Tuesday, January 10, 2017

HUM 112 Week 2 Winter 2017

Pre-Built Course Content

The presentation may contain content that is deemed objectionable to a particular viewer because of the view expressed or the conduct depicted. The views expressed are provided for learning purposes only, and do not necessarily express the views, or opinions, of Strayer University, your professor, or those participating in videos or other media.

Week 2 Checklist

  • Complete and submit Week 2 Quiz 1 covering Chapters 21 and 22 - 40 Points
  • Read the following from your textbook:
    • Chapter 23: The Baroque Court – Europe; the Americas
    • Chapter 24: The Rise of the Enlightenment in England
  • Explore the Week 2 Music Folder
  • View the Week 2 Lecture videos
  • Do the Week 2 Explore Activities
  • Participate in the Week 2 Discussion (choose only one (1) of the discussion options) - 20 Points


We will have two ten-minute breaks: at 7:30 and 9:00 pm. I will take roll at 10 pm tonight)--when we will do our in-class discussion--before you are dismissed at 10:15 pm.



A video clip from Neil Tyson, explaining how the Middle east suddenly went from a region of Science and development, into the socially backwards third world human wasteland we see today. 4:13

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNh751L8Uec



As Islam fell behind the West scientifically, the regressive nature of Islam should be clear; moreover, as the West developed free institutions based on constitutional monarchs, and ultimately, liberal constitutions, the Muslim majority countries were still characterized by absolute or despotic monarchs. Despots or monarchs still rule the Middle East today.  

Absolute monarchy or despotic monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Absolute monarchies are often hereditary but other means of transmission of power are attested. Absolute monarchy differs from constitutional monarchy, in which a monarch's authority in a constitutional monarchy is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution.

In theory, the absolute monarch exercises total power over the land, yet in practice the monarchy is counterbalanced by political groups from among the social classes and castes of the realm, such as the aristocracy, clergy, and middle and lower classes.

Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other governmental bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where the monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei,[4] Qatar,[5] Oman,[6] Saudi Arabia,[7] Swaziland,[8] the emirates comprising the United Arab Emirates,[9] and Vatican City.[10]

Did Obama Bow to Saudi King? :12

https://youtu.be/9WlqW6UCeaY










Fig. 23.1 Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, King of France. 1701

Oil on canvas, 9'1" × 6'4⅜". Musée du Louvre, Paris. In his ermine coronation robes, his feet adorned in shoes with high, red heels, Louis both literally and figuratively looks down his nose at the viewer, his sense of superiority fully captured by Rigaud.

Who should Americans bow to? 

What contrast can be drawn between the "Sun King" and George Washington?






George Washington, in prayer before battle.

All Hail the Sun King!
I'm Painting if You're Paying
English Enlightenment: We Know More, Now What?

Pre-Built Course Content


https://blackboard.strayer.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/HUM/112/1146/Week2/Lecture/lecture.html


HUM112 Music Clips for Week 2


In this week's readings (chaps. 23-24), there are several musical compositions mentioned, especially on pp. 751-753, 757 (in chap. 23) and p. 790 (in chap. 24).  These (or decent equivalents) can be found on YouTube.   Watch and give them a listen.   Here below is some background with description of each--and the link to the YouTube (and sometimes other helps).

Jean-Baptiste Lully (French: [ʒɑ̃ ba.tist ly.li]; born Giovanni Battista Lulli [dʒoˈvanni batˈtista ˈlulli]; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered a master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661.

Armide is an opera by Jean-Baptiste Lully. The libretto by Philippe Quinault is based on Torquato Tasso's poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered). The work is in the form of a tragédie en musique, a genre invented by Lully and Quinault.

Critics in the 18th century regarded Armide as Lully's masterpiece. It continues to be well-regarded, featuring some of the best-known music in French baroque opera and being arguably ahead of its time in its psychological interest. Unlike most of his operas, Armide concentrates on the sustained psychological development of a character — not Renaud, who spends most of the opera under Armide's spell, but Armide, who repeatedly tries without success to choose vengeance over love.
  1. Lully: Armide, Act 2 - Enfin, il est en ma puissance ("At last, he is in my power"; p. 752)
 Lyrics translated at http://operatoriobeginners.wordpress.com/2011/08/29/french-baroque-3-translation-of-opera-text/.


‘Enfin, il est en ma puissance’ (Armida’s soliloquy from Armide, Act 2, Scene 5 [1686])
Text by Philippe Quinault; English translation by John Underwood

Armida, a dagger in her hand
At last, he is in my power,
This fatal foe, this proud victor.
Sleep’s charm delivers him to my revenge.
I’ll pierce his invincible heart.
He it was who freed my captive slaves,
Now may he feel my rage …
Armida makes to strike Rinaldo, but discovers she cannot pursue her plan of taking his life.
What feeling troubles me, what makes me hesitate?
What is it that Pity says to me on his behalf?
Come, strike! … Ye gods, what holds me back?
Now to it! … I am trembling! Take revenge … I am sighing!
Is it thus that today I am avenged?
My anger dissolves whenever I approach him.
The more I look at him, the vainer is my rage.
My trembling arm refuses me my hatred.
Ah, what cruelty it would be to take his life!
Everything gives way for this young hero.
Who would believe that he was born for war alone?
He seems to have been made only for love.
Is it only by his death that I would be avenged?
Ah, would love’s punishments not be enough?
Since he found in my eyes  not charms enough,
At least by my spells I’ll make him dote [on me],
That I might hate him, if I can.
Come, confirm my desires,
Demons, assume the shapes of sweet breezes.
I yield to this victor, I am won by pity;
Come hide my weakness and shame
In far distant deserts: now bend
your course, lead us to the world’s end.

The Demons, changed into Zephyrs, carry Rinaldo and Armida off.

Note: The French name forms ‘Armide’ and ‘Renaud’ are given here in their Italian equivalents, ‘Armida’ and ‘Rinaldo’. The story of the opera is taken from an epic Italian poem by Torquato Tasso, Jerusalemme liberata (completed in 1575). – Lully’s and Quinault’s version of just a part of this epic tale was immensely popular, and remained in the repertoire in Paris until 1764.
Jean-Baptiste Lully composed the opera Armide in the late 1600s, during the reign of Louis XIV.  Read p. 752 carefully as it describes that work and this part of it.  Armide (=Armida) is the female character, the main character.  Armida lives in Muslim culture and is variously described as a sorceress, an enchantress, and a witch.  She has been asked to thwart the efforts of the crusader knight Renaud, even murder him.  She does succeed in casting a spell on him, but finds that she also has fallen in love with him, so following through with murder seems impossible.  She approaches to do the deed--that is the setting for this song from the end of Act II of the opera.  The story itself was based on a fictional epic poem of the 1500s. 

https://youtu.be/YPSiWmUU4gM


  1. Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre: Pieces de clavecin ("Pieces for the Harpischord"; p. 753
    Élisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre (full name Élisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre; born Élisabeth Jacquet, 17 March 1665, Paris – 27 June 1729, Paris) was a French musician, harpsichordist and composer.
This female composer and musician had performed in the court of Louis XIV since she was age 5.  This composition was for a dance.  Read the description on p. 753. Note the sound of the harpischord (clavecin), precursor to the modern piano.

Elisabeth Jacquet was born into an important family of musicians and masons in the parish of Saint-Louis-en-l'Ile, Paris. A childhood prodigy, she played the harpsichord before King Louis XIV to inaugurate her career as a virtuoso performer at the age of five.

At the court of Louis XIV she was noticed by Madame de Montespan, and was kept on in her entourage. She later married the organist Marin de La Guerre in 1684 and left the court. Thereafter she was known as Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre.

After her marriage she taught and gave concerts at home and throughout Paris, and gained much acclaim. A quote from Titon du Tillet speaks of her "marvellous facility for playing preludes and fantasies off the cuff.

Sometimes she improvises one or another for a whole half hour with tunes and harmonies of great variety and in quite the best possible taste, quite charming her listeners." (Le Parnasse Français, 1732) Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre was one of the few well-known women composers of her time.

Recently there has been a renewal of interest in her compositions and a number have been recorded. Her first publication was her Premier Livre de Pièces de Clavessin, printed in 1687. It was one of the few collections of harpsichord pieces printed in France in the 17th-century, along with those of Chambonnières, Lebègue and d'Anglebert.

On 15 March 1694, the production of her opera Céphale et Procris at the Académie Royale de Musique was the first written by a woman in France. The next year, 1695, she composed a set of trio sonatas which, with those of Marc-Antoine Charpentier, François Couperin, Jean-Féry Rebel and Sébastien de Brossard, are among the earlist French examples of the sonata.

The next few years heralded the deaths of almost all of her near relations: her only son, mother, father, husband and brother Nicolas, and were not productive times. 1707 saw the publication of Pièces de Clavecin qui peuvent se jouer sur le Viollon, a new set of harpsichord pieces, followed by six Sonates pour le Viollon et pour le Clavecin.

These works are an early example of the new genre of accompanied harpsichord works, where the instrument is used in an obbligato role with the violin; Rameau's Pieces de Clavecin en Concerts are somewhat of the same type.

The dedication of the 1707 work speaks of the continuing admiration and patronage of Louis XIV: "Such happiness for me, Sire, if my latest work may receive as glorious a reception from Your Majesty as I have enjoyed almost from the cradle, for, Sire, if I may remind you, you never spurned my youthful offerings.

You took pleasure in seeing the birth of the talent that I have devoted to you; and you honoured me even then with your commendations, the value of which I had no understanding at the time. My slender talents have since grown. I have striven even harder, Sire, to deserve your approbation, which has always meant everything to me...." She returned to vocal composition with the publication of two books of Cantates françoises sur des sujets tirez de l'Ecriture in 1708 and 1711.

Her last publication, 15 years before her death, was a collection of secular Cantates Françoises (c. 1715). In the inventory of her possessions after her death, there were three harpsichords: a small instrument with white and black keys, one with black keys, and a large double manual Flemish harpsichord.

Embedding disabled by request

https://youtu.be/wHCKCMUqCEU

  1. Henry Purcell: Dido and Aeneas, Dido’s Lament (p. 75Henry Purcell (/ˈpɜːrsəl/;[1] c. 10 September 1659[Note 1] – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no other native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar.   Dido and Aeneas (Z. 626)[1] is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate. The dates of the composition and first performance of the opera are uncertain. It was composed no later than July 1688,[2] and had been performed at Josias Priest's girls' school in London by the end of 1689.[3] Some scholars argue for a date of composition as early at 1684.[4][5] The story is based on Book IV of Virgil's Aeneid.[6] It recounts the love of Dido, Queen of Carthage, for the Trojan hero Aeneas, and her despair when he abandons her. A monumental work in Baroque opera, Dido and Aeneas is remembered as one of Purcell's foremost theatrical works.[6] It was also Purcell's first opera, as well as his only all-sung dramatic work. One of the earliest English operas, it owes much to John Blow's Venus and Adonis, both in structure and in overall effect.[6] The influence of Cavalli's opera Didone is also apparent.
For lyrics see: http://www.absolutelyrics.com/lyrics/view/alison_moyet

/dido's_lament,3a_when_i_am_laid_in_earth;  but don't buy the ring tone.
"Dido's Lament", by Purcell, is also called "When I am laid in earth".  The story it relates to is from Book 4 of the ancient epic poem by Vergil called The Aeneid.  Dido, the Queen of Carthage, and Aeneas, the warrior prince from ancient Troy, had fallen in love.  But, Aeneas was determined to fulfill his duty and divine destiny and go to Italy to found a new kingdom; eventually that becomes Rome.  Aeneas is pulled by duty and destiny, and as queen, Dido cannot leave with him.  In anguish of his departure, she makes arrangements to put herself to death on a funeral pyre. Thus--the lament.  On "Dido's Lament": This song is one ARIA in Purcell's opera called Dido and Aeneas.  Read the great description of this on p. 757.

When I am laid, am laid in earth, may my wrongs create
No trouble, no trouble in, in thy breast.
When I am laid, am laid in earth, may my wrongs create
No trouble, no trouble in, in thy breast.
Remember me, remember me, but ah!
Forget my fate.
Remember me, but ah!
Forget my fate.
Remember me, remember me, but ah!
Forget my fate.
Remember me, but ah!
Forget my fate. 


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3TUWU_yg4s Henry Purcell - When I am laid in earth (Dido's Lament) - Dido and Aeneas - Tatiana Troyanos, 3:45

 Henry Purcell - When I am laid in earth (Dido's Lament, aria) - Dido and Aeneas - Tatiana Troyanos. When I am laid, am laid in earth, May my wrongs create No trouble, no trouble in thy breast; Remember me, remember me, but ah! forget my fate. Remember me, but ah! forget my fate. See: - Dido's Lament: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido%27s... - Henry Purcell: http://www.baroquemusic.org/bqxpurcel... - Dido and Aeneas: http://www.naxos.com/education/opera_... - Tatiana Troyanos (mezzo-soprano): http://www.allmusic.com/artist/tatian... - Origin of the story in Aeneid by Virgil: http://en.wikipedia.org

/wiki/Aeneid https://youtu.be/vK06iwXT0Jw






  1. Handel: Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus (p. 790)

This famous chorus is part of the renowned ORATORIO called MessiahRead p. 790 carefully for the description of the term "oratorio" and note how it differs from opera.  Then read that page for its description of this work in particular.  Handel took the common Christian approach and understanding of scriptures as predicting and praising Jesus as the Christ, the Messiah.  Most of the lyrics are taken from scriptural passages, especially those found in the Biblical books of Isaiah, Luke, and Revelation. 

Messiah (HWV 56)[1] is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer. It was first performed in Dublin on 13 April 1742 and received its London premiere nearly a year later. After an initially modest public reception, the oratorio gained in popularity, eventually becoming one of the best-known and most frequently performed choral works in Western music.[n 1]

Handel's reputation in England, where he had lived since 1712, had been established through his compositions of Italian opera. He turned to English oratorio in the 1730s in response to changes in public taste; Messiah was his sixth work in this genre. Although its structure resembles that of opera, it is not in dramatic form; there are no impersonations of characters and no direct speech. Instead, Jennens's text is an extended reflection on Jesus Christ as Messiah. The text begins in Part I with prophecies by Isaiah and others, and moves to the annunciation to the shepherds, the only "scene" taken from the Gospels. In Part II, Handel concentrates on the Passion and ends with the "Hallelujah" chorus. In Part III he covers the resurrection of the dead and Christ's glorification in heaven.

Handel wrote Messiah for modest vocal and instrumental forces, with optional settings for many of the individual numbers. In the years after his death, the work was adapted for performance on a much larger scale, with giant orchestras and choirs. In other efforts to update it, its orchestration was revised and amplified by (among others) Mozart. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the trend has been towards reproducing a greater fidelity to Handel's original intentions, although "big Messiah" productions continue to be mounted. A near-complete version was issued on 78 rpm discs in 1928; since then the work has been recorded many times.

Hallelujah - Choir of King's College, Cambridge live performance of Handel's Messiah, 3:58

EMI have just released a DVD of King's College Choir performing Handel's Messiah. You can buy both the DVD and CD from the The Shop at King's, King's Parade, Cambridge or online from the Friends of King's website - www.kingsfriends.org or on the EMI website: www.emiclassics.com/dvds.php The Messiah DVD captures an extraordinary performance in the magnificent setting of the College Chapel. The performance was recorded during this year's Easter at Kings festival and was screened in over 85 cinemas across Europe and North America. It was the first time a choral concert had been broadcast live throughout cinemas. The critically-acclaimed concert features the Academy of Ancient Music conducted by Stephen Cleobury together with with soloists Ailish Tynan, Alice Coote, Allan Clayton and Matthew Rose, and the King's College Choir. The concert commemorated both the 250th anniversary of the death of George Frideric Handel and the 800th anniversary of the University of Cambridge.

https://youtu.be/C3TUWU_yg4s





Week 2 Explore

 
The Arts and Royalty




Rubens and Poussin
The grand master of baroque, Pierre-Paul Rubens arrived in Paris in 1625 with his series of canvases depicting the life of Mary of Medicis, Queen of France and widow of Henri IV. Commissioned four years before by the Queen, this imposing series of 24 pieces was destined to decorate the west wing of the Luxembourg palace in Paris. Today it hangs in the Louvre.


At the start of the 17th century, 70% of production from Antwerp was exported, a major portion of which to France. In Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés village fair, hosted by Nordic merchants, sold a great many Flemish works of art.

Under the reign of Henri IV, then the regency of Mary of Medicis, Flemish painters with Pierre-Paul Rubens foremost among them, obtained the lion’s share of royal commissions, including Philippe de Champaigne for portraits or Frans Snyders for animal art.

This strong presence in France motivated French artists, such as the Le Nain brothers, to adopt Flemish subjects and models.

The 17th century was therefore one where artistic currents changed, when the French classic school influenced the Europe of Arts, supported by the extensive political power of Louis XIV’s reign.

Poussin
French painter, a leader of pictorial classicism in the Baroque period. Except for two years as court painter to Louis XIII, he spent his entire career in Rome. His paintings of scenes from the Bible and from Greco-Roman antiquity influenced generations of French painters, including Jacques-Louis David, J.-A.-D. Ingres, and Paul Cézanne.

Childhood and early travels

Poussin was born in a small hamlet on the Seine River, the son of small farmers. He was educated at the nearby town of Les Andelys, and he apparently did not show any interest in the arts until the painter Quentin Varin visited the village in 1612 to produce several paintings for the Church of Le Grand Andely. Poussin's interest in the arts was awakened, and he decided to become a painter. As this was impossible in Les Andelys, he left his home, going first to Rouen and then to Paris to find a suitable teacher. His poverty and ignorance made this search very difficult. He found no satisfactory master and studied at different times under several minor painters. During this period Poussin endured great hardships and had to return to his paternal home, where he arrived ill and humiliated.

Recovering after a year, Poussin again set out for Paris, not only to continue his studies but also to pursue another aim. While previously in Paris, he had been exposed to the art of the Italian High Renaissance through reproductions of Raphael's paintings. These engravings, according to his biographer Giovanni Battista Passeri, inspired him to go to Rome, which was then the centre of the European art world. But only in 1624 was Poussin successful in reaching Rome, with the help of Giambattista Marino, the Italian court poet to Marie de Médicis.

First Roman period

Marino commissioned Poussin to make a series of mythological drawings illustrating Ovid's Metamorphoses. Poussin meanwhile experimented with various painting styles then current in Rome, an important influence being that of the Bolognese painter Domenichino. Poussin's culminating work of this period was a large altarpiece for St. Peter's representing the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus (1629). But it was a comparative failure with the artistic community in Rome, and Poussin never again tried to compete with the Italian masters of the Baroque style on their own ground. Thereafter he would paint only for private patrons and would confine his work to formats rarely larger than five feet in length.

Between Poussin's arrival in Rome in 1624 and his departure for France in 1640 he came to know many of Rome's most influential people, among them Cassiano dal Pozzo, secretary to Cardinal Barberini, whose rich collection of ancient Roman artifacts had a decisive influence upon Poussin's art. Through Pozzo, who became Poussin's patron, the French painter became a fervent admirer of ancient Roman civilization. From about 1629 to 1633 Poussin took his themes from classical mythology and from Torquato Tasso, and his painterly style became more romantic and poetic under the influence of such Venetian masters as Titian. Such examples of his work at this time as The Arcadian Shepherds and Rinaldo and Armida have sensuous, glowing colours and manage to communicate a true feeling for pagan antiquity.

In the mid-1630s Poussin began deliberately to turn toward Raphael and Roman antiquity for his inspiration and to evolve the purely classical idiom that he was to retain for the rest of his life. He also began painting religious themes once more. He began with stories that offered a good pageant, such as The Worship of the Golden Calf and The Rape of the Sabine Women. He went on to choose incidents of deeper moral significance in which human reactions to a given situation constitute the main interest. The most important works that exemplify this phase are those in the series of Seven Sacraments painted in 1634-42 for Pozzo. While other artists painted in the style of the Roman Baroque, Poussin tried in these works to fashion a style marked by classical clarity and monumentality. This style was inspired by Roman pre-Christian architecture and Latin books on moral conduct, as well as by the nobility and greatness of Raphael's works, which, as he believed, had renewed the spirit of antiquity.

Painter to Louis XIII

Between 1638 and 1639 Poussin's achievements in Rome attracted the attention of the French court. Louis XIII's powerful minister Cardinal Richelieu tried to persuade Poussin to return to France. Eventually Poussin reluctantly acceded to this request, journeying to Paris in 1640. Though received with great honours, Poussin nevertheless soon found himself in trouble with the ministers of the king as well as with the French artists, whom he met with the utmost arrogance. He was offered commissions for kinds of work he was not used to nor really qualified to execute, including altarpieces and the decoration of the Grande Galérie of the Louvre palace. What he produced did not elicit the praise he expected, so he left Paris in defeat in 1642 and returned to Rome. Unfortunately he did not live to see his own style of painting accepted and eventually glorified by the French Academy in the late 17th century.

Second Roman period

Many of Poussin's paintings on religious and ancient Roman subjects done in the 1640s and '50s are concerned with moments of crisis or difficult moral choice, and his heroes are those who reject vice and the pleasures of the senses in favour of virtue and the dictates of reason - e.g., Coriolanus, Scipio, Phocion, and Diogenes. Poussin's painterly style was consciously calculated to express such a mood of austere rectitude: such solemn religious works as Holy Family on the Steps (1648) exhibit only a few figures, painted in harsh colours against the severest possible background. In the landscapes Poussin began painting at this time, such as Landscape with the Body of Phocion Carried out of Athens and Landscape with Polyphemus, the disorder of nature is reduced to the order of geometry, and the forms of trees and shrubs are made to approach the condition of architecture. The composition in these paintings is worked out very carefully and has an unusual clarity of structure.

Poussin's health declined from 1660 onward, and early in 1665 he ceased to paint. He died that year and was buried in San Lorenzo in Lucina, his Roman parish church.

Assessment
Poussin believed in reason as the guiding principle of art, yet his figures are never merely cold or lifeless. They may resemble figures used by Raphael or ancient Roman sculptures in their poses, but they retain a strange and unmistakable vitality of their own. Even in Poussin's late period, when all movement, including gesture and facial expression, had been reduced to a minimum, his forms harmoniously combine vitality with intellectual order.

Philosophers Debate Politics



Hobbes text
Thomas Hobbes: human condition
In Leviathan, Hobbes provides all of the necessary parts to tell a compelling story of the human condition. Here are the main parts:
bulletOur motives and actions are all based on internal bio-mechanical processes.
bulletGood and evil are dependent on what the individual loves (what s/he seeks) and hates (what s/he avoids).
bulletIn the strictly natural condition (outside of society), there is no objective value (good or bad).
bulletIn the strictly natural condition (outside of society), there is no justice or injustice - everyone has the right to seek and take whatever is good for them and dispose of whatever is bad for them.
bulletHumans are naturally equal in power of mind and body, so that no individual is capable of dominating all the others indefinitely.

Picture the story these elements create - it is a hypothetical situation that is not like our daily lives, it is more like the scenario created in a post-apocalyptic movie, but even further removed from social convention. In that world there would be no trust or fairness. You would have desires (such as food and water) that others may also want. If they are stronger then you, they could take away whatever you have or kill you. If you were stronger or lucky, maybe you would take or kill.
"Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man, the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal. In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." [Leviathan, Ch. VI]
Hobbes does not mean this as a merely possible and scary story. He offers the state of nature as a depiction of the reality that nature actually gives us. Take away our law and social convention, and we will fall into the state of nature. Even in our state of civilization, we carry with us reminders of the consequences of natural liberty;
"It may seem strange to some man that has not well weighed these things that Nature should thus dissociate and render men apt to invade and destroy one another: and he may therefore, not trusting to this inference, made from the passions, desire perhaps to have the same confirmed by experience. Let him therefore consider with himself: when taking a journey, he arms himself and seeks to go well accompanied; when going to sleep, he locks his doors; when even in his house he locks his chests; and this when he knows there be laws and public officers, armed, to revenge all injuries shall be done him; what opinion he has of his fellow subjects, when he rides armed; of his fellow citizens, when he locks his doors; and of his children, and servants, when he locks his chests. Does he not there as much accuse mankind by his actions as I do by my words? But neither of us accuse man's nature in it. The desires, and other passions of man, are in themselves no sin. No more are the actions that proceed from those passions till they know a law that forbids them; which till laws be made they cannot know, nor can any law be made till they have agreed upon the person that shall make it." [Leviathan, Ch. VI]

Another depiction of this story of unrestricted human desire is found in Plato's Republic in the Ring of Gyges myth. Another important element in this story is general principle of human psychology.

"A law of nature, lex naturalis, is a precept, or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same, and to omit that by which he thinketh it may be best preserved." [Leviathan, Ch. VI]

This is the principle of self-preservation. Human beings (perhaps all animals and living things) seek to preserve themselves against harm and death. Self-preservation is a value that we all have in common and it leads to a very important point in Hobbes' investigation: the basis for group cooperation.

Suppose that someone is strong enough to harm us at their pleasure. The rational thing to do is to form an agreement with others to protect against that person or get rid of them. There is strength in numbers. But, if we can band together for mutual protection from an individual, then we can also agree upon common rules that mutually protect us from each other. That is, to make and live by a social agreement by which all of us accept limitations on our liberty in exchange for common security.
The above is but a skeletal summary, yet the direction of Hobbes' effort is clear: to derive from the principles of human psychology and natural conditions the basis for a rational commitment to social organization.


Locke versus Hobbes

Locke and Hobbes were both social contract theorists, and both natural law theorists (Natural law in the sense of Saint Thomas Aquinas, not Natural law in the sense of Newton), but there the resemblance ends. All other natural law theorists assumed that man was by nature a social animal. Hobbes assumed otherwise, thus his conclusions are strikingly different from those of other natural law theorists.  In addition to his unconventional conclusions about natural law, Hobbes was infamous for producing numerous similarly unconventional results in physics and mathematics.  The leading English mathematician of that era, in the pages of the Proceedings of the Royal Academy, called Hobbes a lunatic for his claim to have squared the circle.

Premises

Issue Locke Hobbes
Human nature Man is by nature a social animal. Man is not by nature a social animal, society could not exist except by the power of the state.
The state of nature In the state of nature men mostly kept their promises and honored their obligations, and, though insecure, it was mostly peaceful, good, and pleasant. He quotes the American frontier and Soldania as examples of people in the state of nature, where property rights and (for the most part) peace existed. Princes are in a state of nature with regard to each other. Rome and Venice were in a state of nature shortly before they were officially founded. In any place where it is socially acceptable to oneself punish wrongdoings done against you, for example on the American frontier, people are in a state of nature. Though such places and times are insecure, violent conflicts are often ended by the forcible imposition of a just peace on evil doers, and peace is normal. “no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
Knowledge of natural law Humans know what is right and wrong, and are capable of knowing what is lawful and unlawful well enough to resolve conflicts. In particular, and most importantly, they are capable of telling the difference between what is theirs and what belongs to someone else. Regrettably they do not always act in accordance with this knowledge. Our knowledge of objective, true answers on such questions is so feeble, so slight and imperfect as to be mostly worthless in resolving practical disputes. In a state of nature people cannot know what is theirs and what is someone else’s. Property exists solely by the will of the state, thus in a state of nature men are condemned to endless violent conflict. In practice morality is for the most part merely a command by some person or group or God, and law merely the momentary will of the ruler.
Epistemology The gap between our ideas and words about the world, and the world itself, is large and difficult, but still, if one man calls something good, while another man calls it evil, the deed or man referred to still has real qualities of good or evil, the categories exist in the world regardless of our names for them, and if one man’s word does not correspond to another mans word, this a problem of communication, not fundamental arbitrariness in reality. It is the naming, that makes it so. Sometimes Hobbes comes close to the Stalinist position that truth itself is merely the will of the ruler.
Conflict Peace is the norm, and should be the norm. We can and should live together in peace by refraining from molesting each other’s property and persons, and for the most part we do. Men cannot know good and evil, and in consequence can only live in peace together by subjection to the absolute power of a common master, and therefore there can be no peace between kings. Peace between states is merely war by other means.

Conclusions

Issue Locke Hobbes
The Social Contract We give up our right to ourselves exact retribution for crimes in return for impartial justice backed by overwhelming force. We retain the right to life and liberty, and gain the right to just, impartial protection of our property If you shut up and do as you are told, you have the right not to be killed, and you do not even have the right not to be killed, for no matter what the Sovereign does, it does not constitute violation of the contract.
Violation of the social contract If a ruler seeks absolute power, if he acts both as judge and participant in disputes, he puts himself in a state of war with his subjects and we have the right and the duty to kill such rulers and their servants. No right to rebel. “there can happen no breach of covenant on the part of the sovereign; and consequently none of his subjects, by any pretence of forfeiture, can be freed from his subjection.” The ruler’s will defines good and evil for his subjects. The King can do no wrong, because lawful and unlawful, good and evil, are merely commands, merely the will of the ruler.
Civil Society Civil society precedes the state, both morally and historically. Society creates order and grants the state legitimacy. Civil society is the application of force by the state to uphold contracts and so forth. Civil society is a creation of the state. What most modern people would call civil society is “jostling”, pointless conflict and pursuit of selfish ends that a good government should suppress.
Rights Men have rights by their nature You conceded your rights to the government, in return for your life
Role of the State The only important role of the state is to ensure that justice is seen to be done Whatever the state does is just by definition. All of society is a direct creation of the state, and a reflection of the will of the ruler.
Authorized use of force Authorization is meaningless, except that the authorization gives us reason to believe that the use of force is just. If authorization does not give us such confidence, perhaps because the state itself is a party to the dispute, or because of past lawless acts and abuses by the state, then we are back in a state of nature. The concept of just use of force is meaningless or cannot be known. Just use of force is whatever force is authorized

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (/hɒbz/; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury,[a] was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.[1]

Though on rational grounds a champion of absolutism for the sovereign, Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.[2]

He was one of the founders of modern political philosophy and political science.[3][4] His understanding of humans as being matter and motion, obeying the same physical laws as other matter and motion, remains influential; and his account of human nature as self-interested cooperation, and of political communities as being based upon a "social contract" remains one of the major topics of political philosophy.
In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history, geometry, the physics of gases, theology, ethics, and general philosophy.

John Locke FRS (/ˈlɒk/; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".[1][2][3] Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.[4]

Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau, and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.[5]


HOBBES VS LOCKE, 3:45

https://youtu.be/hNO0DuhLdv4



23 The Baroque Court

THINKING AHEAD

    23.1 Define absolutism and discuss how it impacted the arts in the court of Louis XIV.

    23.2 Describe how political conflict affected art in the English court.

    23.3 Examine the role of the arts in Golden Age Spain.

    23.4 Characterize the impact of Native American traditions on Baroque art in the Americas.

Louis XIV (r. 1643–1715), King of France, thought of himself as Le Roi Soleil, “the Sun King,” because like the sun (associated with Apollo, the ancient Greek god of peace and the arts) he saw himself dispensing bounty across the land. His ritual risings and retirings (the levée du roi and the couchée du roi) symbolized the actual rising and setting of the sun. They were essentially state occasions, attended by either the entire court or a select group of fawning aristocrats who eagerly entered their names on waiting lists.



Louis’s sense of his own authority—to say nothing of his notorious vanity—is wonderfully captured in Hyacinthe Rigaud’s (1659–1743) official state portrait of 1701 (Fig. 23.1). The king has flung his robes over his shoulder in order to reveal his white stockings and shoes with high, red heels. He designed the shoes himself to compensate for his 5-foot-4-inch height. He is 63 years old in this portrait, but he means to make it clear that he is still a dashing courtier.



Louis’s control over the lives of his courtiers had the political benefit of making them financially dependent on him. According to the memoirs of the duc de Saint Simon, Louis de Rouvroy (1675–1755):



He loved splendour, magnificence, and profusion in all things, and encouraged similar tastes in his Court; to spend money freely on equipages and buildings, on feasting and at cards, was a sure way to gain his favour, perhaps to obtain the honour of a word from him. Motives of policy had something to do with this; by making expensive habits the fashion, and, for people in a certain position, a necessity, he compelled his courtiers to live beyond their income, and gradually reduced them to depend on his bounty for the means of subsistence.



Louis, in fact, encouraged the noblewomen at court to consider it something of an honor to sleep with him; he had many mistresses and many illegitimate children. Life in his court was entirely formal, governed by custom and rule, so etiquette became a way of social advancement. He required the use of a fork at meal times instead of using one’s fingers. Where one sat at dinner was determined by rank. Rank even determined whether footmen opened one or two of his palace’s glass-paneled “French doors” as each guest passed through.

ABSOLUTE POWER AND ROYAL PATRONAGE 743

Absolutism and the Arts: Louis XIV and the French Court 745

    How did Louis XIV’s absolutist rule impact the arts of the French court?

From a young age, Louis had detested the Louvre, the royal palace in Paris that had been the seat of French government since the Middle Ages. He had assumed the throne at 5 years of age, and a year later, he had been forced to flee Paris after an angry mob broke into the Louvre and demanded to see their child king. (Louis in his bedchamber feigned sleep, and the mob left after simply looking at him.) But the episode made Louis feel unsafe in the Louvre. Thus, in 1661, when he was 23 years of age, he began construction of a new residence in the small town of Versailles, 12 miles southeast of Paris. For 20 years, some 36,000 workers labored to make Versailles the most magnificent royal residence in the world (Fig. 23.2). When Louis permanently moved his court and governmental offices there in 1682, Versailles became the unofficial capital of France and symbol of Louis’s absolute power and authority.

More than any other art, French architecture was designed to convey the absolute power of the monarchy. From the moment that Louis XIV initiated the project at Versailles, it was understood that the new palace must be unequaled in grandeur, unparalleled in scale and size, and unsurpassed in lavish decoration and ornament. It would be the very image of the king, in whose majesty, according to Bishop Bossuet, “lies the majesty of God.”


 
Absolute monarchy or despotic monarchy[1][2] is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.



18th century back in fashion | Video of the day, 3:55

The French court in the 18th century exemplified the lavish lifestyle of French royals that flourished under the reign of Louis XIV. Not only directors but also designers have been continually inspired by that era of fashionable dresses, stylized silhouettes and extravagant wigs. Now an exhibition called"the 18th Century Back in fashion"in Versailles near Paris showcases the pomp of yesteryear in dialogue with the catwalks of today.

https://youtu.be/3iZmKKIX1NE

;


The Tastes of Louis XIV 746

Louis asserted control over the nobility in a number of subtle ways. First, he made sure that the nobility benefited from the exercise of his own authority, by creating the largest army in Europe, numbering a quarter of a million men, and he modernized the army as well. Where previously local recruits and mercenaries had lived off the land, draining the resources of the nobility and pillaging and stealing to obtain their everyday needs, now Louis’s forces were well supplied, regularly paid, and extremely disciplined. The people admired them, understanding that this new army was not merely powerful, but also designed o protect them and guarantee their well-being—another benefit of centralized, absolute authority. However, as the army was always a present threat, Louis made no effort to limit the authority of regional parlements, and he generally made at least a pretense of consulting with these provincial governmental bodies before making decisions that would affect them. He also consulted with the nobility at court. In fact, he required their presence in court in order to prevent them from developing regional power bases of their own that might undermine his centralized rule. He barred them from holding high government positions as well, even as he cultivated them socially and encouraged them to approach him directly.

Mini Bio: Louis XIV, 3:12

Louis XIV was born in 1638, in France. He became king in 1643 and started reforming France in 1661. In 1667 he invaded the Spanish Netherlands and engaged in the Franco-Dutch War in 1672. By the 1680s, he was public shunned and died in France in 1715.

https://youtu.be/W5Njjd6R6d0



The Painting of Peter Paul Rubens: Color and Sensuality 748
One of Louis’s favorite artists was the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), and although Rubens died when Louis was only 2 years of age, the taste for Rubens’s painting dominated Louis’s court. Louis’s grandmother, Marie de’ Medici, had commissioned Rubens in 1621 to celebrate her life in a series of 21 monumental paintings. This series was to be paired with a similar (but never completed) series extolling Henry IV, her late husband. She was, by this time, serving as regent of France for her young son, Louis XIII—Louis XIV’s father—and the cycle was conceived to decorate the Luxembourg Palace in Paris, which today houses the French Senate. Rubens was 44 years old, had spent eight formative years (1600–08) in Italy in the service of the duke of Mantua, and had already provided paintings for numerous patrons in his native Flanders, especially altarpieces for Catholic churches in Antwerp. He had spent time in most of Europe’s royal or princely courts fulfilling commissions for large-scale paintings and gaining an international reputation. The cycle took four years (1621–25) to complete with the help of studio assistants.

Rubens, 2:40

peter paul rubens elevation of the cross peter paul rubens peter paul rubens biography peter paul rubens paintings peter paul rubens mirror peter paul rubens bbc

https://youtu.be/hUDqznoB4AM



The Painting of Nicolas Poussin: Classical Decorum 749

By the beginning of the eighteenth century, 14 other Rubens paintings had found their way to the court of Louis XIV. Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1629–1715), the great-nephew of Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642), who had served as artistic advisor to Marie de’ Medici and Louis XIII, purchased the 14 paintings that had remained in Rubens’s personal collection after his death in 1640. Before he acquired his own collection of Rubens’s work, Richelieu had wagered and lost his entire collection of paintings by Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) against Louis’s own collection of works by Rubens in a tennis match between the two. A debate had long raged at court as to who was the better painter—Poussin or Rubens. Charles Le Brun had gone so far as to declare Poussin the greatest painter of the seventeenth century. Although a Frenchman, Poussin had spent most of his life in Rome. He particularly admired the work of Raphael and, following Raphael’s example, advocated a Classical approach to painting. A painting’s subject matter, he believed, should be drawn from Classical mythology or Christian tradition, not everyday life. There was no place in his theory of painting for a genre scene like Rubens’s Kermis, even if portrayed on a monumental scale. Painting technique itself should be controlled and refined. There could be no loose brushwork, no “rough style.” Restraint and decorum had to govern all aspects of pictorial composition.

Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, 1637-38, 2:02

Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, 1637-38, oil on canvas, 87 x 120 cm (Musée du Louvre) More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=dg... Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
https://youtu.be/dgsogHXtwyA



Music and Dance at the Court of Louis XIV 751

Louis XIV loved the pomp and ceremony of his court and the art forms that allowed him to most thoroughly engage this taste: dance and music. The man largely responsible for entertaining the king at court was Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–87), who was born in Florence but moved to France in 1646 to pursue his musical education.

Jean Baptiste Lully - Idylle sur la paix, 1:36

Scene from the movie Le Roi Danse (The King is Dancing). This movie depicts the life of Jean-Baptiste Lully and his relationship with King Louis XIV of France Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) was an Italian baroque composer, later became a French subject in 1661. Lully's music is known for its power, liveliness in its fast movements and its deep emotional character in its sad movements. One of the most important composers of French Baroque....

https://youtu.be/vBtb5S4pQBQ



When, in 1629, Louis XIII appointed Cardinal Richelieu as his minister of state, he coincidentally inaugurated a great tradition of French theater. This tradition would culminate in 1680 with the establishment of the Comédie Française, the French national theater (Fig. 23.11). It was created as a cooperative under a charter granted by Louis XIV to merge three existing companies, including the troupe of the playwright Molière.

Moliere trailer, 2:02

22-year-old Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, also known as Molière, is not yet the writer that history recognizes as the father & true master of comic satire, author of "the Misanthrope and Tartuffe, and a dramatist to rank alongside Shakespeare & Sophocles. Far from it. He is in fact, a failed actor. His Illustrious Theatre Troupe, founded the previous year, is bankrupt. Hounded by creditors, Molière is thrown into jail, released, then swiftly imprisoned again. When the jailors finally let him go, he disappears. The combined efforts of historians have unearthed no trace of him before his reappearance, several months later, when his troupe begins touring the provinces - a tour that will last for thirteen years, and culminate in Molière's triumphant return to Paris in 1658. But what happened to Molière during these mysterious lost months? Molière, we discover, has been released from prison by a wealthy bourgeois, Monsieur Jourdain, who settled the young actor's debts on the understanding that he will teach him the craft of the stage. Hungry for recognition, Jourdain is infatuated with the lovely but poisonous Célimene, whose salon gathers together suitors & great wits. But the affair must remain secret, kept at all costs from Jourdain's wife, Elmire, a wonderful woman with whom Molière himself will fall headlong in love. Unfortunately for him, Jourdain has presented Molière as Monsieur Tartuffe, an austere private tutor, to justify his presence. Elmire has nothing but the harshest words for this holier-than-thou figure who has invaded her home. Trapped in this untenable situation, Molière will experience all manner of events that will open his eyes and his mind, both to life itself and to his work as an artist. It is from the heart of this tale, and from his passion for Elmire, that Molière the great dramatist is born. Boasting an extraordinary cast (Romain Duris The Beat My Heart Skipped; Ludivine Sagnier Swimming Pool, 8 Women; Laura Morante The Son's Room; Edouard Baer L'Appartement) sumptuous production values and a witty and sophisticated script in the tradition of Shakespeare In Love, director Laurent Tirard's romantic period drama reveals the tantalizing mystery behind the birth of France's greatest dramatist.

https://youtu.be/P3uZNnub0Xo


Patronage of the arts



Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts.
Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. He brought the Académie Française under his patronage and became its "Protector". He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine, whose works remain greatly influential to this day. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud, whose works became famous throughout Europe. In music, composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. In 1661 he founded the Académie Royale de Danse and in 1669 the Académie d'Opéra, important driving events in the evolution of ballet.




The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Over the course of four building campaigns, Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular Palace of Versailles. With the exception of the current Royal Chapel (built near the end of Louis's reign), the palace achieved much of its current appearance after the third building campaign, which was followed by an official move of the royal court to Versailles on 6 May 1682.



Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Versailles became a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries. At Versailles, the king alone commanded attention. Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat. For example, the memoirist Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.[38] Alternatively, there has been speculation that the revolt of the Fronde caused Louis to hate Paris, which he abandoned for a country retreat. However, his sponsorship of many public works in Paris, such as the establishment of a police and street-lighting,[84] lend little credence to this theory. As a further example of his continued care for the capital, Louis constructed the Hôtel des Invalides, a military complex and home to this day for officers and soldiers rendered infirm either by injury or old age. While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary in his day, the Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.[85]

Louis also renovated and improved the Louvre and other royal residences. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre, however his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris. Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of Perrault's elegant colonnade. With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public.[86] During his visit from Rome, Bernini also executed a renowned portrait bust of the king.


The Art and Politics of the English Court 755

How did politics impact the art of the English court?

The arts in England were dramatically affected by tensions between the absolutist monarchy of the English Stuarts and the much more conservative Protestant population. As in France, throughout the seventeenth century, the English monarchy sought to assert its absolute authority, although it did not ultimately manage to do so. The first Stuart monarch, James I (1566–1625), succeeded Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. “There are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed King,” he quickly insisted. His son, Charles I (1600–49), shared these absolutist convictions, but Charles’s reign was beset by religious controversy. Although technically head of the Church of England, he married a Catholic, Henrietta Maria, sister of the French king Louis XIII. Charles proposed changes in the Church of England’s liturgy that brought it, in the opinion of many, dangerously close to Roman Catholicism. Puritans (English Calvinists) increasingly dominated the English Parliament and strongly opposed any government that even remotely appeared to accept Catholic doctrine.

Parliament raised an army to oppose Charles, and civil war resulted, lasting from 1642 to 1648. The key political question was who should rule the country—the king or the Parliament? Led by Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658), the Puritans defeated the king in 1645, and, while peace talks dragged on for three years, Charles made a secret pact with the Scots. Cromwell retaliated by suppressing the Scots, along with other royalist brigades, in 1648. Charles was executed for treason on January 30, 1649, a severe blow to the divine right of kings, which was hardly lost on young Louis XIV across the Channel in France.
Initially, Cromwell tried to lead a commonwealth—a republic dedicated to the common well-being of the people—but he soon dissolved the Parliament and assumed the role of Lord Protector. His protectorate occasionally called the Parliament into session, but only to ratify his own decisions. Cromwell’s greatest difficulty was requiring the people to obey “godly” laws—in other words, Puritan doctrine. He forbade swearing, drunkenness, and cockfighting. No shops or inns could do business on Sunday. The country, used to the idea of a freely elected parliamentary government, could not tolerate such restriction, and when, in September 1658, Cromwell died, his system of government died with him. A new Parliament was convened, which issued an invitation to Prince Charles (1630–85), who was exiled in the Netherlands, to return to his kingdom as Charles II.


Anthony Van Dyck: Court Painter 756


Sir Anthony van Dyck (Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛi̯k], many variant spellings;[1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching

The tension between the Catholic-leaning English monarchy and the Puritan-oriented Parliament was exacerbated by the flamboyant style of the court, which offended more austere Puritan tastes. The court style is embodied in Portrait of Charles I Hunting (Fig. 23.12), by Flemish artist Anthony Van Dyck (1599–1641), court painter to Charles I. Sometime in his teens, Van Dyck went to work in Rubens’s workshop in Antwerp, and he led the studio by the time he was 17. Van Dyck’s great talent was portraiture. After working in Italy in the 1620s, in 1632 he accepted the invitation of Charles I of England to come to London as court painter. He was knighted there in 1633. He often flattered his subjects by elongating their features and portraying them from below to increase their stature. In the case of the painting shown here, Van Dyck positioned Charles so that he stands a full head higher than the grooms behind him, lit in a brilliant light that glimmers off his silvery doublet. The angle of his jauntily cocked Cavalier’s hat is echoed in the trees above his head and the neck of his horse, which seems to bow to him in respect. He is, in fact, the very embodiment of the Cavalier (from the French chevalier, meaning “knight”), as his royalist supporters were known. Like the king here, Cavaliers were famous for their style of dress—long, flowing hair, elaborate clothing, and large, sometimes feathered hats.

Anthony van Dyck, 2:17

Sir Anthony van Dyck ( 22 March 1599 -- 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draftsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. Art unites the peoples of the earth: this slogan was born ten years ago as evidence of our will of harmony beyond the colour of our skin, our own language, our political or religious creed. Blulight Gallery put lot of energy to produce hundreds of videos, musical events, art contents born from this slogan to embrace the whole Earth.

https://youtu.be/iQT5kjz4aec

Puritan and Cavalier Literature 756

Henry Purcell and English Opera 757

The Arts of the Spanish Court 757

Diego Velázquez and the Royal Portrait 757

The Literature of the Spanish Court 759

The Baroque in the Americas 762

Lima and Cuzco 763

Baroque Music in the Americas: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 764

The Churrigueresque Style: Retablos and Portals in New Spain 764

READINGS

23.1 from Molière, Tartuffe, Act 3, Scenes 2 and 3 (1664) 770


Excerpts from the theatre classic 'Tartuffe' by Molière, 4:14


Excerpts from the theatre classic 'Tartuffe' by Molière, adapted by David Ball and directed by Dominique Serrand. The cast includes Cate Scott Campbell, Christopher Carley, Steven Epp, Brian Hostenske, Nathan Keepers, Lenne Klingaman, Gregory Linington, Michael Manuel, Luverne Seifert and Suzanne Warmanen. Ensemble members include Becca Lustgarten, James MacEwan, Callie Prendiville and Nick Slimmer. 'Tartuffe' is onstage at SCR May 9 - June 8, 2014. http://www.scr.org

https://youtu.be/JZOlKB7X48k


23.1a from Molière, Tartuffe, Act 5 (1664) 754
23.2 Robert Herrick, “To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time” (1648) 756
23.3 Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, “To Her Self-Portrait” (posthumous publication 1700) 764
FEATURES
CLOSER LOOK Velázquez’s Las Meninas 760
CONTINUITY & CHANGE Excess and Restraint 76

Chapter 24: The Rise of the Enlightenment in England

Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800, The Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution gave rise to the Enlightenment, an eighteenth-century movement that stressed the role of philosophy and reason in improving society. Enlightenment intellectuals, known as philosophes, were chiefly social reformers from the nobility and the middle class. They often met in the salons of the upper classes to discuss the ideas of such giants as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. In the economic sphere, Adam Smith put forth the doctrine of laissez-faire economics. The later Enlightenment produced social thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an early advocate of women's rights, Mary Wollstonecraft. Salon gatherings, along with the growth of book and magazine publishing, helped spread Enlightenment ideas among a broad audience. Most Europeans were still Christians. However, the desire for a more spiritual experience inspired new religious movements, such as the Methodism of John Wesley.
Objectives

* Explain how science led to the Enlightenment.
* Compare the ideas of Hobbes and Locke.
* Identify the beliefs and contributions of the philosophes.
* Summarize how economic thinking changed during this time.

Terms, People, and Places

philosophe (notice the spelling: this is not the same thing as philosopher)

separation of powers

deism

laissez-faire

social contract

natural law

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

natural right

salon (there is a common everyday word, but in reference to the Enlightenment, it means a physical place more specific and relates directly to the Enlightenment).
In Leviathan, Hobbes set out his doctrine of the foundation of states and legitimate governments and creating an objective science of morality. This gave rise to social contract theory. Leviathan was written during the English Civil War; much of the book is occupied with demonstrating the necessity of a strong central authority to avoid the evil of discord and civil war.



Beginning from a mechanistic understanding of human beings and the passions, Hobbes postulates what life would be like without government, a condition which he calls the state of nature; much of this was based on Hugo Grotius' works. In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This, Hobbes argues, would lead to a "war of all against all" (bellum omnium contra omnes). The description contains what has been called one of the best known passages in English philosophy, which describes the natural state mankind would be in, were it not for political community: [16]
In such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing, such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.[17]
In such a state, people fear death, and lack both the things necessary to commodious living, and the hope of being able to toil to obtain them. So in order to avoid it people accede to a social contract and establish a civil society. According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede some rights for the sake of protection. Any power exercised by this authority can not be resisted because the protector's sovereign power derives from individuals' surrendering their own sovereign power for protection. The individuals are thereby the authors of all decisions made by the sovereign.[18] "he that complaineth of injury from his sovereign complaineth that whereof he himself is the author, and therefore ought not to accuse any man but himself, no nor himself of injury because to do injury to one's self is impossible". There is no doctrine of separation of powers in Hobbes's discussion.[19] According to Hobbes, the sovereign must control civil, military, judicial, and ecclesiastical powers.

State of nature

Locke defines the state of nature thus:
"To properly understand political power and trace its origins, we must consider the state that all people are in naturally. That is a state of perfect freedom of acting and disposing of their own possessions and persons as they think fit within the bounds of the law of nature. People in this state do not have to ask permission to act or depend on the will of others to arrange matters on their behalf. The natural state is also one of equality in which all power and jurisdiction is reciprocal and no one has more than another. It is evident that all human beings – as creatures belonging to the same species and rank and born indiscriminately with all the same natural advantages and faculties – are equal amongst themselves. They have no relationship of subordination or subjection unless God (the lord and master of them all) had clearly set one person above another and conferred on him an undoubted right to dominion and sovereignty."[11]
The work of Thomas Hobbes made theories based upon a state of nature popular in 17th-century England, even as most of those who employed such arguments were deeply troubled by his absolutist conclusions. Locke's state of nature can be seen in light of this tradition. There is not and never has been any divinely ordained monarch over the entire world, Locke argues. However, the fact that the natural state of humanity is without an institutionalized government does not mean it is lawless. Human beings are still subject to the laws of God and nature. In contrast to Hobbes, who posited the state of nature as a hypothetical possibility, Locke takes great pains to show that such a state did indeed exist. Actually, it still exists in the area of international relations where there is not and is never likely to be any legitimate overarching government (i.e., one directly chosen by all the people subject to it). Whereas Hobbes stresses the disadvantages of the state of nature, Locke points to its good points. It is free, if full of continual dangers (2nd Tr., §123). Finally, the proper alternative to the natural state is not political dictatorship/tyranny but democratically elected government and the effective protection of basic human rights to life, liberty, and property under the rule of law.

Nobody in the natural state has the political power to tell others what to do. However, everybody has the right to authoritatively pronounce justice and administer punishment for breaches of the natural law. Thus, men are not free to do whatever they please. "The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that... no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions" (2nd Tr., §6). The specifics of this law are unwritten, however, and so each is likely to misapply it in his own case. Lacking any commonly recognised, impartial judge, there is no way to correct these misapplications or to effectively restrain those who violate the law of nature.

The law of nature is therefore ill enforced in the state of nature.
IF man in the state of nature be so free, as has been said; if he be absolute lord of his own person and possessions, equal to the greatest, and subject to no body, why will he part with his freedom? Why will he give up this empire, and subject himself to the dominion and control of any other power? To which it is obvious to answer, that though in the state of nature he hath such a right, yet the enjoyment of it is very uncertain, and constantly exposed to the invasion of others: for all being kings as much as he, every man his equal, and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe, very unsecure. This makes him willing to quit a condition, which, however free, is full of fears and continual dangers: and it is not without reason, that he seeks out, and is willing to join in society with others, who are already united, or have a mind to unite, for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I call by the general name, property. (2nd Tr., §123)
It is to avoid the state of war that often occurs in the state of nature, and to protect their private property that men enter into civil or political society, i.e., state of society.


Path to the Enlightenment
By the early 1700s, European thinkers felt that nothing was beyond the reach of the human mind. Through the use of reason, insisted these thinkers, people and governments could solve every social, political, and economic problem. In essence, these writers, scholars, and philosophers felt they could change the world.

The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. In the 1700s, other scientists expanded European knowledge. For example, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox, a disease whose path of death spanned the centuries.


Applying science to the physical world, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton demonstrated that the universe operates according to natural laws which could be discovered by reason. Applying reason to the affairs of men, Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot put forth ideas of democracy, freedom, and equality. These ideals were translated into action as the American and French Revolutions.

Scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Natural law, or rules discoverable by reason, govern scientific forces such as gravity and magnetism. Why not, then, use natural law to better understand social, economic, and political problems? Using the methods of the new science, reformers thus set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society. In this way, the Scientific Revolution led to another revolution in thinking, known as the Enlightenment. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher best known for his work The Critique of Pure Reason, was one of the first to describe this era with the word “Enlightenment.” Despite Kant’s skepticism about the power of reason, he was enthusiastic about the Enlightenment and believed, like many European philosophers, that natural law could help explain aspects of humanity.

Philosophes and Their Ideas
In the 1700s, there was a flowering of Enlightenment thought. This was when a group of Enlightenment thinkers in France applied the methods of science to understand and improve society. They believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of government, law, and society. These thinkers were called philosophes (fee loh zohfs), which means “philosophers.” Their ideas soon spread beyond France and even beyond Europe.
Age of Enlightenment In Europe, 1:59
https://youtu.be/pbedy1tg5E8














































24 The Rise of the Enlightenment in England
18th Century England, 8:21

A graphical exploration of 18th Century England! This video covers the peak of the Age of Enlightenment, the continuation of the Scientific Revolution, the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and a handful of 18th Century English authors.

https://youtu.be/yGuKF3pE-PY





THE CLAIMS OF REASON 773
The Age of Reason | The Enlightenment - AP EURO, 6:33

https://youtu.be/MI-dfz2t4aY





    The New London: Absolutism Versus Liberalism 775
Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism (AP Euro), 9:47

Mr. Richey contrasts absolutism and constitutionalism as forms of government while discussing the development of English constitutionalism in the Late Middle Ages, which started with King John signing the Magna Carta. This is the first in a series of lectures on the development of English constitutionalism for AP European History students.

https://youtu.be/M_u_Xo924A8





        Absolutism versus Liberalism: Thomas Hobbes and John Locke 776
POLITICAL THEORY - Thomas Hobbes, 6:45

Thomas Hobbes believed that it is always better to have security rather than liberty in a country. He was therefore deeply opposed to the English Civil War – and would have predicted the chaos of the Arab Spring. Please subscribe here: http://tinyurl.com/o28mut7 If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://www.theschooloflife.com/shop/all/ Brought to you by http://www.theschooloflife.com Produced in collaboration with Mad Adam http://www.madadamfilms.co.uk

https://youtu.be/9i4jb5XBX5s


 

POLITICAL THEORY - John Locke, 9:13

John Locke's greatness as a philosopher is based on his theories on childhood, his work on religious toleration and his concept of the rights of citizens. He helped to make us who we are. If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://www.theschooloflife.com/shop/all/ Brought to you by http://www.theschooloflife.com Produced in collaboration with Refle

https://youtu.be/bZiWZJgJT7I


 
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Two Philosophers Compared, 16:31

Timestamps: 02:11 - Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) 09:33 - John Locke (Two Treatises of Government) 13:00 - Compare/Contrast with Graphic Organizer Mr. Richey discusses the works of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, two of the most influential philosophers of government in the seventeenth century. Hobbes and Locke were both influential in the development of social contract theory. In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes advances the idea of a permanent social contract in which people give up sovereignty to a governing authority in order to avoid the state of nature, which is a state of war with "every man against every man." After the Glorious Revolution, John Locke responded with his Two Treatises of Government, in which he argued that people enter into a social contract and form a government in order to preserve their natural rights (life, liberty, and property). In Locke's social contract, the people retain sovereignty and reserve the right to alter or abolish the social contract if the government fails to protect their natural rights. I spend the first part of the lecture providing a summary of Hobbes' Leviathan, followed by a summary of Locke, then I use a graphic organizer to compare and contrast Hobbes' and Locke's social contract philosophies, noting key similarities and differences between the two theorists. Mastodon's Leviathan album is brought in from time to time just because it's awesome. This lecture is designed specifically for AP European History students studying Absolutism and Constitutionalism in preparation for their exam, but can also serve students in other disciplines, such as US History and Government, as well. I use a picture in this video (Green Nature) that should be attributed to Rudolf Getel. I neglected to do so in the video, so I am doing so here.

https://youtu.be/N2LVcu01QEU




        John Milton’s Paradise Lost 777
Paradise Lost Whiteboard Stopmotion, 2:34

Paradise Lost quasi-summary English project music: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fEWulY...

https://youtu.be/yLnw9VWqJjM





    The English Enlightenment 780



        Satire: Enlightenment Wit 781

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.[1] Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society.
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"[2]—but parody, burlesque, exaggeration,[3] juxtaposition, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing. This "militant" irony or sarcasm often professes to approve of (or at least accept as natural) the very things the satirist wishes to attack.

Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including literature, plays, commentary, television shows, and media such as lyrics.

'A Welch wedding' Satirical Cartoon c.1780

The Age of Enlightenment, an intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th century advocating rationality, produced a great revival of satire in Britain. This was fuelled by the rise of partisan politics, with the formalisation of the Tory and Whig parties — and also, in 1714, by the formation of the Scriblerus Club, which included Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot, Robert Harley, Thomas Parnell, and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke. This club included several of the notable satirists of early 18th century Britain. They focused their attention on Martinus Scriblerus, "an invented learned fool... whose work they attributed all that was tedious, narrow-minded, and pedantic in contemporary scholarship".[83] In their hands astute and biting satire of institutions and individuals became a popular weapon. The turn to the 18th century was characterized by a switch from Horatian, soft, pseudo-satire, to biting "juvenal" satire.[84]

Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists, and one of the first to practise modern journalistic satire. For instance, In his A Modest Proposal Swift suggests that Irish peasants be encouraged to sell their own children as food for the rich, as a solution to the "problem" of poverty. His purpose is of course to attack indifference to the plight of the desperately poor. In his book Gulliver's Travels he writes about the flaws in human society in general and English society in particular. John Dryden wrote an influential essay entitled "A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire"[85] that helped fix the definition of satire in the literary world. His satirical Mac Flecknoe was written in response to a rivalry with Thomas Shadwell and eventually inspired Alexander Pope to write his satirical The Rape of the Lock. Other satirical works by Pope include the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot.

Alexander Pope b. May 21, 1688 was a satirist known for his Horatian satirist style and translation of the Illiad. Famous throughout and after the long 18th century, Pope died in 1744.[86] Pope, in his The Rape of the Lock, is delicately chiding society in a sly but polished voice by holding up a mirror to the follies and vanities of the upper class. Pope does not actively attack the self-important pomp of the British aristocracy, but rather presents it in such a way that gives the reader a new perspective from which to easily view the actions in the story as foolish and ridiculous. A mockery of the upper class, more delicate and lyrical than brutal, Pope nonetheless is able to effectively illuminate the moral degradation of society to the public. The Rape of the Lock assimilates the masterful qualities of a heroic epic, such as the Iliad, which Pope was translating at the time of writing The Rape of the Lock. However, Pope applied these qualities satirically to a seemingly petty egotistical elitist quarrel to prove his point wryly.[87]

Daniel Defoe pursued a more journalistic type of satire, being famous for his The True-Born Englishman which mocks xenophobic patriotism, and The Shortest-Way with the Dissenters – advocating religious toleration by means of an ironical exaggeration of the highly intolerant attitudes of his time.

The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th-century England.[88] The medium developed under the direction of its greatest exponent, James Gillray from London.[89] With his satirical works calling the king (George III), prime ministers and generals (especially Napoleon) to account, Gillray's wit and keen sense of the ridiculous made him the pre-eminent cartoonist of the era.[89]

Ebenezer Cooke (1665–1732), author of "The Sot-Weed Factor" (1708), was among the first American colonialists to write literary satire. Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) and others followed, using satire to shape an emerging nation's culture through its sense of the ridiculous.
Jonathan Swift, Satire, and Gulliver's Travels Lesson, 11:52

Don't forget to hit the Like and Subscribe videos to make sure you receive notifications about upcoming Literature, Grammar, Reading, Writing, and World History lessons from MrBrayman.Info. This lesson gives students background information on Jonathan Swift, a conceptual introduction to satire, and background knowledge on Gulliver's Travels, especially Part 4. It's a good lesson to use before "A Modest Proposal" too. Below is the outline of the slides used in the lesson: Jonathan Swift, Satire, and Gulliver's Travels Lesson Biography of Swift Satire—Definition and Examples Background of Gulliver's Travels Connections to the Project Jonathan Swift, 1667-1745 Born in Ireland of English, Anglican parents At a time when tensions between England and Ireland were high for political and religious reasons Conflicts with the English government over his family's politics after the English Civil War and over his writing Had a great sympathy for the Irish—became somewhat of a member of both cultures Became the Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin Satire A literary form (poetry, prose, or drama) that exaggerates tendencies to make people laugh as a form of protest Uses humor as a weapon A more enlightened form of sarcasm Can be subtle or blatant, and can be serious or silly Examples of Satire How Satire Works Literal Satire: looks, feels, seems just like realistic art, but little things are exaggerated to show how ridiculous they are Unrealistic Satire (like Gulliver's Travels): fantastic places and unrealistic settings serve as metaphors for the world we live in When people laugh, they are more relaxed and willing to engage with a speaker or artist When people see things that aren't them but who do the same things they do, they can look at those things more objectively Gulliver's Travels Travel narrative—Lemuel Gulliver goes to four places: Liliput—the land of the small people 


Brobdingnag—the land of the giants Laputa—the land of the "scientists" The Land of the Houyhnhnms—talking horses who have more reason than men Gulliver's Travels Liliput—Swift makes fun of people's pettiness; for example, two political parties fight furiously over which end of an egg should be cracked Brobdingnag—By encountering giant humans, Gulliver shows us just how disgusting people are Laputa—The scientists of Laputa are so busy with all of their imaginary learning that their wives go astray Gulliver's Travels The Land of the Houyhnhnms In comparison to humans, horses seem very wise, just, and reasonable—so much for the Enlightenment Gulliver comes to identify with the horses and not the Yahoos—a race of human-ish creatures that have all of humanity's worst qualities What is a human? What is an animal? Are humans all that great? Connection to the Project Swift shows us slavery, racism, and genocide, and he asks us questions about all of them He makes us question the Enlightenment and the very idea of civilization and who is civilized Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he realized that Europe needed to humble itself Lesson Completed—Good Job I have provided a read-along for this Be prepared to write about satirical episodes in the selections from the book that I have given you—like a metaphor, what's the tenor and what's the vehicle, and what's Swift's purpose for the satire?

https://youtu.be/XHhGZ4EryYs





        The English Garden 785





        Isaac Newton: The Laws of Physics 787
Newton's 3 Laws, with a bicycle - Joshua Manley, 3:32
Watch full lesson here: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/joshua-manl... Why would it be hard to pedal a 10,000 pound bicycle? This simple explanation shows how Newton's 3 laws of motion might help you ride your bike.

https://youtu.be/JGO_zDWmkvk





        The Industrial Revolution 788
Industrial Revolution - Great Britain around 1800, 3:13

Clip taken from the DVD "The Industrial Revolution. Great Britain 1750-1850" See more clips referred to the Industrial Revolution on our channel: vimeo.com/channels/industrialrevolution Are you interested in any of our films or textbooks? Write us a mail at: info@dokumentarfilm.com Further Information can be found on: www.dokumentarfilm.com/en

https://youtu.be/ut0rX2MngL8





        Handel and the English Oratorio 790



    Literacy and the New Print Culture 790
Print Culture, 2:37

The Enlightenment and Print

https://youtu.be/Vgr40RtH9Lc





        The Tatler and The Spectator 790
Letters Richard Steele, 3:46

A brief selection from the hundreds of letters from Sir Richard Steele, of The Tatler, The Spectator, etc., to his good wife. Read aloud by Brad Craft.

https://youtu.be/78eYZ290LYs





        The Rise of the English Novel 791
Development of the English Novel (17th and 18th Centuries & Development of the English Novel Part 2), 2:00

http://www.zaneeducation.com - Development of the English Novel is Part 2 of The 17th and 18th Centuries and the Development of the English Novel 2 - a History of British Literature title Survey the poetry and prose of the 17th and 18th centuries, and examine literary developments during the Age of Enlightenment, a period that witnessed the emergence of modern science and popular journalism. Gain insight to the complex imagery and style of the Metaphysical poets and the elegant, witty sentiments favoured by the Augustan poets, and explore their relationship to contemporaneous social, political, and intellectual currents. Trace the development of the English novel, from this genre's forerunners to its formal beginnings with Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding, concluding with two major novelists of the early nineteenth century: Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott. Examine the subjects and themes explored by early English novelists. Zane Education owns the largest library of K-12 curriculum-based subtitled video currently available online. Each video is fully subtitled so as to enable each student to study the topic and improve their reading and literacy skills at the same time.

https://youtu.be/cua296xh5wg





    Exploration in the Enlightenment 795
European exploration HD, 3:34

https://youtu.be/_Nx0oR4XkPk





        Cook’s Encounters in the South Pacific 796
Captain James Cook - Mini Series - Intro, 2:15

An Australian - German co productionBased on Captain James Cook's three voyages. It was on his first voyage, in 1770 (while in the South Pacific region to observe the transit of Venus), that Captain Cook discovered the east coast of Australia.

https://youtu.be/-80ZjtIh6D4





    Cook in the North Pacific 800


This Captain was on par with Admiral Byrd who traveled into Antarctic Ice. Why did it take him years to travel around the globe? Is there something that they're not telling us? James Cook http://www.south-pole.com/p0000071.htm Scientific American: Supplement Volume 48 (James Cook section on page 19803). https://books.google.com/books?id=H3E... Cook's Map of New Zealand http://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_m... Cook's map of Hawaii https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi... Cook's Map of Australia http://gutenberg.net.au/MapsAndCharts... Captain Cook's Second Voyage Summary https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_... Video Time lapse of Cook's Voyage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHwNb...



READINGS

    24.1 from John Dryden, “Annus Mirabilis” (1667) 776
Annus Mirabilis is a poem written by John Dryden published in 1667. It commemorated 1665–1666, the "year of miracles" of London. Despite the poem's name, the year had been one of great tragedy, including the Great Fire of London. Johnson writes that Dryden uses the term "year of miracles" for this period of time to suggest that events could have been worse.[1] Dryden wrote the poem while at Charlton in Wiltshire, where he went to escape one of the great events of the year: the Great Plague of London.[1]
    24.2 from Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651) 803
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668).[1][3] Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.[4] Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong undivided government.
    24.3 from John Locke, Essay on Human Understanding (1690) 777
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding. It first appeared in 1689 (although dated 1690) with the printed title An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. He describes the mind at birth as a blank slate (tabula rasa, although he did not use those actual words) filled later through experience. The essay was one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Book I of the Essay is Locke's attempt to refute the rationalist notion of innate ideas. Book II sets out Locke's theory of ideas, including his distinction between passively acquired simple ideas, such as "red," "sweet," "round," etc., and actively built complex ideas, such as numbers, causes and effects, abstract ideas, ideas of substances, identity, and diversity. Locke also distinguishes between the truly existing primary qualities of bodies, like shape, motion and the arrangement of minute particles, and the secondary qualities that are "powers to produce various sensations in us"[1] such as "red" and "sweet." These secondary qualities, Locke claims, are dependent on the primary qualities. He also offers a theory of personal identity, offering a largely psychological criterion. Book III is concerned with language, and Book IV with knowledge, including intuition, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy ("science"), faith, and opinion.
    24.4 from John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government (1690) 804
John Locke's conception of the social contract differed from Hobbes' in several fundamental ways, retaining only the central notion that persons in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state. Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would be bound morally, by the Law of Nature, not to harm each other in their lives or possession, but without government to defend them against those seeking to injure or enslave them, people would have no security in their rights and would live in fear. Locke argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a "neutral judge", acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.

While Hobbes argued for near-absolute authority, Locke argued for inviolate freedom under law in his Second Treatise of Government. Locke argued that government's legitimacy comes from the citizens' delegation to the government of their right of self-defense (of "self-preservation"), along with elements of other rights as necessary to achieve the goal of security (e.g. property will be liable to taxation). The government thus acts as an impartial, objective agent of that self-defense, rather than each man acting as his own judge, jury, and executioner—the condition in the state of nature. In this view, government derives its "just powers from the consent [i.e, delegation] of the governed,".
    24.5 from John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 6 (1667) 806
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674). The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books (in the manner of Virgil's Aeneid) with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification.[1] It is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, and it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time.[2]

The poem concerns the Biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men".[5]
    24.5a–b from John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5 (1667) 780

    24.6 from Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal (1729) 783
A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People From Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick,[1] commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729. Swift suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies. This satirical hyperbole mocks heartless attitudes towards the poor, as well as British policy toward Ireland in general.

In English writing, the phrase "a modest proposal" is now conventionally an allusion to this style of straight-faced satire.
    24.7 from Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Book 4, Chapter 6 (1726) 784
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships, commonly known as Gulliver's Travels (1726, amended 1735), is a prose satire[1][2] by Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre. It is Swift's best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature.

The book became popular as soon as it was published. John Gay wrote in a 1726 letter to Swift that "It is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery."[3] Since then, it has never been out of print.
    24.8 from Alexander Pope, An Essay on Man (1732–34) 784
An Essay on Man is a poem published by Alexander Pope in 1733-1734.[1][2][3] Is an effort to rationalize or rather "vindicate the ways of God to man" (l.16), a variation of John Milton's claim in the opening lines of Paradise Lost, that he will "justify the ways of God to men" (1.26). It is concerned with the natural order God has decreed for man. Because man cannot know God's purposes, he cannot complain about his position in the Great Chain of Being (ll.33-34) and must accept that "Whatever IS, is RIGHT" (l.292), a theme that was satirized by Voltaire in Candide (1759).[4] More than any other work, it popularized optimistic philosophy throughout England and the rest of Europe.

Pope's Essay on Man and Moral Epistles were designed to be the parts of a system of ethics which he wanted to express in poetry. Moral Epistles has been known under various other names including Ethic Epistles and Moral Essays.

On its publication, An Essay on Man received great admiration throughout Europe. Voltaire called it "the most beautiful, the most useful, the most sublime didactic poem ever written in any language".[5] In 1756 Rousseau wrote to Voltaire admiring the poem and saying that it "softens my ills and brings me patience". Kant was fond of the poem and would recite long passages from it to his students.[6]
Later however, Voltaire renounced his admiration for Pope's and Leibniz's optimism and even wrote a novel, Candide, as a satire on their philosophy of ethics. Rousseau also critiqued the work, questioning "Pope's uncritical assumption that there must be an unbroken chain of being all the way from inanimate matter up to God."[7]

The essay, written in heroic couplets, comprises four epistles. Pope began work on it in 1729, and had finished the first three by 1731. They appeared in early 1733, with the fourth epistle published the following year. The poem was originally published anonymously; Pope did not admit authorship until 1735.
Pope reveals in his introductory statement, "The Design," that An Essay on Man was originally conceived as part of a longer philosophical poem, with four separate books. What we have today would comprise the first book. The second was to be a set of epistles on human reason, arts and sciences, human talent, as well as the use of learning, science, and wit "together with a satire against the misapplications of them." The third book would discuss politics, and the fourth book "private ethics" or "practical morality." Often quoted is the following passage, the first verse paragraph of the second book, which neatly summarizes some of the religious and humanistic tenets of the poem:
Know then thyself, presume not God to scan
The proper study of Mankind is Man.[8]
Placed on this isthmus of a middle state,
A Being darkly wise, and rudely great:
With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride,
He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;
In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast;
In doubt his mind or body to prefer;
Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err;
Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little, or too much;
Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd;
Still by himself, abus'd or disabus'd;
Created half to rise and half to fall;
Great Lord of all things, yet a prey to all,
Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl'd;
The glory, jest and riddle of the world.
Go, wondrous creature! mount where science guides,
Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides;
Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,
Correct old time, and regulate the sun;
Go, soar with Plato to th’ empyreal sphere,
To the first good, first perfect, and first fair;
Or tread the mazy round his followers trod,
And quitting sense call imitating God;
As Eastern priests in giddy circles run,
And turn their heads to imitate the sun.
Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule—
Then drop into thyself, and be a fool!
Pope says that man has learnt about Nature and God's creation by using science; science has given man power but man intoxicated by this power thinks that he is "imitating God". Pope uses the word "fool" to show how little he (man) knows in spite of the progress made by science.
    24.9 from Samuel Richardson, Pamela (1740) 792
Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. It tells the story of a beautiful 15-year-old maidservant named Pamela Andrews, whose country landowner master, Mr. B, makes unwanted advances towards her after the death of his mother. After Mr. B attempts unsuccessfully to seduce and rape her, he eventually rewards her virtue when he sincerely proposes an equitable marriage to her. In the novel's second part, Pamela marries Mr. B and tries to acclimatize to upper-class society. The story, a best-seller of its time, was very widely read but was also criticized for its perceived licentiousness.
    24.10 from Henry Fielding, Shamela (1741) 793
An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews, or simply Shamela, as it is more commonly known, is a satirical burlesque, a novella written by Henry Fielding, first published in April 1741 under the name of Mr. Conny Keyber. Fielding never admitted to writing the work, but it is widely considered to be his.[1] It is a direct attack on the then-popular novel Pamela (1740) by Fielding's contemporary and rival Samuel Richardson and is composed, like Pamela, in epistolary form.
    24.11a from Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Chapter 1 (1813) 793
Pride and Prejudice is a novel of manners by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character, Elizabeth Bennet, as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of the British Regency. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman, Mr. Bennet, living in Longbourn.


Page 2 of a letter from Jane Austen to her sister Cassandra (11 June 1799) in which she first mentions Pride and Prejudice, using its working title First Impressions. (NLA)
Set in England in the early 19th century, Pride and Prejudice tells the story of Mr. and Mrs. Bennet's five unmarried daughters after the rich and eligible Mr. Bingley and his status-conscious friend, Mr. Darcy, have moved into their neighbourhood. While Bingley takes an immediate liking to the eldest Bennet daughter, Jane, Darcy is disdainful of local society and repeatedly clashes with the Bennets' lively second daughter, Elizabeth.
Pride and Prejudice retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of "most loved books". It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature, selling over 20 million copies, and receives considerable attention from literary scholars. Likewise, it has paved the way for archetypes that abound in many contemporary literature of our time.Modern interest in the book has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and an abundance of novels and stories imitating Austen's memorable characters or themes.[1]
    24.11b from Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Chapter 43 (1813) 794

Pride & Prejudice (2005) - Official Trailer, 2:26
Sparks fly when spirited Elizabeth Bennett meets single, rich, and proud Mr. Darcy. But Mr. Darcy reluctantly finds himself falling in love with a woman beneath his class. Can each overcome their own pride and prejudice? Released on 2005 Directed by: Joe Wright Starring: Keira Knightley, Matthew Macfadyen,Talulah Riley, Rosamund Pike, Jena Malone, Carey MulliganDonald Sutherland, Brenda Blethyn, Kelly Reilly, Simon Woods
https://youtu.be/fJA27Jujzq4

    24.12 from Samuel Johnson, The Rambler No. 4, Saturday, March 31, 1750 795
The Rambler was published on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 1750 to 1752 and totals 208 articles. It was Johnson's most consistent and sustained work in the English language. Though similar in name to preceding publications such as The Spectator and The Tatler, Johnson made his periodical unique by using a style of prose which differed from that of the time period. The most popular publications of the day were written in the common or colloquial language of the people whereas The Rambler was written in elevated prose. As was then common for the type of publication, the subject matter was confined only to the imagination of the author (and the sale of the publication); typically, however, The Rambler discussed subjects such as morality, literature, society, politics, and religion. Johnson included quotes and ideas in his publication from Renaissance humanists such as Erasmus and Descartes. His writings in The Rambler are considered to be neoclassical.
    24.13 from John Ledyard, A Journal of Captain Cook’s Last Voyage in the Pacific (1783) 800
In June 1776, Ledyard joined Captain James Cook's third and final voyage as a British marine. The expedition lasted until October 1780. During these four years, its two ships stopped at the Sandwich Islands, Cape of Good Hope, the Prince Edward Islands off South Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, Tasmania, New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Tahiti, and then Hawaii (first documented by the expedition). It continued to the northwest coast of North America, making Ledyard perhaps the first U.S. citizen to touch its western coast, along the Aleutian islands and Alaska into the Bering Sea, and back to Hawaii where Cook was killed. He attempted to climb from Kealakekua Bay to Mokuaweoweo, the summit of Mauna Loa, but had to turn back.[2] The return voyage touched upon Kamchatka, Macau, Batavia (now Jakarta), around the Cape of Good Hope again, and back to England.[1]

Still a marine in the British Navy, Ledyard was sent to Canada to fight in the American Revolution. Instead he deserted, returned to Dartmouth, and began to write his Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage. It was published in 1783, five years after he had visited Hawaii,[3] and was the first work to be protected by copyright in the United States. (It was in fact protected by Connecticut state copyright by special act of the legislature; federal copyright was not introduced until 1790.) Today, this work is annotated in rare-book bibliographies as the first travelogue describing Hawaii ever to be published in America.[3]
FEATURES

    CLOSER LOOK Wren’s Saint Paul’s Cathedral 778

    CONTINUITY & CHANGE The Growing Crisis of the Slave Trade 801
Milton Friedman - Capitalism, Slavery and Colonialism, 5:22

Did western democracies gain their wealth through slavery and colonialism? Professor Friedman answers. http://www.LibertyPen.com Source: Milton Friedman Speaks Buy it: http://www.freetochoose.net/store/pro...

https://youtu.be/e-fTYCCbXZ4







 
Week 2 Discussion
"The Arts and Royalty; Philosophers Debate Politics" Please respond to one (1) of the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:
  • In this week’s readings, a dispute in the French royal court is described about whether Poussin or Rubens was the better painter. Take a painting by each, either from our book or a Website below, and compare them and explain which you prefer. There is another conflict between the playwright Moliere and a well-born Parisian; Louis XIV stepped in. Explain how Louis XIV used the various arts and his motives for doing so. Identify one (1) example of a modern political leader approaching the arts this way.
  • The philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed on the understanding of political authority, with Locke taking what is commonly called the “liberal” view. Choose a side (be brave perhaps; take a side you actually disagree with). Using the writings of each given in our class text or at the Websites below, make your case for the side you chose and against the other side. Identify one (1) modern situation in the world where these issues are significant.

REVIEW
Revolution and Enlightenment, 1550–1800
The Scientific Revolution gave rise to a intellectual movement—the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thought provided the philosophical foundations for the American Revolution. Britain lost its colonies in North America to the newly formed United States, while Spain and Portugal held onto their profitable Latin American colonies.
The Scientific Revolution
* How did new discoveries in astronomy change the way people viewed the universe?
* What is the new scientific method and what impact did it have?
* What contributions did Newton and other scientists make to the Scientific Revolution?
The Enlightenment
The Impact of the Enlightenment
Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
Lecture
The Scientific Revolution
In What Went Wrong?, Bernard Lewis writes of the key role of the Middle East in the rise of science in the Middle Ages, before things went wrong: And then, approximately from the end of the Middle Ages, there was a dramatic change. In Europe, the scientific movement advanced enormously in the era of the Renaissance, the Discoveries, the technological revolution, and the vast changes, both intellectual and material, that preceded, accompanied, and followed them. In the Muslim world, independent inquiry virtually came to an end, and science was for the most part reduced to the veneration of a corpus of approved knowledge. There were some practical innovations — thus, for example, incubators were invented in Egypt, vaccination against smallpox in Turkey. These were, however, not seen as belonging to the realm of science, but as practical devices, and we know of them primarily from Western travelers.
Another example of the widening gap may be seen in the fate of the great observatory built in Galata, in Istanbul, in 1577. This was due to the initiative of Taqi al-Din (ca. 1526-1585), a major figure in Muslim scientific history and the author of several books on astronomy, optics, and mechanical clocks. Born in Syria or Egypt (the sources differ), he studied in Cairo, and after a career as jurist and theologian he went to Istanbul, where in 1571 he was appointed munejjim-bash, astronomer (and astrologer) in chief to the Sultan Selim II. A few years later her persuaded the Sultan Murad III to allow him to build an observatory, comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. But there the comparison ends. Tycho Brahe's observatory and the work accomplished in it opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science. Taqi al-Din's observatory was razed to the ground by a squad of Janissaries, by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of Chief Mufti. This observatory had many predecessors in the lands of Islam; it had no successors until the age of modernization.
The relationship between Christendom and Islam in the sciences was now reversed. Those who had been disciples now became teachers; those who had been masters became pupils, often reluctant and resentful pupils. They were willing enough to accept the products of infidel science in warfare and medicine, where they could make the difference between victory and defeat, between life and death. But the underlying philosophy and the sociopolitical context of these scientific achievements proved more difficult to accept or even recognize.
Chapter 23: The Baroque Court -- Europe: the Americas
The Weekly videos are helpful here.
The English Enlightenment, 2:17
The Sun King, 2:50
Patronage, 2:20
Click the image below to learn more about Louis XIV and Versailles, Royal Court Patronage, and the English Enlightenment.


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What is the canzona's dominant rhythm?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Long-short-short
Correct Answer:
 
Long-short-short


Question 2:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is a defining characteristic of Baroque art?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work
    Correct Answer:
     
    Attention to viewers' emotional experience of a work

Question 3:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What is the meaning of the Portuguese term barroco, from which "Baroque" likely derived?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Misshapen pearl
    Correct Answer:
     
    Misshapen pearl

Question 4:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea
    Correct Answer:
     
    Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea

Question 5:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What Greek myth inspired Monteverdi's first opera?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Orpheus and Eurydice
    Correct Answer:
     
    Orpheus and Eurydice

Question 6:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    From where did Europe receive the first load of tulip bulbs?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Turkey
    Correct Answer:
     
    Turkey

Question 7:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What requirement did the Dutch state place on people in public service?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church
    Correct Answer:
     
    Be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church

Question 8:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    Of what does a vanitas painting remind the viewer?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    To focus on the spiritual, not the material
    Correct Answer:
     
    To focus on the spiritual, not the material

Question 9:   Multiple Choice

  1. Correct
    What distinguished Bach's cantatas from the simple melodies of the Lutheran chorales on which they were based?
    Given Answer:
    Correct 
    Addition of counterpoint
    Correct Answer:
     
    Addition of counterpoint

Question 10:   Multiple Choice

Correct
What might the pearls In Vermeer's Woman with a Pearl Necklace represent?
Given Answer:
Correct 
Purity
Correct Answer:
 
Purity

Question 1: Multiple Choice Correct While his coworkers constructed his designs, what hobby did Bernini pursue? Given Answer: Correct Writing plays and designing stage sets Correct Answer: Writing plays and designing stage sets out of 4 points Question 2: Multiple Choice Correct What inspired the first operas? Given Answer: Correct Ancient Greek drama Correct Answer: Ancient Greek drama out of 4 points Question 3: Multiple Choice Correct What did Bernini intend his Four Rivers Fountain to represent? Given Answer: Correct Triumph of the Roman Catholic Church over the world's rivers Correct Answer: Triumph of the Roman Catholic Church over the world's rivers out of 4 points Question 4: Multiple Choice Correct What is the canzona's dominant rhythm? Given Answer: Correct Long-short-short Correct Answer: Long-short-short out of 4 points Question 5: Multiple Choice Correct Why is Vivaldi's The Four Seasons known as program music? Given Answer: Correct Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea Correct Answer: Its purely instrumental music is connected to a story or idea out of 4 points Question 6: Multiple Choice Correct Why did the Dutch rebel against the Spanish in 1567? Given Answer: Correct Philip II reorganized their churches under Catholic hierarchy Correct Answer: Philip II reorganized their churches under Catholic hierarchy out of 4 points Question 7: Multiple Choice Correct What branch of mathematics did Descartes found? Given Answer: Correct Analytic geometry Correct Answer: Analytic geometry out of 4 points Question 8: Multiple Choice Correct What creates the "broken" tulip, so highly valued by the seventeenth-century Dutch? Given Answer: Correct A virus Correct Answer: A virus out of 4 points Question 9: Multiple Choice Correct Why did Johannes Goedaert paint a broken and empty nautilus shell beside the vase in his Flowers in a Wan-li Vase with Blue-Tit? Given Answer: Correct To symbolize worldly wealth, vanity, and mortality Correct Answer: To symbolize worldly wealth, vanity, and mortality out of 4 points Question 10: Multiple Choice Correct What manner of inquiry did René Descartes advocate? Given Answer: Correct Deductive reasoning Correct Answer: Deductive reasoning