.papertrell.co

Cosmogony - Origin of the Universe
The most prestigious religion in Japan. It is an optimistic faith as humans are thought to be fundamentally good and evil and believed to be caused by evil spirits. The primary purpose of Shinto is to keep away evil spirts by purification, prayers and offerings to the kami. The most ancient form of spirituality in Japan is Kami. This is the invisible sacred quality that evokes wonder and awe in us and also for invisible spirits throughout nature that are born of this essence. (Fisher, 2014. p 224) They believe all things whatsoever which deserve to be dreaded and revered for the extraordinary and preeminent powers which they possess….(Kami) need not be preeminent for surpassing nobleness, goodness, or serviceableness alone. Malignant and uncanny brings are also called kami, if only they are the objects of general dread. (Fisher, 2014. p 224) They believe that humans are born good. They believe that bad things are created by humans and their actions later in life. They all believe that the concept of salvation is based on the belief that all living things have an essence, soul or spirit known as “kami” They believe in accordance with the afterlife and that the human spirit is to remain forever as like the spirit of kami. They believe in purification by waterfall. They use the cleansing power of water, plentiful in natural Japan. It is used for spiritual purification in Shinto, a practice generally known as misogi. One may take a ritual bath in the ocean source of life. A believer may stand beneath a waterfall, letting its force hit his or her shoulders and carry impurities and tensions away. They believe in these practices and they also believe the waterfall is the kami. (Fisher, 2014. p 233) They have many festivals each year. These include the Spring Festival, Harvest Festival. They also celebrate the New Year, child birth, coming of age, weddings and groundbreaking ceremonies for new building. (Fisher, 2014. pp 230-232)
View of After Life Daoist focused more on life than the afterlife. However, they worshiped their ancestors. “They provided them with funeral offerings such as ornaments, pottery and tools, suggesting belief in an afterlife in which they could use them”. The spirts of the deceased ancestors were thought to remain closely bonded to their living descendants for some time”. Fisher, 2014, p.189 “Confucius said relatively little about the supernatural, preferring to focus on the here-and-now; “while you are not able to serve men, how can you serve the ghosts and spirits?” “He made a virtue of li (the rites honoring ancestors and deities), suggesting that one make the sacrifices with the feeling that the spirits were present. Rites should not be empty gestures, they be outwardly simple and inwardly grounded in ren”. Fisher, 2014, p.211 There are many practices that derive from Daoism, Acupuncture therapy” which is based on the idea that qi flows through the body in channels or meridians”. Taiji quan “was developed as a training for martial arts”. “A slow swimming in the air, with continual circular movement through a series of dance-like postures”. “These are considered manifestations of the unobstructed flow of qi through the body”. Fisher, 2014, p. 206 Confucianism – it’s said that conferences have been held in China to discuss Confucianism. Today it is being analyzed not as an historical artifact but as a tradition that is relevant in modern life. To contribute significantly to cultural identity, economic progress, social harmony and a personal sense of the meaning of human life.” Fisher, 2014, p. 215 The Lantern Festival – with is at the endo of Chinese New Year celebrations.” This begins of the 23rd or 24th day of the 12th month of the lunar year, which is thought to be the day the gods go to heaven to offer their respect to the supreme deity, the Jade Emperor”. Fisher, 2014, p.202 “The home of Confucius, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, and millions of tourist now visit the temple for gala celebrations of Master Kong’s birthday.” Fisher, 2014, p.217 Fisher, M. P. (2014), Living Religions, Ninth Edition Practices and Rituals Celebrations & Festivals





View of After Life
Daoist focused more on life than the afterlife. However, they worshiped their ancestors. “They provided them with funeral offerings such as ornaments, pottery and tools, suggesting belief in an afterlife in which they could use them”. The spirts of the deceased ancestors were thought to remain closely bonded to their living descendants for some time”. Fisher, 2014, p.189 Confucius said relatively little about the supernatural, preferring to focus on the here-and-now; “while you are not able to serve men, how can you serve the ghosts and spirits?” “He made a virtue of li (the rites honoring ancestors and deities), suggesting that one make the sacrifices with the feeling that the spirits were present. Rites should not be empty gestures, they be outwardly simple and inwardly grounded in ren”. Fisher, 2014, p.211 There are many practices that derive from Daoism, Acupuncture therapy” which is based on the idea that qi flows through the body in channels or meridians”. Taiji quan “was developed as a training for martial arts”. “A slow swimming in the air, with continual circular movement through a series of dance-like postures”. “These are considered manifestations of the unobstructed flow of qi through the body”. Fisher, 2014, p. 206 Confucianism it’s said that conferences have been held in China to discuss Confucianism. Today it is being analyzed not as an historical artifact but as a tradition that is relevant in modern life. To contribute significantly to cultural identity, economic progress, social harmony and a personal sense of the meaning of human life.” Fisher, 2014, p. 215 The Lantern Festival with is at the endo of Chinese New Year celebrations.” This begins of the 23rd or 24th day of the 12th month of the lunar year, which is thought to be the day the gods go to heaven to offer their respect to the supreme deity, the Jade Emperor”. Fisher, 2014, p.202 “The home of Confucius, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site, and millions of tourist now visit the temple for gala celebrations of Master Kong’s birthday.” Fisher, 2014, p.217 Fisher, M. P. (2014), Living Religions, Ninth Edition
Practices and Rituals
Celebrations & Festivals
Week 4 - Sources
WEEK 5 SHINTO Cosmogony - Origin of the Universe
“The most ancient forms of spirituality in Japan were probably linked to the spirits perceived in the natural world-the Kami”. “It means, literally, “that which is above,” and also refers to that which evokes wonder an awe in us. “It harmonizes heaven and earth and also guides the solar system and the cosmos”. “It/they tend to reside in beautiful or powerful places”. Fisher, 2014, p.224
Nature of God/Creator
“Mount Fuji, with its perfect cone rising dramatically from the surrounding plains, was honored as the sacred embodiment of the divine creativity that had thrust the land up from the sea”. Fisher, 2014, p.223 “The deity gave birth to many kami, or spirits, two of which-the Amatsu (heavenly) kami-were told to organize the material world”. “The Amatsu kami also gave birth to the ancestors of the Japanese”. “All of the natural world-land, trees, mountains, waters, animals, people-is thus joined in kinship as the spiritual creation of the kami”. Fisher, 2014, p.226 Living close to nature, they organized their lives around the turn of the seasons, honoring the roles of the sun, moon, and lightning in their rice farming”. Fisher, 2014, p.223 “The earliest ways of kami worship resembled indigenous religious ways in others parts of the world-carried on in open-air sites without building, but perhaps with efforts to propitiate the kami by specialists in communicating with them”. Fisher, 2014, p.224 “The quality of impurity or misfortune is called tsumi or kegare”. It can arise through contact with low-level spirits, negative energy from corpses, negative vibrations from wicked minds, hostility toward others or the environment, or through natural catastrophes”. “The body and mind bust be purified so that the person can be connected with kami that are clean, bright, right and straight”. Fisher, 2014, p.232 “Following the way or nature of the kami’. “Kannagara means being in communion with all forms of beauty and so with the highest level of experiences of life.” “According to the Kami, they are expressing kannagara in their lives’. living to the natural flow of the universe will benefit and develop by so doing”. Fisher, 2014, p.226 With spiritual practices such as divination, healing and communication with ancestors looked down on a superstition”. “Such practices never totally died out”. “In rural areas, certain women had long been acting as shamans by falling into trances, in which the kami would speak through them”. Fisher, 2014, p.236 “The main shrine is the place of worship of the kami Ameraterasu, and its secret inner sanctum, entered only by selected priests, is thought to hold the Sacred Mirror, which is believed to have been given to the first emperor by the gods”. Fisher, 2014 p. 228 “Inside the shrine visitors may throw coins into an offering box, stand praying with bowed head, clap their hands twice, and pull a rope attached to a suspended metal gourd that clatters to set up vibrations in the air attracting the kami so one can communicate with them and chase evil spirits”. Fisher, 2014, p.230 “The Japanese may go to Shinto shrines for life-affirming events, such as conception, birth, and marriage, and to Buddhist temples for death rites. A Shinto shrine is maintained as a clean place for kami.”. Dead bodies would defile the shrine, so Buddhist temples have long managed funerals”. Fisher, 2014, p.235 Fisher, M. P. (2014), Living Religions, Ninth Edition

Shinto
The Shinto
manner of
the Kami is
the call of
the religion
of Japan that
became first
used within
the 6th
century.
Shinto of
Kami isn't
god or gods.
They're
spirits which
might be
concerned
with humans
and admire
our interest
Shinto:
Human
beings reply
to the silent
and
provocative
beauty of
the natural
order, and
they're
Shinto: The
purity is at
the heart of
Shinto's
information
of right and
wrong.
Impurity is
something
which
Shinto is all
forms of
Kami, and
there's no
heaven that
the Kami
stays among
us. When
you die, it
isn't always
Shinto
believes the
human spirit
is to remain
the spirit of
Kami
forever. The
spirits stay
in some
other global
Shinto: The
everyday
recurring
begins with
greeting the
sun in the
east with
clapping and
a prayer for
safety for
Shinto:
Many
occasions of
a proposal
of thank you
and reward
to a deity at
a shrine and
to derive
from a
Shinto has
no founder,
no reliable
sacred texts,
and no
formalized
system of
doctrine.
Fisher,
2014, p.
222.
and need us
to be happy
and treated
accurately.
They'll
intervene in
our lives to
carry
benefits like
fitness,
business
achievement,
and excellent
exam
outcomes.
Fisher, p.
aware of
Kannagara.
They return
to existence
in a
comparable
manner;
with the aid
of the
following
approaches
to the Kami,
and
expressing
Kannagara
of their
separates us
from Kami
of the
creative and
harmonizing
power, and
that makes
us impure
are Tsumi in
pollutants or
sin. Fisher,
2014, p.
232.
of actual
death, and it
does not
believe in
life after the
loss of life.
Death is the
end and all
of us who
dies turns
into Kami.
Fisher,
2014, p.
226.
form, and
recognize
another
general form
of Heaven,
wherein the
Supreme
famous and
renowned
deities
dwell.
Contrasting
this world is
the
alternative
world,
the family.
Offerings to
vicinity
before the
shrine
together
with rice for
wealth,
water for
cleaning and
preservation
of life, and
salt for
purification.
Fisher,
2014, p.
phrase that
means to
entertain or
to serve.
Shinto fairs
mixed with
solemn
rituals with
the happy
birthday’s
celebration,
seasonal
festivals,
and the
biggest
celebrating



Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Lotus Sutra
    Correct Answer:
     
    Lotus Sutra

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Bhikshu
    Correct Answer:
     
    Bhikshu

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Sangha
    Correct Answer:
     
    Sangha

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rituals
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rituals

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Samsara
    Correct Answer:
     
    Samsara

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A major theme of Daoism is __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    harmony with nature
    Correct Answer:
     
    harmony with nature

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The word Jain derives from this term, meaning “winner over one’s passions.”
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Jina
    Correct Answer:
     
    Jina

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments
    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Lotus Sutra
    Correct Answer:
     
    Lotus Sutra

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How many limited vows apply to Jain monks?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Twelve
    Correct Answer:
     
    Twelve

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
_____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
Given Answer:
Correct 
Rituals
Correct Answer:
 
Rituals
Correct
Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
neutral
Correct 


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments
    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rig Veda
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rig Veda

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Bhikshu
    Correct Answer:
     
    Bhikshu

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rituals
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rituals

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Lotus Sutra
    Correct Answer:
     
    Lotus Sutra

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How many limited vows apply to Jain monks?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Twelve
    Correct Answer:
     
    Twelve

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Chan Buddhism focuses predominantly on
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    meditation
    Correct Answer:
     
    meditation

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
Correct 

Answer:
 
uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A major theme of Daoism is __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    harmony with nature
    Correct Answer:
     
    harmony with nature

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Samsara
    Correct Answer:
     
    Samsara

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Sangha
    Correct Answer:
     
    Sangha

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The word Jain derives from this term, meaning “winner over one’s passions.”
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Jina
    Correct Answer:
     
    Jina

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments
    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rig Veda
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rig Veda

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
li
Correct Answer:
 
li




Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Lotus Sutra
    Correct Answer:
     
    Lotus Sutra

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Bhikshu
    Correct Answer:
     
    Bhikshu

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Sangha
    Correct Answer:
     
    Sangha

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rituals
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rituals

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
neutral
Correct An

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Lotus Sutra
    Correct Answer:
     
    Lotus Sutra

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Bhikshu
    Correct Answer:
     
    Bhikshu

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    neutral
    Correct Answer:
     
    neutral

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Samsara
    Correct Answer:
     
    Samsara

Question 9:   Multiple Choice


  1. The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________.


    Correct Answer:
     
    Sangha

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 11:   Multiple Choice


  1. Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.


    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A major theme of Daoism is __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    harmony with nature
    Correct Answer:
     
    harmony with nature

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Pali Canon
    Correct Answer:
     
    Pali Canon

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Jiva means __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    soul
    Correct Answer:
     
    soul

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________.
Given Answer:
Correct 
Rig Veda
Correct Answer:
 
Rig Veda
swer:



 
neutral






 
neutral
224.
lives. Shinto
is dwelling
consistent
with the
natural float
of the
universe and
could gain
and broaden
through
doing so.
Fisher,
2014, p.
226.
which is
believed to
connect with
the lifeless.
Fisher,
2014, p.
229.
231.
the New
Year. The
time for
house
cleaning
ceremonials
and wearing
kimonos.
Fisher,
2014, p.
231.
Week 6 Judaism
 

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahavira
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahavira

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A major theme of Daoism is __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    harmony with nature
    Correct Answer:
     
    harmony with nature

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    neutral
    Correct Answer:
     
    neutral

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments
    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rituals
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rituals

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Chan Buddhism focuses predominantly on
Given Answer:
Correct 
meditation

Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations
    Correct Answer:
     
    relegated to the fringes of religious organizations

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major teachers in Janism are called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Tirthankaras
    Correct Answer:
     
    Tirthankaras

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Feng Shui
    Correct Answer:
     
    Feng Shui

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahatma Gandhi

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mahavira
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mahavira

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Guru
    Correct Answer:
     
    Guru

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    in secret
    Correct Answer:
     
    in secret

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    editing
    Correct Answer:
     
    editing

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A major theme of Daoism is __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    harmony with nature
    Correct Answer:
     
    harmony with nature

Question 11:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Vodou
    Correct Answer:
     
    Vodou

Question 12:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Circle
    Correct Answer:
     
    Circle

Question 13:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Mengzi
    Correct Answer:
     
    Mengzi

Question 14:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    neutral
    Correct Answer:
     
    neutral

Question 15:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    li
    Correct Answer:
     
    li

Question 16:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Dao
    Correct Answer:
     
    Dao

Question 17:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments
    Correct Answer:
     
    a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments

Question 18:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    caste
    Correct Answer:
     
    caste

Question 19:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Rituals
    Correct Answer:
     
    Rituals

Question 20:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Chan Buddhism focuses predominantly on
Given Answer:
Correct 
meditation
Correct Answer:
 
meditation
Correct Answer:
 
meditation
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions. Given Answer: Correct Rituals Correct Answer: Rituals out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________. Given Answer: Correct Rig Veda Correct Answer: Rig Veda out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________. Given Answer: Correct Samsara Correct Answer: Samsara out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct The major teachers in Janism are called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Tirthankaras Correct Answer: Tirthankaras out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________. Given Answer: Correct relegated to the fringes of religious organizations Correct Answer: relegated to the fringes of religious organizations out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born. Given Answer: Correct Mengzi Correct Answer: Mengzi out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________. Given Answer: Correct a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments Correct Answer: a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture. Given Answer: Correct editing Correct Answer: editing out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct How many limited vows apply to Jain monks? Given Answer: Correct Twelve Correct Answer: Twelve out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________. Given Answer: Correct neutral Correct Answer: neutral out of 5 points Question 11: Multiple Choice Correct The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahavira Correct Answer: Mahavira out of 5 points Question 12: Multiple Choice Correct The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________. Given Answer: Correct Feng Shui Correct Answer: Feng Shui out of 5 points Question 13: Multiple Choice Correct Jiva means __________. Given Answer: Correct soul Correct Answer: soul out of 5 points Question 14: Multiple Choice Correct The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahatma Gandhi Correct Answer: Mahatma Gandhi out of 5 points Question 15: Multiple Choice Correct When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________. Given Answer: Correct in secret Correct Answer: in secret out of 5 points Question 16: Multiple Choice Correct The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Dao Correct Answer: Dao out of 5 points Question 17: Multiple Choice Correct A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________. Given Answer: Correct Circle Correct Answer: Circle out of 5 points Question 18: Multiple Choice Correct What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher? Given Answer: Correct Guru Correct Answer: Guru out of 5 points Question 19: Multiple Choice Correct Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________. Given Answer: Correct li Correct Answer: li out of 5 points Question 20: Multiple Choice Correct An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________. Given Answer: Correct uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea Correct Answer: uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Sangha Correct Answer: Sangha out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct _____________ are predicted, repeated actions and may be individual or group led actions. Given Answer: Correct Rituals Correct Answer: Rituals out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher? Given Answer: Correct Guru Correct Answer: Guru out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Dao Correct Answer: Dao out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________. Given Answer: Correct li Correct Answer: li out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________. Given Answer: Correct Lotus Sutra Correct Answer: Lotus Sutra out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct How many limited vows apply to Jain monks? Given Answer: Correct Twelve Correct Answer: Twelve out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________. Given Answer: Correct relegated to the fringes of religious organizations Correct Answer: relegated to the fringes of religious organizations out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Jiva means __________. Given Answer: Correct soul Correct Answer: soul out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________. Given Answer: Correct neutral Correct Answer: neutral out of 5 points Question 11: Multiple Choice Correct The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________. Given Answer: Correct Samsara Correct Answer: Samsara out of 5 points Question 12: Multiple Choice Correct When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________. Given Answer: Correct in secret Correct Answer: in secret out of 5 points Question 13: Multiple Choice Incorrect A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________. Given Answer: Incorrect Anitya Correct Answer: Bhikshu out of 5 points Question 14: Multiple Choice Correct Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________. Given Answer: Correct a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments Correct Answer: a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments out of 5 points Question 15: Multiple Choice Correct The major teachers in Janism are called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Tirthankaras Correct Answer: Tirthankaras out of 5 points Question 16: Multiple Choice Correct The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________. Given Answer: Correct Feng Shui Correct Answer: Feng Shui out of 5 points Question 17: Multiple Choice Correct The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahatma Gandhi Correct Answer: Mahatma Gandhi out of 5 points Question 18: Multiple Choice Incorrect The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________. Given Answer: Incorrect Zoroaster Correct Answer: Mahavira out of 5 points Question 19: Multiple Choice Correct A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born. Given Answer: Correct Mengzi Correct Answer: Mengzi out of 5 points Question 20: Multiple Choice Correct A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________. Given Answer: Correct Circle Correct Answer: Circle
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Jiva means __________. Given Answer: Correct soul Correct Answer: soul out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct The father of modern, independent India who taught nonviolent resistance to military and industrial oppression was __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahatma Gandhi Correct Answer: Mahatma Gandhi out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________. Given Answer: Correct Rig Veda Correct Answer: Rig Veda out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born. Given Answer: Correct Mengzi Correct Answer: Mengzi out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________. Given Answer: Correct caste Correct Answer: caste out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________. Given Answer: Correct Feng Shui Correct Answer: Feng Shui out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________. Given Answer: Correct neutral Correct Answer: neutral out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Pali Canon Correct Answer: Pali Canon out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct The word Jain derives from this term, meaning “winner over one’s passions.” Given Answer: Correct Jina Correct Answer: Jina out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________. Given Answer: Correct Samsara Correct Answer: Samsara out of 5 points Question 11: Multiple Choice Correct A monk or a nun who renounces worldliness for the sake of following the path of liberation is called a __________. Given Answer: Correct Bhikshu Correct Answer: Bhikshu out of 5 points Question 12: Multiple Choice Correct Indigenous spirituality may be described as __________. Given Answer: Correct a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments Correct Answer: a lifeway that ideally pervades all moments out of 5 points Question 13: Multiple Choice Correct Chan Buddhism focuses predominantly on Given Answer: Correct meditation Correct Answer: meditation out of 5 points Question 14: Multiple Choice Correct The major teachers in Janism are called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Tirthankaras Correct Answer: Tirthankaras out of 5 points Question 15: Multiple Choice Correct A symbol for the unity of all things that many indigenous cultures use is that of the __________. Given Answer: Correct Circle Correct Answer: Circle out of 5 points Question 16: Multiple Choice Correct The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahavira Correct Answer: Mahavira out of 5 points Question 17: Multiple Choice Correct The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Sangha Correct Answer: Sangha out of 5 points Question 18: Multiple Choice Correct The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Dao Correct Answer: Dao out of 5 points Question 19: Multiple Choice Correct In patriarchal institutionalized religions, women have been __________. Given Answer: Correct relegated to the fringes of religious organizations Correct Answer: relegated to the fringes of religious organizations out of 5 points Question 20: Multiple Choice Correct What is the name for a Hindu spiritual teacher? Given Answer: Correct Guru Correct Answer: Guru
Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct The founder of Buddhism was a contemporary of __________. Given Answer: Correct Mahavira Correct Answer: Mahavira out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct A major theme of Daoism is __________. Given Answer: Correct harmony with nature Correct Answer: harmony with nature out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct The Japanese teacher Nichiren believed that the essence of Buddhism could be found in the __________. Given Answer: Correct Lotus Sutra Correct Answer: Lotus Sutra out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct The oldest of the known Vedic scriptures is the __________. Given Answer: Correct Rig Veda Correct Answer: Rig Veda out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct The monastic order that developed from the Buddha’s early disciples is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Sangha Correct Answer: Sangha out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct The karma-run wheel of birth, death, and rebirth is called __________. Given Answer: Correct Samsara Correct Answer: Samsara out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Sacred rituals that are especially important in the veneration of ancestors are called __________. Given Answer: Correct li Correct Answer: li out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Chan Buddhism focuses predominantly on Given Answer: Correct meditation Correct Answer: meditation out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Buddhists who follow the Theravada tradition study a large collection of ancient scriptures called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Pali Canon Correct Answer: Pali Canon out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct When indigenous ways were threatened with repression, many of the traditions were practiced __________. Given Answer: Correct in secret Correct Answer: in secret out of 5 points Question 11: Multiple Choice Correct The complex system of hierarchies and inequalities that constitutes life in India is referred to by the English word __________. Given Answer: Correct caste Correct Answer: caste out of 5 points Question 12: Multiple Choice Correct The Dahomey tradition from West Africa was carried to Haiti by African slaves and called __________. Given Answer: Correct Vodou Correct Answer: Vodou out of 5 points Question 13: Multiple Choice Correct The practice that helps one determine the harmonious placement of a building or objects is known as __________. Given Answer: Correct Feng Shui Correct Answer: Feng Shui out of 5 points Question 14: Multiple Choice Correct The word Jain derives from this term, meaning “winner over one’s passions.” Given Answer: Correct Jina Correct Answer: Jina out of 5 points Question 15: Multiple Choice Correct Redaction refers to the __________ of scripture. Given Answer: Correct editing Correct Answer: editing out of 5 points Question 16: Multiple Choice Correct A little over one hundred years after Confucius died, a “Second Sage” named __________ was born. Given Answer: Correct Mengzi Correct Answer: Mengzi out of 5 points Question 17: Multiple Choice Correct The creative rhythm of the universe is called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Dao Correct Answer: Dao out of 5 points Question 18: Multiple Choice Correct An allegory is an effective kind of religious narrative because it __________. Given Answer: Correct uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea Correct Answer: uses symbolic language to convey an abstract idea out of 5 points Question 19: Multiple Choice Correct Among shamans, medicine power is considered spiritually __________. Given Answer: Correct neutral Correct Answer: neutral out of 5 points Question 20: Multiple Choice Correct The major teachers in Janism are called the __________. Given Answer: Correct Tirthankaras Correct Answer: Tirthankaras