Tuesday, January 10, 2017

HIS 105 Week 2 Winter 2017

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.
We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 - 7:40; and, at 9:00 pm - 9:10 pm. I will take roll after the second break before you are dismissed at 10 pm.

Exercise:

I wish my professor knew . . .

Beyond the Sound Bites

Obama in 1995, Identity Politics Speech: Presidential Talk
Speech
watch-this-rare-recently-surfaced-speech-old-obama-speech
flashback-video-presidents-colorful-including-obamas-btch-nigga-buy-damn-fries
extremely-vulgar-comments-that-came-out-of-the-mouth-of-hillary

Review from last week:


 17 The Industrial Revolution

17-1 The Industrial Revolution

The Basic Industries

Technology

Innovative Financing, Law, and Business Practices

17-2 The National Market: Creating Consumer Demand

Advertising

National Brands

Stores and Mail Order

Harmful Business Practices

Working Conditions

17-3 The Politics of the Industrial Age

Justifications of the Industrial Order

Political Corruption

Political Divisions

17-4 The Rise of Labor

The Railroad Strike of 1877

The Struggle over Union Expansion

The Knights of Labor

Growth and Frustrations

The Rise of the AFL

Labor and Politics





Fighting 69th, or the "Fighting Irish," the Notre Dame University logo:


69th Infantry Regiment (New York)

/ 40.74139; -73.98389
69th Infantry Regiment
69th INF REG COA.gif
69th Infantry Regiment coat of arms
Active 1849 - Present
Country United States
Branch United States Army
Type Infantry
Role Light infantry
Size One battalion
Garrison/HQ New York City & Long Island
Nickname(s) Fighting Sixty-Ninth (special designation)[1]
Motto Gentle When Stroked; Fierce when Provoked
Battle Cries - "Faugh a Ballagh" ("Clear The Way!") (Civil War) "Garryowen in Glory!" (WW1)
Colors Green
March Garryowen
0:00
Mascot Irish Wolfhound
Anniversaries 17 March (St Patrick's Day)
Engagements Afghanistan Campaign
Hindu Kush 2009
Iraqi Campaign
Baghdad 2005
Radwiniyah 2004
Taji 2004
World War II
Okinawa, Japan 1945
Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands 1944
Makin Island, Kiribati 1943
World War I
Meuse-Argonne, France 1918
St. Mihiel, France 1918
Château-Thierry, France 1918
Champage, France 1918
Rouge Boquet Chausailles, France 1917
American Civil War
Appomattox, VA 1865
Petersburg, VA 1864
Gettysburg, PA 1863
Chancellorsville, VA 1863
Fredericksburg, VA 1862
Antietam, MD 1862
Yorktown, VA 1862
Manassass, VA 1861
Commanders
Current
commander
Sean M. Flynn
Notable
commanders
Michael Corcoran
Thomas Francis Meagher
"Wild Bill" Donovan
Martin H. Foery
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia 69TH INFANTRY.png
U.S. Infantry Regiments
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68th Infantry Regiment 70th Infantry Regiment
U.S. Infantry Regiments
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164th Infantry Regiment 168th Infantry Regiment
The 69th Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Army. It is from New York City, part of the New York Army National Guard. It is known as the "Fighting Sixty-Ninth",[1] a name said to have been given by Robert E. Lee during the Civil War. An Irish heritage unit, as the citation from poet Joyce Kilmer illustrates, this unit is also nicknamed the "Fighting Irish", immortalized in Joyce Kilmer's poem When the 69th Comes Home.[2][3] Between 1917 and 1992 it was also designated as the 165th Infantry Regiment. It is headquartered at the 69th Regiment Armory in Manhattan.
The regiment currently consists of a single light infantry battalion (1st Battalion, 69th Infantry Regiment) and is part of the 27th Infantry Brigade of the 42nd Infantry Division. Its history dates back to 1849, when it was created as the 9th Regiment New York State Militia, and A Company, 1/69 can trace roots back to the American Revolution. The regiment has seen combat in five wars: the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Iraq War and the Afghanistan War. It has also participated in 23 campaigns, so many that the staffs of its regimental colors are authorized to be one foot longer than normal to accommodate them all.

Early history and lineage

Late in the 20th century, the U.S. Army changed the lineage and the founding date of the 69th Regiment from 1851 to 21 December 1849 with Company A, 1st Battalion descending from the 8th Company of the 1st New York Regiment of the American Revolutionary War.

Irish Revolutionary Movement origins]

After the failed Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, Irish revolutionary activity moved to New York City. Irish patriots believed they needed an Irish Brigade to free Ireland from Britain. In late 1848, they organized independent military companies in the city. Drills were held at the Center Market and by mid-1849 a skeleton of the First Irish Regiment had been formed. It is to this regiment that the 69th traces its lineage. Michael Doheny, a refugee from the failed 1848 Revolt, was a company commander in this regiment. He was instrumental in the founding of all the early Irish regiments.

In 1849, Irish revolutionary leaders in New York City convinced the state to form an Irish regiment from the independent companies. On 21 December 1849 the First Irish Regiment was adopted by the state. Michael Doheny, Richard O’Gorman, and James Huston, (who had participated in the failed Irish Revolt of 1848) and Michael Phelan, who had not, all believed in training soldiers within the New York State Militia to free Ireland. As a result, the "original Ninth Regiment", formed in 1799, was disbanded 27 May 1850 and its companies transferred to the Eighth Regiment. Two days later, on 29 May 1850, the First Irish Regiment was mustered into the New York State Militia as the 9th Regiment with Colonel Benjamin Clinton Ferris, Commander.

The Second Irish Regiment was organized on 12 October 1851 and mustered into the New York State Militia on 1 November 1851 as the 69th Regiment. Michael Doheny left the 9th and was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 69th. In May 1852, the 72d Regiment, was established on Long Island.

Thomas Francis Meagher, another leader of the failed Rebellion of 1848, escaped to New York in 1852. Doheny then began to organize another Irish Regiment with Meagher as the commander. Doheny left the 69th to become the Lt. Colonel of this new 75th Regiment formed from new and existing companies as the Republican Rifles (4th Irish Regiment). Since Meagher was rarely in New York, Doheny was the actual commander. The Irish Brigade was now substantially in place by the summer of 1853.

Leaders moved between the three regiments throughout the 1850s. Captain James Huston left the 9th to join the 69th as did Michael Doheny. Meagher was elected Lieutenant Colonel by the 69th in 1855 but declined the position as he was not a citizen. The three Irish regiments co-existed until late 1858 when all three were rolled into the 69th. Thus the rest of the Irish Brigade went out of existence until the Civil War. The 9th Regiment ceased to exist until 1859 when it was once again organized.

Tensions in New York City

The newly arrived Irish faced religious and ethnic discrimination.

The new Irish Catholic regiments caused uneasiness among American "Nativists" of the Know Nothing Party whose membership was limited to Protestant males of British American lineage. In 1852, the Nativists formed a new militia regiment designated the 71st Regiment, the "American Guard", commanded by Colonel Vosburg until he died in 1861. Although the 69th and the 71st represented opposite views and had no contact during the 1850s, they became close in 1861 when both were stationed in Washington prior to the First Battle of Bull Run.

Within the 9th Regiment, Captain James Houston commanded a secret organization of Irish revolutionaries known as the "SF". The "SF" (called "Silent Friends" by Patrick D. O’Flaherty in "The History of the Sixty-Ninth Regiment of the New York State Militia 1851 to 1861") was called the "Sinn Feins" by J.C.P. Stokes, the Historian of the 9th Regiment in his 4 November 1953 letter to BG Keys concerning the history of the Irish 9th.

The 1854 Crimean War was an opportunity for Irish Revolutionaries but disputes between James Huston (leader of the SFs) and Michael Doheny crippled any action. Huston left the 69th but conflicts continued. Although radical Irish societies were formed, all attempts to strike a blow for Ireland failed. Conflicts between Archbishop Hughes and the Irish Revolutionary leaders further exacerbated the situation.

In 1855, racial, religious, and political tension was high in New York City. In January, the prominent Native American gang leader "Bill the Butcher" Poole was killed. Two Irishmen were arrested for the crime. The Know Nothings tried to stir up anti-Catholic sentiments. There were several riots and both the 69th and the 9th were called to restore order. It was decided that military units would not march in the St. Patrick’s Day Parade because of the tensions. On St. Patrick’s Day 1855, the 9th, 69th, 7th and 12th Regiments were held at the parade ground to await orders rather than march in the parade. As soon as the 69th was released, they marched with fixed bayonets down Broadway through the park before they were dismissed. The other military units did not march. Other states eliminated ethnic oriented militias in the 1850s because of similar tensions. By 1858 the only Irish regiment remaining would be the 69th.

A new Irish secret society called the Fenians arose. Although not powerful within the 9th, they were extremely so within the 69th. After the consolidation with the 9th in 1858, the 69th adopted the 9th name of “National Cadets”. The Fenians were founded as the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood in 1858 by James Stephens, a leader of the 1848 Revolt. Michael Corcoran was second in command. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Corcoran commanded the 69th Regiment and was also the head of the Fenians. As their leader, he advised the Fenian membership not to join the militia.

The Prince of Wales Parade

In 1860, Michael Corcoran was named Colonel of the 69th. He gained fame and notoriety when he refused to parade the regiment for the visiting Prince of Wales protesting the British imposition of the Irish Famine. He was placed under arrest, but the charges were dropped when the bombardment of Fort Sumter began the Civil War.

During the Civil War, Irish Republican leaders supported the Irish militia. Michael Phalen (leader of the SF group within the 9th) and Richard O’Gorman, raised funds for families of 69th soldiers wounded at Bull Run in 1861. Huston was killed at Gettysburg in 1863. Meagher returned from Bull Run to form the new Irish Brigade. Corcoran, captured at Bull Run, returned to New York and formed another Irish Brigade called Corcoran’s Legion. Doheny died in 1862. In the early 1850s, he had stopped believing that Irish units should be organized within the militia system since it created a conflict of allegiances.

The Civil War


Officers of the 69th New York Volunteer Regiment with a cannon at Fort Corcoran in 1861. Michael Corcoran at left
The 69th Infantry Regiment traces its Civil War honors through three units, the 1st Regiment of the Irish Brigade (69th Infantry New York State Volunteers (NYSV) (1st Regiment of the Irish Brigade)), the 182nd New York Volunteer Infantry (69th Artillery, serving as infantry, the 1st Regiment of Corcoran's Legion) and the 69th National Guard Infantry (State Militia). The Irish Brigade was noted for its ability to tackle tough missions. As one war correspondent said during the Civil War, "When anything absurd, forlorn, or desperate was to be attempted, the Irish Brigade was called upon."

Bull Run

The 69th New York Militia was called up and sent to Washington in April 1861. After engaging in the assault in the First Battle of Bull Run, the regiment, along with the Fire Zouaves, formed the rear-guard of the Union Army and protected it as it made its retreat towards Washington. The commander, Col. Michael Corcoran, was taken prisoner during two charges at a Confederate artillery battery. Besides their colonel and second-in-command, the 69th sustained losses of 41 officers and men killed, 85 wounded and 60 prisoners. Thomas Francis Meagher, Captain of the regiment's Zouave company, was promoted to colonel. The immense painting commemorating this, "Return of the 69th (Irish) Regiment" by Louis Lang, is on display at the New York Historical Society


Return of the 69th (Irish) Regiment, N.Y.S.M. from the Seat of War, 1862-63, Louis Lang

The Seven Days

After 90 days service, the 69th New York State Militia was mustered out and re-enrolled as the 69th New York State Volunteers. Meagher proposed the creation of an Irish Brigade in which the 69th would form the first regiment. Meagher was promoted to brigadier general and given command of the new brigade. The "Irish Brigade", then 3,000 strong, saw heavy action during the Seven Days battles.

Malvern Hill and Antietam


Chaplain leading prayers-69th New York Infantry Irish Brigade. Note the use of civilian hats by the men.
At Malvern Hill, the 69th led the brigade in a charge against advancing Southern troops. The 69th forced the retreat of the famed Confederate Irish Regiment Louisiana Tigers, an event for which General Robert E. Lee gave the regiment its nickname, "The Fighting 69th". Later, in both World War I and in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the 69th and the Louisiana Tigers fought side by side against a common enemy. At Antietam, General Meagher personally led the 69th as the Irish Brigade charged the Sunken Road. The 69th, already badly mauled, suffered 60% casualties.

Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg

The regiment was virtually destroyed in its uphill attack on the well-prepared Confederate positions on Marye's Heights during the Battle of Fredericksburg, suffering more casualties than they had at Antietam. Afterwards, the audacity of the attack was saluted with a rousing cheer by the Confederate defenders. The day after the battle, the 69th was issued its famed "2nd Colors", one set of which were later given to the Oireachtas by John F. Kennedy on the centennial of the battle. After Chancellorsville, only 300 men remained in the regiment. General Meagher resigned as commander of the Irish Brigade, stating that "the brigade ceased to exist." The 69th's commander, Patrick Kelly was named as the new commander of the brigade. At Gettysburg the regiment, vastly outnumbered, held the Wheatfield until it was overwhelmed.

Petersburg & Appomattox

Following Gettysburg, the Irish Brigade ceased to exist as a functioning unit and was disbanded in June 1864. The depleted ranks of the 69th Regiment were filled with new volunteers and draftees from New York's Irish ghettoes. At the end of the summer of 1864, the 69th rejoined its Irish comrades as 1st Regiment of the 2nd Irish Brigade. The brigade served until the end of the war and was present at the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox. Out of more than 2,000 regiments that served with the Union Army, the 69th lost more men than all but six regiments.

Return and reconstitution

The regiment marched in the Washington, D.C. victory parade and returned to New York. All the regiments of the Irish Brigade were disbanded except the 69th, which remained part of the New York National Guard. The 69th remained a place of unity and culture for Irish Americans in the post war years. It was called into active service in 1898 for the Spanish American War, transported to Chickamauga, Georgia, Tampa, Florida and Huntsville, Alabama, but it did not see combat due to the brevity of that war. In 1916, the regiment was posted to McAllen, Texas along the Mexican border during the Punitive expedition.

General Robert E. Lee, CSA

Describing the assault on Marye's Heights at the Battle of Fredericksburg, opposing General Robert E. Lee wrote:
Never were men so brave. They ennobled their race by their gallantry on that desperate occasion. Though totally routed, they reaped harvests of glory. Their brilliant though hopeless assaults on our lines excited the hearty applause of our officers and men.

General George Pickett, CSA

Your soldier's heart almost stood still as he watched those sons of Erin fearlessly rush to their death. The brilliant assault on Marye's Heights of their Irish Brigade was beyond description. Why, my darling, we forgot they were fighting us, and cheer after cheer at their fearlessness went up all along our lines."[19]

World War I


42nd Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
The outbreak of World War I saw a resurrection of the old spirit of the 69th. Doubled in size by new War Department regulations, its ranks were filled with Irish-Americans and New Yorkers detailed from other regiments, and it was sent over to France in October 1917 as part of the 42nd "Rainbow" Division of the American Expeditionary Force. All National Guard regiments received new "100 series" regimental numbers at that time. The 69th was renumbered the 165th Infantry Regiment, but retained its Irish symbolism and spirit, and every member since then has been designated an honorary Irishman. As Father Duffy described non-Irish who join the regiment, "They are Irish by adoption, Irish by association, or Irish by conviction".

Rouge Bouquet


The fighting 69th at training camp shortly before deployment.

Colonel Donovan & Father Duffy upon return from France in 1919
It had its first combat experience on February 26, 1918 in the nearby trenches of the Rouge Bouquet Chaussilles Sector in the Foret de Parroy near the village of Baccarat. While there, it suffered its first combat casualties, including the deaths of 21 men from the second battalion on March 7 when a dugout collapsed under bombardment. This event was memorialized in Sergeant Joyce Kilmer's poem "Rouge Bouquet".

Champagne


Sgt. Joyce Kilmer, c. 1918

Château-Thierry

Having broken the German lines, who were now reluctantly retreating, 42nd Division brigade commander Douglas MacArthur was looking to press forward. When informed that the other regiments had replied that they were "too fatigued" but that the decimated 69th replied that it would still "consider an order to advance as a compliment", he exclaimed "By God, it takes the Irish when you want a hard thing done!"[11]

St. Mihiel


Company B of the 69th dug in at Hassavant Farm, their last objective in St. Mihiel, September 1918

Meuse-Argonne

Its final exploits came when the 42nd Division relieved the 1st Infantry Division during the 3rd phase of the Meuse-Argonne offense.

Return & recognition


Col. Donovan and the Fighting 69th pass under the Victory Arch in New York City in 1919
Upon the return from France, Col. Donovan remarked that "The morale of the regiment has never been better than it is today. Formerly 85 percent of its strength were of Irish descent, and now it is only 50 percent, but the spirit of the old Fighting 69th is stronger than ever. The replacements, whether they are Jews, Italians, or other foreign descent, are more Irish now than the Irish!". He also later pointed out that at one point during the Argonne battle, the adjutants of all three battalions were Jews, one lieutenant was born in Germany, and another lieutenant was a full blooded Choctaw from Oklahoma.

During World War I, total casualties of the regiment amounted to 644 killed in action and 2,587 wounded (200 of whom would later die of their wounds) during 164 days of front-line combat. One member of the regiment killed in World War I was Daniel Buckley who survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. Sixty members earned the Distinguished Service Cross and three of its members were awarded the Medal of Honor, including its famed 1st Battalion and later regimental commander, William Joseph Donovan. Col. Donovan went on to organize the OSS in World War II, retiring as a major general.

It also produced Father Francis Duffy, "The Fighting Chaplain". In France, Duffy was always seen in the thick of battle, assisting the litter bearers in recovering the wounded, administering last rites, burying the dead, and encouraging the men, while unarmed, and at great risk to his own life. His bravery and inspired leadership was so great that at one point the brigade commander, General Douglas MacArthur, even considered making him the regimental commander, an unheard of role for a chaplain.

World War II

During World War II, the regiment again served with distinction. Still designated the 165th Infantry, it served with 27th Division (New York State's National Guard Division at the time) and was federalized October 15, 1940. It was first sent to Alabama and Louisiana for training. One week after Pearl Harbor, it was sent to Inglewood, California to assist in defense of the West Coast. Beginning in January 1942, the regiment made its way to Hawaii via Fort Ord and San Francisco.[10]

Makin Island


2nd Battalion, 165th Infantry landing during Battle of Makin Island

Saipan

Okinawa


27th Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia

The Cold War

In the 1960s while playing for the New York Knicks, Cazzie Russell was a member of the regiment and wrote a sports column for the regimental newspaper.

Global War on Terror

Operation Noble Eagle

From its armory at Lexington Avenue and 25th Street in midtown Manhattan, the 69th was one of the first military units to respond to the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, where it helped to secure Ground Zero. Two members were killed during rescue operations on the morning of 11 September, 1st Lieutenant Gerard Baptiste (FDNY) & Specialist Thomas Jurgens (NYS Courts). Following duty at the WTC, 200 soldiers were mobilized to protect the United States Military Academy, West Point, serving for one year. Numerous other members were on active duty providing protection to nuclear power plants, airports, bridges, tunnels, and trains throughout the New York area as part of Operation Noble Eagle.

Operation Iraqi Freedom

Taji

Baghdad

While in Baghdad, the regiment was responsible for finally securing the infamous "Route Irish" (the airport road) that linked the "Green Zone" to BIAP airfield, Camp Victory and the surrounding neighborhoods including al-Ameriyah. 19 members of the regiment were killed in action, and over 78 were wounded in action during "Operation Wolfhound", named after the Irish Wolfhounds on its regimental crest, before it returned to New York on 15 September 2005.

Operation Enduring Freedom


69th Infantry in Japan as part of Operation Orient Shield

Current operations

Since standing down from federal service and returning to New York, the regiment's activities have included annual infantry training and qualification at Fort A.P. Hill, Urban warfare training at Fort Knox, providing combat experience briefings to cadets at the United States Military Academy, and sending companies for joint training in Puerto Rico, Canada[15] and to Japan as part of Operation Orient Shield.

The regiment had been anticipating a possible deployment to federal service beginning in December 2011 as part of the now regular rotation of mobilizations among National Guard units. Charlie Company as a whole was lent to the 2nd Battalion of the 108th Infantry In as part of their Bravo Company for a tour in Shindand, Herat, Afghanistan. Elements from Alpha, Bravo, Delta and HHC were split to A Company, 27th BSTB in Herat, Afghanistan and Kuwait.

Tributes

General Douglas MacArthur
General Douglas MacArthur gave the following address to members and veterans of the 69th at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City via short-wave radio from Manila in the Philippines, on 24 January 1940:
No greater fighting regiment has ever existed than the One Hundred and Sixty-fifth Infantry of the Rainbow Division, formed from the old Sixty-ninth Regiment of New York. I cannot tell you how real and how sincere a pleasure I feel tonight in once more addressing the members of that famous unit. You need no eulogy from me or from any other man. You have written your own history and written it in red on your enemies' breast, but when I think of your patience under adversity, your courage under fire, and your modesty in victory, I am filled with an emotion of admiration I cannot express. You have carved your own statue upon the hearts of your people, you have built your own monument in the memory of your compatriots.

One of the most outstanding characteristics of the regiment was its deep sense of religious responsibility, inculcated by one of my most beloved friends—Father Duffy. He gave you a code that embraces the highest moral laws, that will stand the test of any ethics or philosophies ever promulgated for the uplift of man. Its requirements are for the things that are right and its restraints are from the things that are wrong.

The soldier, above all men, is required to perform the highest act of religious teaching—sacrifice. However horrible the results of war may be, the soldier who is called upon to offer and perchance to give his life for his country is the noblest development of mankind. No physical courage and no brute instincts can take the place of the divine annunciation and spiritual uplift which will alone sustain him. Father Duffy, on those bloody fields of France we all remember so well, taught the men of your regiment how to die that a nation might live — how to die unquestioning and uncomplaining, with faith in their hearts and the hope on their lips that we might go on to victory.
Somewhere in your banquet hall tonight his noble spirit looks down to bless and guide you young soldiers on the narrow path marked with West Point's famous motto — duty, honor, country.

We'll hope that war will come to us no more. But if its red stream again engulf us, I want you to know that if my flag flies again, I shall hope to have you once more with me, once more to form the brilliant hues of what is lovingly, reverently called by men at arms, the Rainbow.
May God be with you until we meet again.

President John F. Kennedy

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy opened his address to Irish Parliament on 28 June 1963 with a tribute to the gallantry of the Fighting 69th:
The 13th day of December, 1862, will be a day long remembered in American history. At Fredericksburg, Virginia, thousands of men fought and died on one of the bloodiest battlefields of the American Civil War. One of the most brilliant stories of that day was written by a band of 1200 men who went into battle wearing a green sprig in their hats. They bore a proud heritage and a special courage, given to those who had long fought for the cause of freedom. I am referring, of course, to the Irish Brigade. General Robert E. Lee, the great military leader of the Southern Confederate Forces, said of this group of men after the battle, "The gallant stand which this bold brigade made on the heights of Fredericksburg is well known. Never were men so brave. They ennobled their race by their splendid gallantry on that desperate occasion. Their brilliant though hopeless assaults on our lines excited the hearty applause of our officers and soldiers."

Of the 1200 men who took part in that assault, 280 survived the battle. The Irish Brigade was led into battle on that occasion by Brig. Gen. Thomas F. Meagher, who had participated in the unsuccessful Irish uprising of 1848, was captured by the British and sent in a prison ship to Australia from whence he finally came to America. In the fall of 1862, after serving with distinction and gallantry in some of the toughest fighting of this most bloody struggle, the Irish Brigade was presented with a new set of flags. In the city ceremony, the city chamberlain gave them the motto, "The Union, our Country, and Ireland forever." Their old ones having been torn to shreds in previous battles, Capt. Richard McGee took possession of these flags on December 2nd in New York City and arrived with them at the Battle of Fredericksburg and carried them in the battle. Today, in recognition of what these gallant Irishmen and what millions of other Irish have done for my country, and through the generosity of the "Fighting 69th," I would like to present one of these flags to the people of Ireland.
The flag presented by Kennedy is displayed in Leinster House, Dublin.

Ireland memorial


Memorial to the 69th in Ballymote, Ireland
Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, unveiled Ireland's national monument to the Fighting 69th on 22 August 2006 at Ballymote, County Sligo, the birthplace of Brigadier General Michael Corcoran.[20][21] The monument is a bronze column inscribed with scenes of Corcoran's life. Beside the gray, stone base is a small chamber set flush with the ground that contains a piece of steel from the World Trade Center donated by the parents of firefighter Michael Lynch, who perished in the attack.
In his remarks that day, Bloomberg said:
Brigadier General Michael Corcoran became one of the Civil War’s most revered heroes. When he returned to New York City after months of captivity in the South, enormous crowds thronged him in a parade up Broadway to New York’s City Hall. When he died, his body lay in state in our City Hall – just down the corridor from my desk – and people came from far and wide to pay their last respects. His successor as commander of the 69th was a fellow Irishman, the legendary Thomas Francis Meagher. At Meagher’s funeral mass in New York City, his eulogist said: “Never forget this: he gave all, lost all for the land of his birth. He risked all for the land of his adoption, was her true and loyal soldier, and in the end died in her service."
So it could be said for much of the Irish Brigade. And although the 69th suffered terrible casualties in the Civil War, its tradition of valor – and its connection to Ireland – lived on. When the Fighting 69th was re-activated for World War I, about 95% of the men who joined the regiment were Irish. Their chaplain, Father Francis Duffy, said the rest of the men were "Irish by adoption, Irish by association, or Irish by conviction." Today, the 69th is as diverse as New York City itself – but Father Duffy’s words still hold true.
In a follow up to this visit, Mayor Bloomberg invited members of the 58th Reserve Infantry Battalion of the Irish Defence Forces to parade in New York City on St. Patrick's Day. The battalion visited for the 2010 and 2011 parades.[22]

Other memorials and gravesites

Memorials to the Fighting 69th may be found at Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and other Civil War battlefields. Two memorials to the regiment and its dead as well as the graves of Colonels Mathew Murray, Michael Corcoran, Patrick Kelly, and Richard Byrnes may be found in Calvary Cemetery in Woodside Queens, NY. A statue of Thomas Francis Meagher may be found in Helena, Montana, where he had later served as Governor.
Joyce Kilmer and other men of the Sixty Ninth are interred at the Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial in France. Father Duffy is memorialized in a statue at the north end of Times Square, which is technically "Duffy Square". World War II's Camp Kilmer was named for Sgt. Joyce Kilmer. Colonel William Donovan is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Medal of Honor citations

Seven members of the 69th Regiment have been awarded the Medal of Honor. Not only is this a high number for a National Guard regiment, but all survived the actions for which they were awarded.

Peter Rafferty

Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 69th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 August 1897.

Citation: Having been wounded and directed to the rear, declined to go, but continued in action, receiving several additional wounds, which resulted in his capture by the enemy and his total disability for military service.

Timothy Donoghue

Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 69th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., 13 December 1862. Entered service at:------. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 17 January 1894.

Citation: Voluntarily carried a wounded officer off the field from between the lines; while doing this he was himself wounded.

Joseph Keele

Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 182d New York Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., 23 May 1864. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 October 1867. Citation: Voluntarily and at the risk of his life carried orders to the brigade commander, which resulted in saving the works his regiment was defending.

Michael A. Donaldson

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 165th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: At Sommerance-Landres-et St. Georges Road, France, 14 October 1918. Entered service at: Haverstraw, N.Y. Born: 1884, Haverstraw, N.Y. G.O. No.: 9, W.D., 1923.

Citation: The advance of his regiment having been checked by intense machinegun fire of the enemy, who were entrenched on the crest of a hill before Landres-et St. Georges, his company retired to a sunken road to reorganize their position, leaving several of their number wounded near the enemy lines. Of his own volition, in broad daylight and under direct observation of the enemy and with utter disregard for his own safety, he advanced to the crest of the hill, rescued one of his wounded comrades, and returned under withering fire to his own lines, repeating his splendidly heroic act until he had brought in all the men, 6 in number.

William Joseph Donovan


"Wild Bill" Donovan as a major in France in 1918
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 14–15 October 1918. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 1 January 1883, Buffalo, N.Y. G.O., No.: 56, W.D., 1922.
Citation: Lt. Col. Donovan personally led the assaulting wave in an attack upon a very strongly organized position, and when our troops were suffering heavy casualties he encouraged all near him by his example, moving among his men in exposed positions, reorganizing decimated platoons, and accompanying them forward in attacks. When he was wounded in the leg by machine-gun bullets, he refused to be evacuated and continued with his unit until it withdrew to a less exposed position.

Richard W. O'Neill

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 165th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: On the Ourcq River, France, 30 July 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 30, W.D., 1921.
Citation: In advance of an assaulting line, he attacked a detachment of about 25 of the enemy. In the ensuing hand-to-hand encounter he sustained pistol wounds, but heroically continued in the advance, during which he received additional wounds: but, with great physical effort, he remained in active command of his detachment. Being again wounded, he was forced by weakness and loss of blood to be evacuated, but insisted upon being taken first to the battalion commander in order to transmit to him valuable information relative to enemy positions and the disposition of our men.

Alejandro R. Renteria Ruiz

Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 28 April 1945. Entered service at: Carlsbad, N. Mex. Birth: Loving, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946.
Citation: When his unit was stopped by a skillfully camouflaged enemy pillbox, he displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. His squad, suddenly brought under a hail of machinegun fire and a vicious grenade attack, was pinned down. Jumping to his feet, Pfc. Ruiz seized an automatic rifle and lunged through the flying grenades and rifle and automatic fire for the top of the emplacement. When an enemy soldier charged him, his rifle jammed. Undaunted, Pfc. Ruiz whirled on his assailant and clubbed him down. Then he ran back through bullets and grenades, seized more ammunition and another automatic rifle, and again made for the pillbox. Enemy fire now was concentrated on him, but he charged on, miraculously reaching the position, and in plain view he climbed to the top. Leaping from 1 opening to another, he sent burst after burst into the pillbox, killing 12 of the enemy and completely destroying the position. Pfc. Ruiz's heroic conduct, in the face of overwhelming odds, saved the lives of many comrades and eliminated an obstacle that long would have checked his unit's advance.

Insignia

The regiment's unit insignia depicts both the 1861 regimental dress cap device braced by two Irish Wolfhounds and the red shamrock of the First Division of the Second Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the Civil War. These are separated by a rainbow depicting the unit's service as a founding regiment of the 42nd Rainbow Division in World War I. The green background on the insignia is rare; most infantry units have an infantry blue background. The regiment has this because its Civil War regimental colors (flags) were green with the Golden Harp of Ireland. Like all New York National Guard units, the coat of arms has as its crest Henry Hudson's ship "The Half-Moon".

Traditions

Many of the 69th's traditions and symbols derive from a time when the regiment was made entirely of Irish-Americans. The regiment's Civil War era battle cry was "Faugh a Ballagh," which is Irish Gaelic meaning "Clear the Way." This is reminiscent of the cry of the Irish Brigade of the French Army in the Battle of Fontenoy. A World War I era battle cry is "Garryowen in Glory!" Its motto is "Gentle when stroked - Fierce when provoked" in reference to the Irish Wolfhounds on its crest and dress cap badges of 1861.
Though by 2001 the regiment was "no more Irish than the Notre Dame football team", it retained many of the traditions arising from its Irish heritage. New York City's St. Patrick's Day Parade up Fifth Avenue has always been led by the regiment and its Irish Wolfhounds. In some ceremonies, the regiment's officers and senior non-commissioned officers carry shillelaghs as a badge of rank. Additionally, it is traditional to wear a small sprig of boxwood on one’s headgear in combat, as was first done in the Civil War.

In popular culture

Films
  • 1940 – The World War I exploits of the regiment are the subject of the Warner Brothers film The Fighting 69th. An advisor to the film was former member Captain John T. Prout who later was a major general in the Irish Army. The film was shown at drills to all persons joining the regiment through the 1970s
  • 1941 - The Movie Comedy Buck Privates has the character Julia mention that her father was a Captain in the "Fighting 69th".
  • 1993 – The regiment is shown receiving general absolution from Rev. William Corby before going into battle at Gettysburg in the film Gettysburg.
  • 2003 – The regiment's attack on Marye's Heights during the Battle of Fredericksburg is depicted in the film Gods and Generals. They can be seen wearing the regiment's traditional green boxwood sprigs in their kepis during the attack.
  • 2006 - Fictional veterans of the Fighting 69th are portrayed in season three of HBO's Deadwood series, as agents of George Hearst.
  • 2007 – The military units in the film remake I Am Legend are members of the Fighting 69th.
  • 2008 – The 2008 film Cloverfield depicts the 69th Infantry Regiment and other elements of the regular and reserve military doing battle with a giant monster in the streets of New York City.
Other
  • The official regimental cocktail, "The Fighting 69th", is made of three parts champagne and one part Irish whiskey, and is served at unit dinners and after the St. Patrick's Day Parade. According to one legend, the Civil War regimental commander, Thomas Francis Meagher, liked to drink his whiskey with Vichy water. But one day when his aide was unable to find Vichy water, he returned with champagne. Meagher liked the new mixture, and the drink stuck. Others feel that it is more likely the mixture simply developed as necessity during the unit's service in the Champagne region of France during World War I, as cocktails without bitters are mostly a 20th-century invention.
  • One of the first books on mixing drinks, JerryThomas's 1862 "The Bon Vivant's Companion", describes a "69th Regiment Punch" as consisting of 1 oz of Irish whiskey, 1 oz of Scotch whisky, a teaspoon of sugar, and 4 oz of hot water.
  • The Fighting 69th is a popular subject with painters of Civil War subjects. Paintings and prints depicting it have been made by Don Troiani, Dale Gallon, Mort Kunstler, Donna Neary and many other artists.
  • The Wolfe Tones recorded a song called "The Fighting 69th", which is a tribute to the regiment, set to the tune of "Star of the County Down". A video of it is on YouTube. It was later recorded by the Boston-based Celtic Punk band, Dropkick Murphys on their album "The Gang's all Here".
  • David Kincaid's song "The Irish Volunteer" is a tribute to the regiment
  • "Pat Murphy of the Irish Brigade" by Bobby Horton is another song tribute
  • The Fighting 69th is featured in the book by Joseph Bruchac, "March toward the Thunder".
  • "Clear the Way" is a song written and performed by Irish musician John Doyle (musician) on his 2011 album "Shadow and Light". The phrase is the English translation of the Gaelic "Faugh A Ballagh", the battle cry taken by Francis Meagher. The song tells the story of the Battle of Fredericksburg from the point of view of one of the Irish soldiers.

69th Regiment Armory


The armory of the 69th Infantry Regiment, at 68 Lexington Avenue in New York City
During this week we examine “historiography" – that is, the history of history. While some people believe that writing of history involves little more than presenting facts in an understandable manner, the very selection of facts itself relies on an underlying interpretation. And, especially perhaps on a subject like the post-Civil War period, which involves issues central to our understanding of ourselves as a nation, historical interpretation is never static.
This week looks at how historians’ thinking about the causes of the war and its aftermath, and, related to this, whether the war was worth the cost, has changed over time. There is a saying, “all history is contemporary history,” which means that the historian is influenced in his or her interpretation of the past by the events, concerns, and movements of the present. There is nothing unusual or pernicious about this. Current concerns can illuminate the past in new ways. In a sense, because of the inevitability of the emergence of new perspectives, the writing of history, including the history of the post-Civil War era, is a process that will never be completed.


Chapter 17 The Industrial Revolution



17-1a The Basic Industries

Rockefeller, Prager University

Rockefeller

Was America's first billionaire, John D. Rockefeller, a greedy robber baron, a generous philanthropist, or both? And did the oil tycoon exploit America's poor or give them access to much-needed energy? Historian and Hillsdale College professor Burt Folsom, author of "The Myth of the Robber Barons," reveals the truth about the Rockefeller empire.



Rockefeller court speech from The Men Who Built America, 2:42

http://youtu.be/_LC9Dh4kR_g



Flocabulary Industrial Revolution, 3:30



Industrial Revolution Lesson Plan

http://blog.flocabulary.com/industrial-revolution/

The American Industrial Revolution (NHD Documentary), 6:43

http://youtu.be/o3PZ-qOJp0I

Railroads

U.S. Railroad History Map 1830 - 1990s, 2:40

http://youtu.be/a8lX5A2q-Eo



"Scabs," "Hell on Wheels"

Season Two Trailer

1:11



http://youtu.be/opUcOwGX8Bk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scabs_(Hell_on_Wheels)

Hell on Wheels is an American Western television series about the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad across the United States. The series, which features Anson Mount, Colm Meaney, Common, and Dominique McElligott, follows the Union Pacific Railroad and its surveyors, laborers, prostitutes, mercenaries, and others who lived, worked and died in the mobile encampment called "Hell on Wheels" that followed the railhead west across the Great Plains. In particular, the story focuses on Cullen Bohannon, a former Confederate soldier (Mount) who, while working as foreman and chief engineer on the railroad, initially attempts to track down the Union soldiers who murdered his wife and young son during the American Civil War.

Seasons one (2011–12) began in 1865 shortly after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and two (2012) covered 1866, Seasons three (2013) and four (2014) opened in 1867. On November 7, 2014, Hell on Wheels was renewed for a fifth and final season consisting of 14 episodes to be aired in 2015 and 2016.


Hell on Wheels, Thomas Durant

Main cast

  • Anson Mount as Cullen Bohannon, a former Confederate soldier who is determined to avenge the deaths of his son and his wife, Mary.
  • Colm Meaney as Thomas "Doc" Durant, a businessman and investor in the First Transcontinental Railroad, where he hopes to make his fortune: http://www.amc.com/shows/hell-on-wheels/extras/hell-on-wheels-the-real-thomas-durant#/6
  • Common as Elam Ferguson, a recently freed slave who is trying to find his place in the world. He works as security and general assistant to Bohannon.
  • Dominique McElligott as Lily Bell, a recent widow; her husband was a surveyor working on the transcontinental rail project.
  • Tom Noonan as Reverend Nathaniel Cole, a minister who formerly participated in Bleeding Kansas prior to the Civil War; he is sick of the slaughter and wants to help the whites and Indians avoid another war.
  • Christopher Heyerdahl as Thor Gundersen, Durant's head of security. He is known as "the Swede", even though he is Norwegian.
  • Robin McLeavy as Eva, a woman with a prominent chin tattoo given to her while in the captivity of Indians. She initially supports herself by working in the Hell on Wheels brothel.
  • Dohn Norwood as Psalms Jackson, a freed former slave and criminal, whose prison sentence has been purchased by the railroad.
"Scabs" is the fourth episode of the second season of the American television drama series Hell on Wheels, which aired on September 2, 2012 on AMC. The fourteenth episode of the series is written by Catherine Hardwicke and directed by Chris Mundy. In the episode, the Sioux torture a railroad worker, causing the crews to strike. Cullen (Anson Mount) telegraphs for replacement workers ("scabs"), forcing the crews to band together and save their jobs. Eva (Robin McLeavy) tells both Elam (Common) and Toole (Duncan Ollerenshaw) that she is pregnant with Elam's baby.

Where the native Americans (in this episode the Sioux) a peaceful people?

What roles do women play during the period?

Before the scabs arrive, which ethnic groups are employed?

Do the scabs get to work? (We later find out they are Germans).

Which ethnic groups banded together against the scabs?

Did the presence of guns protect the community? The freedmen? The jobs of the railroad workers? Individuals?

Next week there is more on immigration but consider the diversity of immigration: 

Germans, Poles, Jews, Irish, Hungarians, etc.

German immigration

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=a1bdd01f59dacbddab4e6bea68b2a54e&action=2&documentId=GALE%7CCX3436800018&userGroupName=gray02935&jsid=f6ef0c62ec142c368bfc2a12c90b49ea

Mass immigration begins

Immigration from Europe to the United States overwhelmingly increased in the mid-1800s. The U.S. population recorded in the census of 1860 was 31,500,000; of that population, 4,736,000, or 15 percent, were of foreign birth. The greater part of these immigrants had come from two countries: 1,611,000 from Ireland, and 1,301,000 from Germany (principally from the southwestern states of Württemberg, Baden, and Bavaria). The mass migration from Germany had begun in the 1830s, but the peak decades were the 1850s, with more than 950,000 immigrants, and the 1880s, with nearly 1.5 million.

By the 1850s, New York had become the principal port of arrival for German immigrants. Many chose to stay in the East, while others moved westward along the Erie Canal through Buffalo and out to Ohio. By the 1840s large numbers of German immigrants went to New Orleans on cotton ships from Le Havre, France. The majority moved to the valleys of the upper Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. By 1880, Wisconsin had more German Americans than any other state. Here, as in the East, those who settled in urban centers brought a range of crafts and professional skills, while others setting up farms brought their farming skills from Germany. In the years between 1860 and 1890, three-fifths of German immigrants moved to rural areas, while two-fifths moved to the cities. When they settled, they often established German-speaking communities, setting up their own churches, schools, newspapers, and other institutions, and keeping their cultural traditions alive in the New World.

Religious backgrounds

Most of the German immigrants were Protestants, and among them Lutherans were the majority. About one-third of German immigrants were Catholics. A substantial segment—about 250,000—of the German immigrants were Jews. Jews had lived in Germany since the fourth century, many having settled in the Rhine area. Jews had long been assimilated in German cultures when suddenly, from the 1830s into the 1880s, several German states began to pass anti-Semitic laws (laws hostile toward Jews). In southern Germany, these laws prohibited young Jews from marrying or starting a family in their communities. Some decided to immigrate to the United States. The first Jews from Bohemia, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, and Alsace-Lorraine came in the 1820s. Many of these immigrants were young, aspiring, and middle class, skilled at a trade or a profession. Often they were equipped with savings to get themselves started in a trade in the new country. A significant portion were well educated. Many of the Jewish immigrants settled in New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, but other cities, including San Francisco, Chicago, and New Orleans, had large Jewish communities as well. (For more information, see chapter 15 on Jewish immigration to the United States.)

Political dissidents: the forty-eighters

In the early 1800s many people hoped that the German states would unify under a democratic, constitutional government. Some organized into groups of resistance to fight against the tyrannical princes of the various German states. In 1848 the rebels, or the "forty-eighters," so nicknamed because of the year of their uprising, set off a series of uprisings in Vienna, Berlin, Baden, and southwest Germany. For a time after the uprisings, the princes of the states worked with the rebels toward establishing a constitutional government for a united Germany. Within months, though, the process had fallen apart. The rebels faced arrest and persecution at the hands of the German princes. Between four and ten thousand bitterly disappointed forty-eighters immigrated to the United States at that time. The forty-eighters were an elite group; many had been educated at the finest European universities and had highly prestigious careers ahead of them.

The forty-eighters had little in common with the farmers and craftspeople who had preceded them to America. German American farmers had tended to live quietly in German-speaking communities. The forty-eighters came from a world of radical politics, idealism, debate, and activism. Conflicts arose between the old immigrants, called the "Grays,"

uimr_01_img0118 A Leading Couple: Carl Schurz and Margarethe Meyer Schurz

Carl Schurz (1829–1906) was a forty-eighter who led the German American community in the late nineteenth century. Of humble origin, he was reared a Roman Catholic, but as an adult he considered himself a freethinker. Schurz attended university at Bonn and there began to make a name for himself in politically liberal circles. Then came the revolutionary fervor that led to the uprisings of 1848. Schurz eagerly joined in the fight to establish a unified German state with a democratic constitution. When the revolutionaries were forced to surrender, Schurz fled into exile, barely escaping with his life. In 1850 he decided to leave the Old World for America. If he could not be a citizen of a free Germany, he concluded, he would become a free citizen of the United States. Before leaving, he married Margarethe Meyer (1833–1876).

Meyer came from a prominent family and had received a distinguished education. She and her sister both became involved in the teachings of Friedrich Froebel (1782–1852), the founder of kindergartens (in German, the word means "garden of children") in Germany. Meyer's sister had opened several kindergartens and Margarethe taught in one of them before marrying Shurz.

Schurz and his wife arrived in the United States in 1852, eventually settling in Watertown, Wisconsin, in 1855. They were quite well off financially. Margarethe's dowry (the money a woman brings into a marriage) alone was enough to set Schurz up in business. His fame as a daring fighter for freedom in Germany, his solid education, his gifts as a writer and speaker, and his political ambition combined to make him a well-known figure almost immediately. Although he rarely stood for election himself, his persuasiveness with German American voters made him a force to be reckoned. His wife, too, was active in bringing new ideas in education to the United States. In 1856 Margarethe Schurz founded what many consider the first kindergarten in the United States in Watertown. Like many German schools in the United States, the kindergarten was conducted in the German language until World War I (1914–18).

Schurz was antislavery and became an avid supporter of Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) in the presidential campaign of 1860. He is said to have traveled more than twenty-one thousand miles campaigning for Lincoln, speaking in both English and German. He was credited with swinging much of the German American vote. After

Influential German Carl Schurz. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
the American Civil War (1861–65), in which he served as a general, Schurz settled in St. Louis, Missouri, and became a U.S. senator. In Washington, D.C., he turned to issues of corruption. Because of his criticisms of U.S. politicians, some alleged that he was not a patriotic American. He responded with a phrase that has become famous: "My country right or wrong: if right, to be kept right; and if wrong, to be set right."

In 1876, Margarethe Schurz died, but by that time she had passed on her knowledge to others who established more kindergartens and set a standard for preschools in the nation. Schurz was made Secretary of the Interior that year. He attempted to initiate environmental controls, particularly over forestlands, and to follow a humanitarian (promoting human welfare) policy with respect to the Indians, but stronger powers within the nation overpowered his liberal idealism. Schurz left government office for good in 1881 and began a second successful career as a journalist, author, and lecturer. He made New York his home, where he became editor-in-chief of the Evening Post and eventually Harper's Weekly.

Schurz saw himself as a mediator between German and American culture. He continued to be equally fluent in German and English, writing his widely read memoirs in both languages. He traveled back and forth many times between the United States and Germany, filled with pride for both. When accused of mixed loyalties, he responded that he loved equally his "old mother" and his "new bride."
and the new immigrants, known as the "Greens." However, the intellectuals' presence gave a new depth and vitality to the German American community and gave them a more powerful voice in national politics.

Anti-immigrant reactions

In the 1840s, nativist groups (organizations that promoted the rights of the native-born as opposed to immigrants) took up an anti-immigrant, particularly anti-Catholic, campaign. One of the primary nativist organizations was the American Party, which promoted "traditional American ideals" and claimed that immigrants were threatening to destroy American values and democracy. The party, originally called the Know-Nothing Party (because when asked what their political agenda was, members of the secretive party would say they knew nothing about it), mounted very successful political campaigns across the nation. Nativist politicians called for restricting the rights of aliens (who live and work legally in the country but are not citizens) and foreign-born citizens, especially with respect to voting and holding political office. Their primary target was the Irish Americans who were immigrating in great numbers at the same time as the Germans. German Americans probably became the targets of the nativists because of their large numbers. With a different language, customs, and in some cases, a different set of religious or political beliefs, Germans were viewed by some as foreign and therefore dangerous. Many German Americans were Catholics, another target of the Know-Nothings, who claimed that the pope was conspiring to get political control in the United States. Some Americans, too, were beginning to feel the intense competition from German American tradesmen and merchants.


Know-Nothing Party 1844 campaign ribbon. Reproduced by permission of © David J. & Janice L. Frent Collection/Corbis.
Among the Germans who immigrated after the 1848 revolutions, there were quite a few politically radical intellectuals who continued to pursue their ideals in the United States. Some of these people had come from socialist or anarchist groups in the old country. (Socialists believe in a society in which no one owns private property, but rather, the government or public owns all goods and the means of distributing them among the people. Anarchists believe that governments are unnecessary and should be eliminated, and that the social world should be organized through the cooperative efforts of the people.) Although their goals were usually right in line with the American values of equality, justice, and personal freedom, the political reformers were viewed as radical extremists. The Know-Nothings seized some of the radical political beliefs to stir up the public against German Americans.

By the mid-1850s, the Know-Nothing Party was so popular that its candidates had been elected to important political offices throughout the United States. German Americans, who were typically divided amongst themselves, united in their efforts to fight back against the discrimination directed at them. They were greatly aided by mounting tensions over the issue of slavery in the United States, which divided the Know-Nothing supporters and weakened them as a political group.

German Americans in the labor movement

German Americans were instrumental in the labor-union movement of the late 1880s. (Labor unions are organizations that bring workers together to advance their interests in areas such as work benefits, wages, and working conditions.) German American craftspeople had brought their guild system (associations of craftspeople or merchants) along with them to America. These craft guilds evolved into trade unions, giving rise to the general labor-union movement. Some of the German Americans in the labor movement were influenced by German political philosopher Karl Marx (1818–1883), whose theories of socialism had swept through European intellectual and working-class circles. The more radical German Americans in the labor movement drew criticism from the American public, but in later years their demands would not seem radical. Into the twentieth century, the labor movement in the United States had elements of Marxism. The leaders of the large unions, such as the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), usually tried to steer clear of the radical political agendas. The work of German American union leaders eventually led to many reforms in the workplace in the areas of benefits, pensions, working conditions, and safety. The well-known president of the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from 1946 to 1970, Walter Reuther (1907–1970), was German American.

Black Confederate Soldiers

http://www.scv.org/documents/genworks/RoleofBlacksConfederateArmy.pdf

Black Confederate, NAACP, Former President of NAACP (Asheville NC) HK Edgerton who carries the Confederate Flag" HK Edgerton, 3:12

Should African Americans celebrate their Southern Civil War heritage?

https://youtu.be/o8hPo6mYnks

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8hPo6mYnks



17-2c Stores and Mail Order

Hyman Lecture 03 Before No 1 The 19th Century, 4:01

In Hyman's first "before picture," he presents an image that commonly hung in shops in 19th-century America and can still be found in countries without a consumer-debt industry. It depicts the harried shopkeeper who sells on credit, as opposed to the sleek, happy shopkeeper who deals wholly in cash. It indicates that the risk of extending credit is wholly the shopkeeper's because there is not yet a secondary market for consumer debt.

http://youtu.be/J5oVXR0oAr4



17-3 The Politics of the Industrial Age

Social Darwinism

Planned Parenthood's Racist History - Margaret Sanger's Eugenics Abortion Program, 6:58
This video explores Margaret Sanger (the mother of Planned Parenthood) and his racist history of eugenics and murder of African American babies.
https://youtu.be/_2eODG-c6I0
Social Darwinism is a modern name given to various theories of society that emerged in the United Kingdom, North America, and Western Europe in the 1870s, which claim to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics.[1][2] Economically, social Darwinists argue that the strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak should see their wealth and power decrease. Different social Darwinists have differing views about which groups of people are considered to be the strong and which groups of people are considered to be the weak, and they also hold different opinions about the precise mechanism that should be used to reward strength and punish weakness. Many such views stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism, while others are claimed to have motivated ideas of eugenics, racism, imperialism, fascism, Nazism, and struggle between national or racial groups.


Survival Theories Social Darwinism and Eugenics, 2:09

https://youtu.be/URfF6Wtyc_0



The term social Darwinism gained widespread currency when used after 1944 by opponents of these earlier concepts. The majority of those who have been categorised as social Darwinists, did not identify themselves by such a label.


Creationists have often maintained that social Darwinism—leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive—is a logical consequence of "Darwinism" (the theory of natural selection in biology). Biologists and historians have stated that this is a fallacy of appeal to nature, since the theory of natural selection is merely intended as a description of a biological phenomenon and should not be taken to imply that this phenomenon is good or that it ought to be used as a moral guide in human society. While most scholars recognize some historical links between the popularisation of Darwin's theory and forms of social Darwinism, they also maintain that social Darwinism is not a necessary consequence of the principles of biological evolution.


Scholars debate the extent to which the various social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues. His writings have passages that can be interpreted as opposing aggressive individualism, while other passages appear to promote it. Some scholars argue that Darwin's view gradually changed and came to incorporate views from the leading social interpreters of his theory such as Herbert Spencer. But Spencer's Lamarckian evolutionary ideas about society were published before Darwin first published his theory, and both promoted their own conceptions of moral values. Spencer supported laissez-faire capitalism on the basis of his Lamarckian belief that struggle for survival spurred self-improvement which could be inherited.

Origin of the term

The term first appeared in Europe in 1877,[11] and around this time it was used by sociologists opposed to the concept. The term was popularized in the United States in 1944 by the American historian Richard Hofstadter who used it in the ideological war effort against fascism to denote a reactionary creed which promoted competitive strife, racism and chauvinism. Hofstadter later also recognized (what he saw as) the influence of Darwinist and other evolutionary ideas upon those with collectivist views, enough to devise a term for the phenomenon, "Darwinist collectivism." Before Hofstadter's work the use of the term "social Darwinism" in English academic journals was quite rare. In fact,
...there is considerable evidence that the entire concept of "social Darwinism" as we know it today was virtually invented by Richard Hofstadter. Eric Foner, in an introduction to a then-new edition of Hofstadter's book published in the early 1990s, declines to go quite that far. "Hofstadter did not invent the term Social Darwinism," Foner writes, "which originated in Europe in the 1860s and crossed the Atlantic in the early twentieth century. But before he wrote, it was used only on rare occasions; he made it a standard shorthand for a complex of late-nineteenth-century ideas, a familiar part of the lexicon of social thought."
— Jeff Riggenbach
The term "social Darwinism" has rarely been used by advocates of the supposed ideologies or ideas; instead it has almost always been used pejoratively by its opponents. The term draws upon the common use of the term Darwinism, which has been used to describe a range of evolutionary views, but in the late 19th century was applied more specifically to natural selection as first advanced by Charles Darwin to explain speciation in populations of organisms. The process includes competition between individuals for limited resources, popularly but inaccurately described by the phrase "survival of the fittest," a term coined by sociologist Herbert Spencer.
While the term has been applied to the claim that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection can be used to understand the social endurance of a nation or country, social Darwinism commonly refers to ideas that predate Darwin's publication of On the Origin of Species. Others whose ideas are given the label include the 18th century clergyman Thomas Malthus, and Darwin's cousin Francis Galton who founded eugenics towards the end of the 19th century.

Theories and origins

The term Darwinism had been coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in his April 1860 review of "On the Origin of Species", and by the 1870s it was used to describe a range of concepts of evolutionism or development, without any specific commitment to Charles Darwin's own theory.
The first use of the phrase "social Darwinism" was in Joseph Fisher's 1877 article on The History of Landholding in Ireland which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Fisher was commenting on how a system for borrowing livestock which had been called "tenure" had led to the false impression that the early Irish had already evolved or developed land tenure;
These arrangements did not in any way affect that which we understand by the word " tenure," that is, a man's farm, but they related solely to cattle, which we consider a chattel. It has appeared necessary to devote some space to this subject, inasmuch as that usually acute writer Sir Henry Maine has accepted the word " tenure " in its modern interpretation, and has built up a theory under which the Irish chief " developed " into a feudal baron. I can find nothing in the Brehon laws to warrant this theory of social Darwinism, and believe further study will show that the Cain Saerrath and the Cain Aigillue relate solely to what we now call chattels, and did not in any way affect what we now call the freehold, the possession of the land.
— Fisher 1877.[16]
Despite the fact that social Darwinism bears Charles Darwin's name, it is also linked today with others, notably Herbert Spencer, Thomas Malthus, and Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics. In fact, Spencer was not described as a social Darwinist until the 1930s, long after his death.


Darwin himself gave serious consideration to Galton's work, but considered the ideas of "hereditary improvement" impractical. Aware of weaknesses in his own family, Darwin was sure that families would naturally refuse such selection and wreck the scheme. He thought that even if compulsory registration was the only way to improve the human race, this illiberal idea would be unacceptable, and it would be better to publicize the "principle of inheritance" and let people decide for themselves.


In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex of 1882 Darwin described how medical advances meant that the weaker were able to survive and have families, and as he commented on the effects of this, he cautioned that hard reason should not override sympathy and considered how other factors might reduce the effect:
Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly any one is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed.

The aid which we feel impelled to give to the helpless is mainly an incidental result of the instinct of sympathy, which was originally acquired as part of the social instincts, but subsequently rendered, in the manner previously indicated, more tender and more widely diffused. Nor could we check our sympathy, even at the urging of hard reason, without deterioration in the noblest part of our nature. The surgeon may harden himself whilst performing an operation, for he knows that he is acting for the good of his patient; but if we were intentionally to neglect the weak and helpless, it could only be for a contingent benefit, with an overwhelming present evil. ... We must therefore bear the undoubtedly bad effects of the weak surviving and propagating their kind; but there appears to be at least one check in steady action, namely that the weaker and inferior members of society do not marry so freely as the sound; and this check might be indefinitely increased by the weak in body or mind refraining from marriage, though this is more to be hoped for than expected.

Social Darwinists

Herbert Spencer's ideas, like those of evolutionary progressivism, stemmed from his reading of Thomas Malthus, and his later theories were influenced by those of Darwin. However, Spencer's major work, Progress: Its Law and Cause (1857) was released two years before the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, and First Principles was printed in 1860.

In The Social Organism (1860), Spencer compares society to a living organism and argues that, just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection, society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes.


In many ways, Spencer's theory of cosmic evolution has much more in common with the works of Lamarck and Auguste Comte's positivism than with Darwin's.

Jeff Riggenbach argues that Spencer's view was that culture and education made a sort of Lamarckism possible and notes that Herbert Spencer was a proponent of private charity.

Spencer's work also served to renew interest in the work of Malthus. While Malthus's work does not itself qualify as social Darwinism, his 1798 work An Essay on the Principle of Population, was incredibly popular and widely read by social Darwinists. In that book, for example, the author argued that as an increasing population would normally outgrow its food supply, this would result in the starvation of the weakest and a Malthusian catastrophe.

According to Michael Ruse, Darwin read Malthus' famous Essay on a Principle of Population in 1838, four years after Malthus' death. Malthus himself anticipated the social Darwinists in suggesting that charity could exacerbate social problems.

Another of these social interpretations of Darwin's biological views, later known as eugenics, was put forth by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1865 and 1869. Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people, the same could be said for mental qualities (genius and talent). Galton argued that social morals needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision in order to avoid both the over-breeding by less fit members of society and the under-breeding of the more fit ones.

In Galton's view, social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing inferior humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more "superior" humans in respectable society, and if corrections were not soon taken, society would be awash with "inferiors." Darwin read his cousin's work with interest, and devoted sections of Descent of Man to discussion of Galton's theories. Neither Galton nor Darwin, though, advocated any eugenic policies such as those that would be undertaken in the early 20th century, for government coercion of any form was very much against their political opinions.


Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy addressed the question of artificial selection, yet Nietzsche's principles did not concur with Darwinian theories of natural selection. Nietzsche's point of view on sickness and health, in particular, opposed him to the concept of biological adaptation as forged by Spencer's "fitness". Nietzsche criticized Haeckel, Spencer, and Darwin, sometimes under the same banner by maintaining that in specific cases, sickness was necessary and even helpful.[21] Thus, he wrote:
Wherever progress is to ensue, deviating natures are of greatest importance. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. The strongest natures retain the type, the weaker ones help to advance it. Something similar also happens in the individual. There is rarely a degeneration, a truncation, or even a vice or any physical or moral loss without an advantage somewhere else. In a warlike and restless clan, for example, the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone, and may therefore become quieter and wiser; the one-eyed man will have one eye the stronger; the blind man will see deeper inwardly, and certainly hear better. To this extent, the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to me to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a man or of a race.[22]
The publication of Ernst Haeckel's best-selling Welträtsel ('Riddle of the Universe') in 1899 brought social Darwinism and earlier ideas of racial hygiene to a wider audience. His recapitulation theory was not Darwinism, but rather attempted to combine the ideas of Goethe, Lamarck and Darwin. It was adopted by emerging social sciences to support the concept that non-European societies were "primitive" in an early stage of development towards the European ideal, but since then it has been heavily refuted on many fronts[23] Haeckel's works led to the formation of the Monist League in 1904 with many prominent citizens among its members, including the Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Ostwald. By 1909, it had a membership of some six thousand people.


The simpler aspects of social Darwinism followed the earlier Malthusian ideas that humans, especially males, require competition in their lives in order to survive in the future. Further, the poor should have to provide for themselves and not be given any aid. However, amidst this climate, most social Darwinists of the early twentieth century actually supported better working conditions and salaries. Such measures would grant the poor a better chance to provide for themselves yet still distinguish those who are capable of succeeding from those who are poor out of laziness, weakness, or inferiority.

Darwinism and hypotheses of social change

"Social Darwinism" was first described by Oscar Schmidt of the University of Strasbourg, reporting at a scientific and medical conference held in Munich in 1877. He noted how socialists, although opponents of Darwin's theory, nonetheless used it to add force to their political arguments. Schmidt's essay first appeared in English in Popular Science in March 1879.[24] There followed an anarchist tract published in Paris in 1880 entitled "Le darwinisme social" by Émile Gautier. However, the use of the term was very rare — at least in the English-speaking world (Hodgson, 2004)— until the American historian Richard Hofstadter published his influential Social Darwinism in American Thought (1944) during World War II.

Hypotheses of social evolution and cultural evolution were common in Europe. The Enlightenment thinkers who preceded Darwin, such as Hegel, often argued that societies progressed through stages of increasing development. Earlier thinkers also emphasized conflict as an inherent feature of social life. Thomas Hobbes's 17th century portrayal of the state of nature seems analogous to the competition for natural resources described by Darwin. Social Darwinism is distinct from other theories of social change because of the way it draws Darwin's distinctive ideas from the field of biology into social studies.
Darwin, unlike Hobbes, believed that this struggle for natural resources allowed individuals with certain physical and mental traits to succeed more frequently than others, and that these traits accumulated in the population over time, which under certain conditions could lead to the descendants being so different that they would be defined as a new species.
However, Darwin felt that "social instincts" such as "sympathy" and "moral sentiments" also evolved through natural selection, and that these resulted in the strengthening of societies in which they occurred, so much so that he wrote about it in Descent of Man:
The following proposition seems to me in a high degree probable—namely, that any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man. For, firstly, the social instincts lead an animal to take pleasure in the society of its fellows, to feel a certain amount of sympathy with them, and to perform various services for them.[26]

United States

Spencer proved to be a popular figure in the 1880s primarily because his application of evolution to areas of human endeavor promoted an optimistic view of the future as inevitably becoming better. In the United States, writers and thinkers of the gilded age such as Edward L. Youmans, William Graham Sumner, John Fiske, John W. Burgess, and others developed theories of social evolution as a result of their exposure to the works of Darwin and Spencer.

In 1883, Sumner published a highly influential pamphlet entitled "What Social Classes Owe to Each Other", in which he insisted that the social classes owe each other nothing, synthesizing Darwin's findings with free enterprise Capitalism for his justification.According to Sumner, those who feel an obligation to provide assistance to those unequipped or under-equipped to compete for resources, will lead to a country in which the weak and inferior are encouraged to breed more like them, eventually dragging the country down. Sumner also believed that the best equipped to win the struggle for existence was the American businessman, and concluded that taxes and regulations serve as dangers to his survival. This pamphlet makes no mention of Darwinism, and only refers to Darwin in a statement on the meaning of liberty, that "There never has been any man, from the primitive barbarian up to a Humboldt or a Darwin, who could do as he had a mind to."


Sumner never fully embraced Darwinian ideas, and some contemporary historians do not believe that Sumner ever actually believed in social Darwinism. The great majority of American businessmen rejected the anti-philanthropic implications of the theory. Instead they gave millions to build schools, colleges, hospitals, art institutes, parks and many other institutions. Andrew Carnegie, who admired Spencer, was the leading philanthropist in the world (1890–1920), and a major leader against imperialism and warfare.


H. G. Wells was heavily influenced by Darwinist thoughts, and novelist Jack London wrote stories of survival that incorporated his views on social Darwinism.

Nazi Germany


Alfred Rosenberg in 1939
Nazi Germany's justification for its aggression was regularly promoted in Nazi propaganda films depicting scenes such as beetles fighting in a lab setting to demonstrate the principles of "survival of the fittest" as depicted in Alles Leben ist Kampf (English translation: All Life is Struggle). Hitler often refused to intervene in the promotion of officers and staff members, preferring instead to have them fight amongst themselves to force the "stronger" person to prevail—"strength" referring to those social forces void of virtue or principle.[35] Key proponents were Alfred Rosenberg, who was hanged later at Nuremberg. Such ideas also helped to advance euthanasia in Germany, especially Action T4, which led to the murder of mentally ill and disabled people in Germany.

The argument that Nazi ideology was strongly influenced by social Darwinist ideas is often found in historical and social science literature.[36] For example, the philosopher and historian Hannah Arendt analysed the historical development from a politically indifferent scientific Darwinism via social Darwinist ethics to racist ideology.[37]


This poster (from around 1938) reads: "60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from a hereditary defect costs the People's community during his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read '[A] New People', the monthly magazine of the Bureau for Race Politics of the NSDAP."
By 1985, creationists were taking up the argument that Nazi ideology was directly influenced by Darwinian evolutionary theory.[38] Such claims have been presented by creationists such as Jonathan Sarfati. Intelligent design creationism supporters have promoted this position as well. For example, it is a theme in the work of Richard Weikart, who is a historian at California State University, Stanislaus, and a senior fellow for the Center for Science and Culture of the Discovery Institute.[41] It is also a main argument in the 2008 intelligent-design/creationist movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed.
Similar criticisms are sometimes applied (or misapplied) to other political or scientific theories that resemble social Darwinism, for example criticisms leveled at evolutionary psychology. For example, a critical reviewer of Weikart's book writes that "(h)is historicization of the moral framework of evolutionary theory poses key issues for those in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology, not to mention bioethicists, who have recycled many of the suppositions that Weikart has traced."


Another example is recent scholarship that portrays Ernst Haeckel's Monist League as a mystical progenitor of the Völkisch movement and, ultimately, of the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler. Scholars opposed to this interpretation, however, have pointed out that the Monists were freethinkers who opposed all forms of mysticism, and that their organizations were immediately banned following the Nazi takeover in 1933 because of their association with a wide variety of causes including feminism, pacifism, human rights, and early gay rights movements.

Peter Kropotkin – Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

Peter Kropotkin argued in his 1902 book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution that Darwin did not define the fittest as the strongest, or most clever, but recognized that the fittest could be those who cooperated with each other. In many animal societies, "struggle is replaced by co-operation."
It may be that at the outset Darwin himself was not fully aware of the generality of the factor which he first invoked for explaining one series only of facts relative to the accumulation of individual variations in incipient species. But he foresaw that the term [evolution] which he was introducing into science would lose its philosophical and its only true meaning if it were to be used in its narrow sense only—that of a struggle between separate individuals for the sheer means of existence. And at the very beginning of his memorable work he insisted upon the term being taken in its "large and metaphorical sense including dependence of one being on another, and including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny." [Quoting Origin of Species, chap. iii, p. 62 of first edition.]
While he himself was chiefly using the term in its narrow sense for his own special purpose, he warned his followers against committing the error (which he seems once to have committed himself) of overrating its narrow meaning. In The Descent of Man he gave some powerful pages to illustrate its proper, wide sense. He pointed out how, in numberless animal societies, the struggle between separate individuals for the means of existence disappears, how struggle is replaced by co-operation, and how that substitution results in the development of intellectual and moral faculties which secure to the species the best conditions for survival. He intimated that in such cases the fittest are not the physically strongest, nor the cunningest, but those who learn to combine so as mutually to support each other, strong and weak alike, for the welfare of the community. "Those communities," he wrote, "which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring" (2nd edit., p. 163). The term, which originated from the narrow Malthusian conception of competition between each and all, thus lost its narrowness in the mind of one who knew Nature.[53]
Noam Chomsky discussed briefly Kropotkin's views in a July 8, 2011 YouTube video from Renegade Economist, in which he said Kropotkin argued
...the exact opposite [of Social Darwinism]. He argued that on Darwinian grounds, you would expect cooperation and mutual aid to develop leading towards community, workers' control and so on. Well, you know, he didn't prove his point. It's at least as well argued as Herbert Spencer is...[54]
17-3b Political Corruption

The Appeal of Tammany

Machine Made: Tammany Hall and the Creation of Modern American Politics, 6:06
https://youtu.be/abR1i48qe-Q

Lawrence O'Donnell and Terry Golway. Machine Made: Tammany Hall and the Creation of Modern American Politics - by Terry Golway.READ MORE... The Case For Tammany Hall Being On The Right Side Of History-NPR http://www.npr.org/2014/03/05/2862184... Historian Terry Golway has written a colorful history of Tammany Hall, which takes a more sympathetic view of the organization than many historians. He says the Tammany machine, while often corrupt, gave impoverished immigrants critically needed social services and a road to assimilation. According to Golway, Tammany was responsible for progressive state legislation that foreshadowed the New Deal. He writes that some of Tammany's harshest critics, including cartoonist Thomas Nast, openly exhibited a raw anti-Irish and anti-Catholic prejudice. Golway tells Fresh Air's Dave Davies, "What I'm trying to do in this book is present this other side of Tammany Hall. ... Every history of Tammany Hall is told as a true-crime novel and what I'm trying to suggest is that there's this other side. I'm arguing yes, the benefits that Tammany Hall brought to New York and to the United States [do] outweigh the corruption with which it is associated. Tammany Hall was there for the poor immigrant who was otherwise friendless in New York."...



Gilded Age Politics:Crash Course US History #26, 13:50

https://youtu.be/Spgdy3HkcSs



Resources
Johnny Cash Train Songs
Series
Bob Marley, Buffalo Soldier
Lyrics
Mick and Paddy (Building the Union Pacific)
Railroad
Ian Hunter, "Saint," from "When I'm President"
Lyrics

Ian Hunter – Saint Lyrics

I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
Lords ‘n’ the ladies
Sittin’ on a hillside
Makin’ their bets on who is gonna win

I’d be with Jesse ‘n’ Frank
I’d be with Jesse ‘n’ Frank
I’d be with Jesse ‘n’ Frank
But there ain’t no way no one-legged hero
Could help ‘em rob a bank

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
That would never do

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
But I could never be you

I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
Horror, horror,
Can’t believe the horror flashbacks
Deathtraps
Morphine kicking in

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no hayseed

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
But you can never buy me

I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I got one leg ‘n’ a tin
I took one for the team
One for the dream
One for the slaves
One for freedom
Put a penny in

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I could never be

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
But you can never buy me

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
That would never do

I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
I ain’t no saint, no
But I could never be you
Gilded Age Politics:Crash Course US History #26, 13:50

https://youtu.be/Spgdy3HkcSs



Social Darwinism, 1:16:18

Prof. Richard Bulliet History W3903 section 001 Session 16: Social Darwinism HISTORY OF THE WORLD SINCE 1500CE

https://youtu.be/SV-zEzj0Dd0



The Wolftones The Fighting 69th.The Irish Brigade..wmv, 4:13

https://youtu.be/eWvdf_51Iq0



Group 1, Torture

Torture and Massacre by the Sioux: primary source from 1864
http://www.mtpioneer.com/2013-August-Taken-by-the-Sioux.html

Group 2, Guns

The Guns: Inside Hell On Wheels, 5:00

https://youtu.be/f50g63ADghM


Indian wars west of the Mississippi


Indian battles in the Trans Mississippi West
 
Indian warriors in the West, using their traditional style of limited, battle-oriented warfare, confronted the U.S. Army. The Indians emphasized bravery in combat while the Army puts its emphasis not so much on individual combat as on building networks of forts, developing a logistics system, and using the telegraph and railroads to coordinate and concentrate its forces. Plains Indian intertribal warfare bore no resemblance to the "modern" warfare practiced by the Americans along European lines, using its vast advantages in population and resources. Many tribes avoided warfare and others supported the U.S. Army. The tribes hostile to the government continued to pursue their traditional brand of fighting and, therefore, were unable to have any permanent success against the Army.


Indian wars were fought throughout the western regions, with more conflicts in the states bordering Mexico than in the interior states. Arizona ranked highest, with 310 known battles fought within the state's boundaries between Americans and the natives. Arizona ranked highest in war deaths, with 4,340 killed, including soldiers, civilians and native Americans. That was more than twice as many as occurred in Texas, the second highest ranking state. Most of the deaths in Arizona were caused by the Apache. Michno also says that fifty-one percent of the Indian war battles between 1850 and 1890 took place in Arizona, Texas and New Mexico, as well as thirty-seven percent of the casualties in the county west of the Mississippi River.


One of the deadliest Indian wars fought was the Snake War in 1864–1868, which was conducted by a confederacy of Northern Paiute, Bannock and Shoshone Native Americans, called the "Snake Indians" against the United States Army in the states of Oregon, Nevada, California, and Idaho which ran along the Snake River. The war started when tension arise between the local Indians and the flooding pioneer trains encroaching through their lands, which resulted in competition for food and resources. Indians included in this group attacked and harassed emigrant parties and miners crossing the Snake River Valley, which resulted in further retaliation of the white settlements and the intervention of the United States army. The war resulted in a total of 1,762 men who have been killed, wounded, and captured from both sides. Unlike other Indian Wars, the Snake War was widely forgotten in United States history due to having only limited coverage of the war.
In the Apache Wars, Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson forced the Mescalero Apache onto a reservation in 1862. In 1863–1864, Carson used a scorched earth policy in the Navajo Campaign, burning Navajo fields and homes, and capturing or killing their livestock. He was aided by other Indian tribes with long-standing enmity toward the Navajos, chiefly the Utes. Another prominent conflict of this war was Geronimo's fight against settlements in Texas in the 1880s. The Apaches under his command conducted ambushes on US cavalries and forts, such as their attack on Cibecue Creek, while also raiding upon prominent farms and ranches, such as their infamous attack on the Empire Ranch that killed three cowboys. The U.S. finally induced the last hostile Apache band under Geronimo to surrender in 1886.

During the Comanche campaign, the Red River War was fought in 1874–75 in response to the Comanche's dwindling food supply of buffalo, as well as the refusal of a few bands to be inducted in reservations.[168] Comanches started raiding small settlements in Texas, which led to the Battle of Buffalo Wallow and Second Battle of Adobe Walls fought by buffalo hunters, and the Battle of Lost Valley against the Texas Rangers. The war finally ended with a final confrontation between the Comanches and the U.S. Cavalry in Palo Duro Canyon. The last Comanche war chief, Quanah Parker, surrendered in June 1875, which would finally end the wars fought by Texans and Indians.


Red Cloud's War was led by the Lakota chief Red Cloud against the military who were erecting forts along the Bozeman trail. It was the most successful campaign against the U.S. during the Indian Wars. By the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), the U.S. granted a large reservation to the Lakota, without military presence; it included the entire Black Hills.[170] Captain Jack was a chief of the Native American Modoc tribe of California and Oregon, and was their leader during the Modoc War. With 53 Modoc warriors, Captain Jack held off 1,000 men of the U.S. Army for 7 months. Captain Jack killed Edward Canby.


The battle near Fort Phil Kearny, Dakota Territory, December 21, 1866
In June 1877, in the Nez Perce War the Nez Perce under Chief Joseph, unwilling to give up their traditional lands and move to a reservation, undertook a 1,200 mile fighting retreat from Oregon to near the Canadian border in Montana. Numbering only 200 warriors, the Nez Perce "battled some 2,000 American regulars and volunteers of different military units, together with their Indian auxiliaries of many tribes, in a total of eighteen engagements, including four major battles and at least four fiercely contested skirmishes."

The Nez Perce were finally surrounded at the Battle of Bear Paw and surrendered. The Great Sioux War of 1876 was conducted by the Lakota under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse. The conflict began after repeated violations of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) once gold was discovered in the hills. One of its famous battles was the Battle of the Little Bighorn, in which combined Sioux and Cheyenne forces defeated the 7th Cavalry, led by General George Armstrong Custer. The Ute War, fought by the Ute people against settlers in Utah and Colorado, led to two battles; the Meeker Massacre which killed 11 Indian agents, and the Pinhook massacre which killed 13 armed ranchers and cowboys. The Ute conflicts finally ended after the events of the Bluff War.

The end of the Indian wars came at the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890 where the 7th Cavalry attempted to disarm a Sioux man and precipitated an engagement in which about 150 Sioux men, women, and children were killed. Only thirteen days before, Sitting Bull had been killed with his son Crow Foot in a gun battle with a group of Indian police that had been sent by the American government to arrest him.


Scalped corpse of buffalo hunter found after an 1868 encounter with Cheyennes near Fort Dodge, Kansas

Forts and outposts

As the frontier moved westward, the establishment of U.S. military forts moved with it, representing and maintaining federal sovereignty over new territories.[177][178] The military garrisons usually lacked defensible walls but were seldom attacked. They served as bases for troops at or near strategic areas, particularly for counteracting the Indian presence. For example, Fort Bowie protected Apache Pass in southern Arizona along the mail route between Tucson and El Paso and was used to launch attacks against Cochise and Geronimo. Fort Laramie and Fort Kearny helped protect immigrants crossing the Great Plains and a series of posts in California protected miners. Forts were constructed to launch attacks against the Sioux. As Indian reservations sprang up, the military set up forts to protect them. Forts also guarded the Union Pacific and other rail lines. Other important forts were Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Fort Snelling, Minnesota, Fort Union, New Mexico, Fort Worth, Texas, and Fort Walla Walla in Washington. Fort Omaha, Nebraska was home to the Department of the Platte, and was responsible for outfitting most Western posts for more than 20 years after its founding in the late 1870s. Fort Huachuca in Arizona was also originally a frontier post and is still in use by the United States Army.

Group 3, Women

Settling the Great Plains

The arrival of the railroads in the 1870s open up the Great Plains for settlement, for now it was possible to ship wheat and other crops at low cost to the urban markets in the East, and Europe. Immigrants poured in, especially from Germany and Scandinavia. On the plains, very few single men attempted to operate a farm or ranch by themselves; they clearly understood the need for a hard-working wife, and numerous children, to handle the many chores, including child-rearing, feeding and clothing the family, managing the housework, feeding the hired hands, and, especially after the 1930s, handling the paperwork and financial details. During the early years of settlement in the late 19th century, farm women played an integral role in assuring family survival by working outdoors. After a generation or so, women increasingly left the fields, thus redefining their roles within the family. New conveniences such as sewing and washing machines encouraged women to turn to domestic roles. The scientific housekeeping movement, promoted across the land by the farm magazines and (after 1914) by government extension agents, as well as county fairs which featured achievements in home cookery and canning, advice columns for women in the farm papers, and home economics courses in the schools.


Grange in session, 1873
Although the eastern image of farm life in the prairies emphasized the isolation of the lonely farmer and farm wife, supposedly with few neighbors within range. In reality, they created a rich social life for themselves. They often sponsored activities that combined work, food, and entertainment such as barn raisings, corn huskings, quilting bees, Grange meetings, church activities, and school functions. The womenfolk organized shared meals and potluck events, as well as extended visits between families. The Grange was a nationwide farmers' organization; it reserved high offices for women, gave them a voice in public affairs, and promoted equality and suffrage.

Suffrage

The women's suffrage movement began with the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention; many of the activists became politically aware during the abolitionist movement. The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of who had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. By the end of the 19th century a few western states had granted women full voting rights, though women had made significant legal victories, gaining rights in areas such as property and child custody.


In 1866, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the American Equal Rights Association, an organization for white and black women and men dedicated to the goal of suffrage for all. In 1868 the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, this was the first Amendment to ever specify the voting population as "male". In 1869 the women's rights movement split into two factions as a result of disagreements over the Fourteenth and soon-to-be-passed Fifteenth Amendments, with the two factions not reuniting until 1890. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the more radical, New York-based National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA).Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe organized the more conservative American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which was centered in Boston. In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment enfranchised black men. NWSA refused to work for its ratification, arguing, instead, that it be "scrapped" in favor of a Sixteenth Amendment providing universal suffrage. Frederick Douglass broke with Stanton and Anthony over NWSA's position.


In 1869 Wyoming became the first territory or state in America to grant women suffrage. In 1870 Louisa Ann Swain became the first woman in the United States to vote in a general election. She cast her ballot on September 6, 1870, in Laramie, Wyoming.
From 1870 to 1875 several women, including Virginia Louisa Minor, Victoria Woodhull, and Myra Bradwell, attempted to use the Fourteenth Amendment in the courts to secure the vote (Minor and Woodhull) or the right to practice law (Bradwell), but they were all unsuccessful. In 1872 Susan B. Anthony was arrested and brought to trial in Rochester, New York, for attempting to vote for Ulysses S. Grant in the presidential election; she was convicted and fined $100 and the costs of her prosecution but refused to pay.[116][120] At the same time, Sojourner Truth appeared at a polling booth in Battle Creek, Michigan, demanding a ballot; she was turned away. Also in 1872, Victoria Woodhull became the first woman to run for President, although she could not vote and only received a few votes, losing to Ulysses S. Grant. She was nominated to run by the Equal Rights Party, and advocated the 8-hour work day, graduated income tax, social welfare programs, and profit sharing, among other positions. In 1874 The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded by Annie Wittenmyer to work for the prohibition of alcohol; with Frances Willard at its head (starting in 1876), the WCTU also became an important force in the fight for women's suffrage. In 1878 a woman suffrage amendment was first introduced in the United States Congress, but it did not pass.

Jobs and professions

Many young women worked as servants or in shops and factories until marriage, then typically became full-time housewives. However black, Irish and Swedish adult women often worked as servants. After 1860, as the larger cities opened department stores, middle-class women did most of the shopping; increasingly they were served by young middle-class women clerks. Typically, most young women quit their jobs when they married. In some ethnic groups, However, married women were encouraged to work, especially among African-Americans, and Irish Catholics. When the husband operated a small shop or restaurant, wives and other family members could find employment there. Widows and deserted wives often operated boarding houses.


Career women were few. The teaching profession had once been heavily male, but as schooling expanded many women took on teaching careers. If they remained unmarried they could have a prestigious, poorly paying lifetime career. At the end of the period nursing schools opened up new opportunities for women, but medical schools remained nearly all male.

Business opportunities were very rare, unless it was a matter of a widow taking over her late husband's small business. However the rapid acceptance of the sewing machine made housewives more productive and opened up new careers for women running their own small millinery and dressmaking shops.


American women achieved several firsts in the professions in the second half of the 1800s. In 1866 Lucy Hobbs Taylor became the first American woman to receive a dentistry degree. In 1878 Mary L. Page became the first woman in America to earn a degree in architecture when she graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1879 Belva Lockwood became the first woman allowed to argue before the Supreme Court; the first case in which she did so was the 1880 case "Kaiser v. Stickney". Arabella Mansfield had previously become America's first female lawyer when she was admitted to the bar in 1869. In 1891 Marie Owens, born in Canada, was hired in Chicago as America's first female police officer. Due to women's greater involvement in law and law enforcement, in 1871 the first state laws specifically making wife beating illegal were passed, though proliferation of laws to all states and adequate enforcement of those laws lagged very far behind. One of the first female photojournalists, Sadie Kneller Miller used her initials, SKM, as a byline, which hid her gender. She covered sports, disasters, diseases, and was recognized as the first female war correspondent.

Settlement houses

In 1889 Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr established the first settlement house in America (a settlement house is a center in an underprivileged area that provides community services), in what was then a dilapidated mansion in one of the poorest immigrant slums of Chicago on the corner of Halstead and Polk streets. This settlement house, called Hull House, provided numerous activities and services including health and child care, clubs for both children and adults, an art gallery, kitchen, gymnasium, music school, theater, library, employment bureau, and a labor museum. By 1910, 400 settlement houses had been established in America; the majority of settlement house workers were women. Jane Addams was also a noted peace activist who shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Nicholas Murray Butler in 1931.

eva-hell-on-wheels
Eva, tatooed girl

http://www.yareah.com/2014/02/19/eva-tattooed-girl-hell-on-wheels-lived-texas-died-1903/
Lily Bell: Inside Hell on Wheels, 1:36

https://youtu.be/ij9mwS6ToFo





17-1 The Industrial Revolution

The Basic Industries

Technology

Innovative Financing, Law, and Business Practices

17-2 The National Market: Creating Consumer Demand

Advertising

National Brands

Stores and Mail Order

Harmful Business Practices

Working Conditions

17-3 The Politics of the Industrial Age

Justifications of the Industrial Order

Political Corruption

Political Divisions

17-4 The Rise of Labor

The Railroad Strike of 1877

The Struggle over Union Expansion

19th Century Work Conditions and Labor Union Growth, 1:58
https://youtu.be/K5K2KsCCQ0M
The Knights of Labor



Knights of Labor, 2:31
https://youtu.be/KEF1HlUWAvw







Growth and Frustrations

The Rise of the AFL


American Federation of Labor (American Labor Movement), 5:31

https://youtu.be/BQI_BldZeQk

The American Federation of Labor rose to prominence in the late 19th century as an alliance of skilled craft unions. Samuel Gompers, through his advocacy of "Bread and Butter" unionism, helped to enhance the reputation of labor unions, bringing union membership into the mainstream in the early 20th century. In 1955, the AFL merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) to form the AFL-CIO, the largest labor organization in the United States.







Labor and Politics




TV Westerns

Into the West
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Into_the_West_%28miniseries%29
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0409572/
Dem Debate Revisionist History
History


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Tweed Ring, working out of Tammany Hall, was
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City.
    Correct Answer:
     
    famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Industrialists justified their growing financial and political strength in all of the following ways EXCEPT
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    They claimed their actions benefited all mankind, not just themselves.
    Correct Answer:
     
    They declined unfair advantages.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Pres. Hayes' authorization of the National Guard to stop the railroad strike of 1877 is evidence of
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War.
    Correct Answer:
     
    government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Among the American Federation of Labor's successes were all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The AFL achieved all of these successes.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The AFL achieved all of these successes.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    As the Industrial Revolution progressed in America, all of the following occurred except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Immigration became less important to America.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Immigration became less important to America.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    One of the earliest American preservationists was
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    Andrew Carnegie.
    Correct Answer:
     
    John Muir.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    How did business owners respond to the growth of unions and the labor movement?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They required workers to sign yellow dog contracts or created blacklists.
    Correct Answer:
     
    They required workers to sign yellow dog contracts or created blacklists.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    During the Civil War, Congress took advantage of the absence of southerners in the House and Senate to do all of the following, EXCEPT
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    develop a national currency.
    Correct Answer:
     
    prohibit child labor.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The need for managers in the many new businesses of the late 1800s contributed significantly to the growth of
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the middle class.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the middle class.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
"Robber barons" or "captains of industry" were businessmen who
Given Answer:
Correct 
amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity.
Correct Answer:
 
amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity.



Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Haymarket strike led to:
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    growing anti-union sentiment nationwide.
    Correct Answer:
     
    growing anti-union sentiment nationwide.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Although corrupt, New York's Tammany Hall appealed to
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    recent immigrants and job seekers.
    Correct Answer:
     
    recent immigrants and job seekers.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    One of the earliest American preservationists was
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    John Muir.
    Correct Answer:
     
    John Muir.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The need for managers in the many new businesses of the late 1800s contributed significantly to the growth of
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    the middle class.
    Correct Answer:
     
    the middle class.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Tweed Ring, working out of Tammany Hall, was
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City.
    Correct Answer:
     
    famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City.

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Among the American Federation of Labor's successes were all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    The AFL achieved all of these successes.
    Correct Answer:
     
    The AFL achieved all of these successes.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Industrialists justified their growing financial and political strength in all of the following ways EXCEPT
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    They declined unfair advantages.
    Correct Answer:
     
    They declined unfair advantages.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    During the Civil War, Congress took advantage of the absence of southerners in the House and Senate to do all of the following, EXCEPT
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    prohibit child labor.
    Correct Answer:
     
    prohibit child labor.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    "Robber barons" or "captains of industry" were businessmen who
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity.
    Correct Answer:
     
    amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
Pres. Hayes' authorization of the National Guard to stop the railroad strike of 1877 is evidence of
Given Answer:
Correct 
government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War.
Correct Answer:
 
government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War.


Question 1:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Henry Grady's speech, "The New South," could best be classified as
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    An attempt to rally the South to see their region linked not to the antebellum and slavery past but to the promises of the Industrial Revolution and the South's new spirit of enterprise.
    Correct Answer:
     
    An attempt to rally the South to see their region linked not to the antebellum and slavery past but to the promises of the Industrial Revolution and the South's new spirit of enterprise.

Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Grange was
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    a national farm movement that sought political solutions to farmers' economic problems.
    Correct Answer:
     
    a national farm movement that sought political solutions to farmers' economic problems.

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The final act in the U.S. war against the Plains Indians took place at
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Wounded Knee.
    Correct Answer:
     
    Wounded Knee.

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    In his book, The Lost Cause, published just one year after the Civil War ended, Edward Pollard argued that the real reason the Civil War happened was
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    states' rights.
    Correct Answer:
     
    northern aggression against the South.

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Housing for factory workers was so bad in the late 1800s, and city sanitation was so poor, that epidemics of ____ swept through whole cities.
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    typhoid
    Correct Answer:
     
    typhoid

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Incorrect
    Ida B. Wells-Barnett, an editor and writer, concentrated her reform efforts on the social issue of
    Given Answer:
    Incorrect 
    racism.
    Correct Answer:
     
    lynching.

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major industries that developed in the South prior to 1900 included all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    electricity.
    Correct Answer:
     
    electricity.

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The major industries that developed in the South prior to 1900 included all of the following except
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    electricity.
    Correct Answer:
     
    electricity.

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    The Dawes Act
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    divided tribal lands among native families into individual plots of land and put the land titles in a federal trust.
    Correct Answer:
     
    divided tribal lands among native families into individual plots of land and put the land titles in a federal trust.

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Given Answer:
Correct 
All of these choices.
Correct Answer:
 
All of these choices.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Incorrect The Haymarket strike led to: Given Answer: Incorrect the founding of the Knights of Labor. Correct Answer: growing anti-union sentiment nationwide. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct As the Industrial Revolution progressed in America, all of the following occurred except Given Answer: Correct Immigration became less important to America. Correct Answer: Immigration became less important to America. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Incorrect Pres. Hayes' authorization of the National Guard to stop the railroad strike of 1877 is evidence of Given Answer: Incorrect the rise of an organized labor movement in 19th century America. Correct Answer: government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct How did business owners respond to the growth of unions and the labor movement? Given Answer: Correct They required workers to sign yellow dog contracts or created blacklists. Correct Answer: They required workers to sign yellow dog contracts or created blacklists. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Incorrect Vertical integration meant Given Answer: Incorrect buying up all competitors. Correct Answer: owning all aspects of production and distribution under one corporate organization, from accessing and owning the raw materials, to the production of the good(s), to the delivery of the finished product(s) to the consumer. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Incorrect Industrialists justified their growing financial and political strength in all of the following ways EXCEPT Given Answer: Incorrect They claimed their actions benefited all mankind, not just themselves. Correct Answer: They declined unfair advantages. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct "Robber barons" or "captains of industry" were businessmen who Given Answer: Correct amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity. Correct Answer: amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Incorrect One of the earliest American preservationists was Given Answer: Incorrect John D. Rockefeller. Correct Answer: John Muir. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct The Tweed Ring, working out of Tammany Hall, was Given Answer: Correct famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City. Correct Answer: famously run by "Boss William Tweed," the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or "machine" in New York City. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect The need for managers in the many new businesses of the late 1800s contributed significantly to the growth of Given Answer: Incorrect company takeovers. Correct Answer: the middle class.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Incorrect Henry Grady's speech, "The New South," could best be classified as Given Answer: Incorrect a call for a return to the plantation order. Correct Answer: An attempt to rally the South to see their region linked not to the antebellum and slavery past but to the promises of the Industrial Revolution and the South's new spirit of enterprise. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct The final act in the U.S. war against the Plains Indians took place at Given Answer: Correct Wounded Knee. Correct Answer: Wounded Knee. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct The Dawes Act Given Answer: Correct divided tribal lands among native families into individual plots of land and put the land titles in a federal trust. Correct Answer: divided tribal lands among native families into individual plots of land and put the land titles in a federal trust. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Which was true for most immigrants to America? Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Incorrect Which of these was not a major reason for immigration to America in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Given Answer: Incorrect A rise in anti-Semitism, especially in Russia. Correct Answer: American advertisements placed in Western European newspapers. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Ida B. Wells-Barnett, an editor and writer, concentrated her reform efforts on the social issue of Given Answer: Correct lynching. Correct Answer: lynching. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct The Grange was Given Answer: Correct a national farm movement that sought political solutions to farmers' economic problems. Correct Answer: a national farm movement that sought political solutions to farmers' economic problems. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Incorrect Housing for factory workers was so bad in the late 1800s, and city sanitation was so poor, that epidemics of ____ swept through whole cities. Given Answer: Incorrect smallpox Correct Answer: typhoid out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct In his book, The Lost Cause, published just one year after the Civil War ended, Edward Pollard argued that the real reason the Civil War happened was Given Answer: Correct northern aggression against the South. Correct Answer: northern aggression against the South. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Given Answer: Incorrect banned immigration of Chinese workers for ten years and prohibited those in the U.S. from becoming citizens. Correct Answer: All of these choices.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Incorrect The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in Given Answer: Incorrect public facilities. Correct Answer: the workplace. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Incorrect Congress impeached Johnson because Given Answer: Incorrect the president had clearly committed high crimes and misdemeanors. Correct Answer: Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners Given Answer: Correct tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. Correct Answer: tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Incorrect Radical Republicans in Congress sought to Given Answer: Incorrect expel Southern states as punishment for their rebellion. Correct Answer: expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Incorrect Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except Given Answer: Incorrect make it legal for police to round up black vagrants and hire them out to white landowners. Correct Answer: permit African Americans to sit on juries. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Incorrect Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the Given Answer: Incorrect Seventy-five-Percent Plan. Correct Answer: Wade-Davis Bill. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Incorrect What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement? Given Answer: Incorrect Women, who had long advocated for the rights of minorities, felt betrayed. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because Given Answer: Correct keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. Correct Answer: keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct How did President Grant's administration respond to increased southern violence against free men and women? Given Answer: Correct The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence. Correct Answer: The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the Given Answer: Correct Wade-Davis Bill. Correct Answer: Wade-Davis Bill. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except Given Answer: Correct permit African Americans to sit on juries. Correct Answer: permit African Americans to sit on juries. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because Given Answer: Correct keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. Correct Answer: keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners Given Answer: Correct tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. Correct Answer: tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Congress impeached Johnson because Given Answer: Correct Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act. Correct Answer: Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct White Redeemers terrorized African Americans in the South with arson, assassinations, and intimidation in order to Given Answer: Correct keep black men from voting. Correct Answer: keep black men from voting. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct The Fifteenth Amendment Given Answer: Correct prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Correct Answer: prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct In an effort to gain the right to vote, African Americans did all of the following during the Reconstruction era except Given Answer: Correct They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement. Correct Answer: They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement? Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct Radical Republicans in Congress sought to Given Answer: Correct expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act. Correct Answer: expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct What effect did the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have on the women's suffrage movement? Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in Given Answer: Correct the workplace. Correct Answer: the workplace. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because Given Answer: Correct keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. Correct Answer: keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct In an effort to gain the right to vote, African Americans did all of the following during the Reconstruction era except Given Answer: Correct They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement. Correct Answer: They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners Given Answer: Correct tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. Correct Answer: tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct How did President Grant's administration respond to increased southern violence against free men and women? Given Answer: Correct The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence. Correct Answer: The administration passed two laws making it a felony to interfere with the right to vote and allowing the government to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to end Klan violence. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except Given Answer: Correct permit African Americans to sit on juries. Correct Answer: permit African Americans to sit on juries. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct White Redeemers terrorized African Americans in the South with arson, assassinations, and intimidation in order to Given Answer: Correct keep black men from voting. Correct Answer: keep black men from voting. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices.

Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct The Fifteenth Amendment Given Answer: Correct prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Correct Answer: prohibited any state from denying citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. out of 5 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct Passed by most of the new southern state governments during Reconstruction, the Black Codes did all of the following except Given Answer: Correct permit African Americans to sit on juries. Correct Answer: permit African Americans to sit on juries. out of 5 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct African Americans in the South demonstrated their newly achieved freedom by Given Answer: Correct All of these choices. Correct Answer: All of these choices. out of 5 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct The Civil Rights Act of 1875 did not include restrictions on racial discrimination in Given Answer: Correct the workplace. Correct Answer: the workplace. out of 5 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Immediately after the Civil War, many white landowners Given Answer: Correct tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. Correct Answer: tried without success to force blacks who had once been their slaves to work under very similar conditions, even to the point of using the whip. out of 5 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Congress responded to Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan, as it was known, by passing the Given Answer: Correct Wade-Davis Bill. Correct Answer: Wade-Davis Bill. out of 5 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct Racism was a particularly important incentive for poor white voters supportive of the Democratic ticket in the South because Given Answer: Correct keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. Correct Answer: keeping black people as an underclass in southern society was important to poor whites' sense of self-worth and economic well-being. out of 5 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct Congress impeached Johnson because Given Answer: Correct Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act. Correct Answer: Radical Republicans in the House charged the president with violating the Tenure of Office Act. out of 5 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Radical Republicans in Congress sought to Given Answer: Correct expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act. Correct Answer: expand the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and pass the Civil Rights Act. out of 5 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Incorrect In an effort to gain the right to vote, African Americans did all of the following during the Reconstruction era except Given Answer: Incorrect [None Given] Correct Answer: They attempted to unite with the women's suffrage movement.